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We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
We investigated human understanding of different network visualizations in a large-scale online experiment. Three types of network visualizations were examined: node-link and two different sorting variants of matrix representations on a representative social network of either 20 or 50 nodes. Understanding of the network was quantified using task time and accuracy metrics on questions that were derived from an established task taxonomy. The sample size in our experiment was more than an order of magnitude larger (N = 600) than in previous research, leading to high statistical power and thus more precise estimation of detailed effects. Specifically, high statistical power allowed us to consider modern interaction capabilities as part of the evaluated visualizations, and to evaluate overall learning rates as well as ambient (implicit) learning. Findings indicate that participant understanding was best for the node-link visualization, with higher accuracy and faster task times than the two matrix visualizations. Analysis of participant learning indicated a large initial difference in task time between the node-link and matrix visualizations, with matrix performance steadily approaching that of the node-link visualization over the course of the experiment. This research is reproducible as the web-based module and results have been made available at: https://osf.io/qct84/.
In July 2013, a train carrying 72 cars of crude oil derailed in the town of Lac-Mégantic (Eastern Townships, Quebec, Canada). This disaster provoked a major conflagration, explosions, 47 deaths, the destruction of 44 buildings, the evacuation of one-third of the local population, and an unparalleled oil spill. Notwithstanding the environmental impact, many citizens of this town and in surrounding areas have suffered and continue to suffer substantial losses as a direct consequence of this catastrophe.
To tailor public health interventions and to meet the psychosocial needs of the community, the Public Health Department of Eastern Townships has undertaken repeated surveys to monitor health and well-being over time. This study focuses on negative psychosocial outcomes one and two years after the tragedy.
Two cross-sectional surveys (2014 and 2015) were conducted among large random samples of adults in Lac-Mégantic and surrounding areas (2014: n = 811; 2015: n = 800), and elsewhere in the region (2014: n = 7,926; 2015: n = 800). A wide range of psychosocial outcomes was assessed (ie, daily stress, main source of stress, sense of insecurity, psychological distress, excessive drinking, anxiety or mood disorders, psychosocial services use, anxiolytic drug use, gambling habits, and posttraumatic stress symptoms [PSS]). Exposure to the tragedy was assessed using residential location (ie, six-digit postal code) and intensity of exposure (ie, intense, moderate, or low exposure; from nine items capturing human, material, or subjective losses). Relationships between such exposures and adverse psychosocial outcomes were examined using chi-squares and t-tests. Distribution of outcomes was also examined over time.
One year after the disaster, an important proportion of participants reported human, material, and subjective losses (64%, 23%, and 54%, respectively), whereas 17% of people experienced intense exposure. Participants from Lac-Mégantic, particularly those intensely exposed, were much more likely to report psychological distress, depressive episode, anxiety disorders, and anxiolytic drug use, relative to less-exposed ones. In 2015, 67% of the Lac-Mégantic participants (76% of intensely exposed) reported moderate to severe PSS. Surprisingly, the use of psychosocial services in Lac-Mégantic declined by 41% from 2014 to 2015.
The psychosocial burden in the aftermath of the Lac-Mégantic tragedy is substantial and persistent. Public health organizations responding to large-scaling disasters should monitor long-term psychosocial consequences and advocate for community-based psychosocial support in order to help citizens in their recovery process.
Most endovascular innovations have been introduced into clinical care by showing good outcomes in small enthusiastic case series of selected patients. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have rarely been performed, except for acute ischemic stroke, but even then most trial designs were too explanatory to inform clinical decisions. In this article, we review 2 × 2 tables and forest plots that summarize RCT results to examine methodological issues in the design and interpretation of clinical studies. Research results can apply in practice when RCTs are all-inclusive, pragmatic trials. Common problems include the following: (i) using restrictive eligibility criteria in explanatory trials, instead of including the diversity of patients in need of care, which hampers future generalizability of results; (ii) ignoring an entire line of the 2 × 2 table and excluding patients who do not meet the proposed criteria of a diagnostic test in its evaluation (perfusion studies) which renders clinical inferences misleading; (iii) ignoring an entire column of the 2 × 2 table and comparing different patients treated using the same treatment instead of different treatments in the same patients (the “wrong axis” comparisons of prognostic studies and clinical experience) which leads to unjustified treatment decisions and actions; or (iv) combining all aforementioned problems (case series and epidemiological studies). The most efficient and reliable way to improve patient outcomes, after as well as long before research results are available, is to change the way we practice: to use care trials to guide care in the presence of uncertainty.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
This study presents a complete characterization of kenoplumbomicrolite, (Pb,□)2Ta2O6[□,(OH),O], occurring in an amazonite pegmatite from Ploskaya Mountain, Western Keivy Massif, Kola Peninsula, Murmanskaja Oblast, Northern Region, Russia.
Kenoplumbomicrolite occurs in yellowish brown octahedral, cuboctahedral and massive crystals, up to 20 cm, has a white streak, a greasy lustre and is translucent. The Mohs hardness is ~6. Attempts to measure density (7.310–7.832 g/cm3) were affected by the ubiquitous presence of uraninite inclusions. Reflectance values were measured in air and immersed in oil. Kenoplumbocrolite is optically isotropic. The empirical formula is (Pb1.30□0.30Ca0.29Na0.08U0.03)Σ2.00(Ta0.82Nb0.62Si0.23Sn4+0.15Ti0.07Fe3+0.10Al0.01)Σ2.00O6[□0.52(OH)0.25O0.23]Σ1.00 (from the crystal used for the structural study) and (Pb1.33□0.66Mn0.01)Σ2.00(Ta0.87Nb0.72Sn4+0.18Fe3+0.11W0.08Ti0.04)Σ2.00O6[□0.80(OH)0.10O0.10]Σ1.00 (average including additional fragments). The mineral is cubic, space group Fd
$\overline 3 $
m. The unit-cell parameters refined from powder X-ray diffraction data are a = 10.575(2) Å and V = 1182.6(8) Å3, which are in accord with those obtained previously from a single crystal of a = 10.571(1) Å, V = 1181.3(2) Å3 and Z = 8. The mineral description and its name have been approved by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification of the International Mineralogical Association (IMA2015-007a).
A metric was developed to identify hospital proportion of carbapenem consumption (PoCC) among antipseudomonal antibiotics. The PoCC varied significantly among academic medical centers by Census Bureau geographic division after adjusting for patient mix. This metric may be useful in identifying disproportionate carbapenem use and potential carbapenem overuse.
Perinatal exposure to nutrients and dietary components may affect the risk for coeliac disease (CD). We investigated the association between maternal use of vitamin D, n-3 fatty acids (FA) and Fe supplements during pregnancy and risk for CD autoimmunity (CDA) and CD in the offspring. Children at increased genetic risk were prospectively followed from birth in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study. CDA was defined as having persistently positive tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA). Diagnosis of CD was either biopsy-confirmed or considered likely if having persistently elevated levels of tTGA>100 AU. Of 6627 enrolled children, 1136 developed CDA at a median 3·1 years of age (range 0·9–10) and 409 developed CD at a median 3·9 years of age (range 1·2–11). Use of supplements containing vitamin D, n-3 FA and Fe was recalled by 66, 17 and 94 % of mothers, respectively, at 3–4 months postpartum. The mean cumulative intake over the entire pregnancy was 2014 μg vitamin D (sd 2045 μg), 111 g n-3 FA (sd 303 g) and 8806 mg Fe (sd 7017 mg). After adjusting for country, child’s human leucocyte antigen genotype, sex, family history of CD, any breast-feeding duration and household crowding, Cox’s proportional hazard ratios did not suggest a statistically significant association between the intake of vitamin D, n-3 FA or Fe, and risk for CDA or CD. Dietary supplementation during pregnancy may help boost nutrient intake, but it is not likely to modify the risk for the disease in the offspring.
We show that the disintegration operator on a complete separable metric space along a projection map, restricted to measures for which there is a unique continuous disintegration, is strongly Weihrauch equivalent to the limit operator Lim. When a measure does not have a unique continuous disintegration, we may still obtain a disintegration when some basis of continuity sets has the Vitali covering property with respect to the measure; the disintegration, however, may depend on the choice of sets. We show that, when the basis is computable, the resulting disintegration is strongly Weihrauch reducible to Lim, and further exhibit a single distribution realizing this upper bound.
Introduction: Studies on script processing have shown inconsistent relations between deficits in script action generation and frontal lobe pathology. Therefore, we investigated which difficulties in script action generation are linked to anterior lesions. Moreover, we explored whether verbal script generation can be predicted by specific executive processes.
Methods: Fifty-two patients with acquired brain injury (mean age: 44.23 years, 30 male/22 female) were included, of whom 30 had anterior and 22 had posterior lesions. Several indices of the Everyday Description Task were investigated: relevant central actions (RCAs); relevant trivial actions (RTAs); relevant and irrelevant intrusions (RI & IRI); sequencing (SEs) and perseverative (PEs) errors. Additionally, five z-composite scores representing planning, response generation, working memory, inhibition and shifting were calculated. Correlations and multiple linear regression analyses were computed.
Results: Anteriorly lesioned patients produced significantly less RCAs and more PEs and SEs compared to posteriorly damaged patients. No differences were found with RTAs, RI and IRI. RCAs were predicted by planning, response generation and working memory, RI by response generation and working memory, IRI by inhibition, PEs and SEs by response generation and shifting. None of these executive processes predicted RTAs.
Conclusions: Difficulties in RCAs, PEs and SEs are sensitive indicators of anterior brain damage and script generation demands various executive abilities.
Both errorless learning (EL) and Goal Management Training (GMT) have been shown effective cognitive rehabilitation methods aimed at optimizing the performance on everyday skills after brain injury. We examine whether a combination of EL and GMT is superior to traditional GMT for training complex daily tasks in brain-injured patients with executive dysfunction. This was an assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial conducted in 67 patients with executive impairments due to brain injury of non-progressive nature (minimal post-onset time: 3 months), referred for outpatient rehabilitation. Individually selected everyday tasks were trained using 8 sessions of an experimental combination of EL and GMT or via conventional GMT, which follows a trial-and-error approach. Primary outcome measure was everyday task performance assessed after treatment compared to baseline. Goal attainment scaling, rated by both trainers and patients, was used as secondary outcome measure. EL-GMT improved everyday task performance significantly more than conventional GMT (adjusted difference 15.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] [4.52, 26.35]; Cohen’s d=0.74). Goal attainment, as scored by the trainers, was significantly higher after EL-GMT compared to conventional GMT (mean difference 7.34, 95% CI [2.99, 11.68]; Cohen’s d=0.87). The patients’ goal attainment scores did not differ between the two treatment arms (mean difference 3.51, 95% CI [−1.41, 8.44]). Our study is the first to show that preventing the occurrence of errors during executive strategy training enhances the acquisition of everyday activities. A combined EL-GMT intervention is a valuable contribution to cognitive rehabilitation in clinical practice. (JINS, 2015, 21, 639–649)
Various studies have shown the efficacy of errorless learning (EL) in teaching patients with dementia a wide variety of skills and everyday tasks, with some studies showing beneficial effects and others reporting limited or no advantage. However, EL procedures vary greatly and, to date, no clinical guidelines or manuals are available. Here, we present a nationwide survey exploring the interest in, and feasibility of, EL in dementia care in The Netherlands. Based on the survey results and available evidence in the literature, we subsequently drafted an EL manual and had this concept manual evaluated in a Delphi round using the AGREE instrument. Forty-five health professionals associated with 22 dementia care facilities in The Netherlands, including those survey respondents who had piloted an EL intervention in accordance with the concept manual and an eight-strong expert panel representing various disciplines, deemed EL to be meaningful and feasible for use in dementia care and their residential facilities. Although our manual was favourably received, future studies are required to examine how EL can best be implemented in clinical practice and to determine the optimal outcome measures and quality indicators to reliably evaluate intervention outcomes and to consider the cost-effectiveness of the approach.
Abstract. The problem of replicating the flexibility of human common-sense reasoning has captured the imagination of computer scientists since the early days of Alan Turing's foundational work on computation and the philosophy of artificial intelligence. In the intervening years, the idea of cognition as computation has emerged as a fundamental tenet of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and cognitive science. But what kind of computation is cognition?
We describe a computational formalism centered around a probabilistic Turing machine called QUERY, which captures the operation of probabilistic conditioning via conditional simulation. Through several examples and analyses, we demonstrate how the QUERY abstraction can be used to cast common-sense reasoning as probabilistic inference in a statistical model of our observations and the uncertain structure of the world that generated that experience. This formulation is a recent synthesis of several research programs in AI and cognitive science, but it also represents a surprising convergence of several of Turing's pioneering insights in AI, the foundations of computation, and statistics.
§1. Introduction. In his landmark paper Computing Machinery and Intelligence [Tur50], Alan Turing predicted that by the end of the twentieth century, “general educated opinion will have altered so much that one will be able to speak of machines thinking without expecting to be contradicted.” Even if Turing has not yet been proven right, the idea of cognition as computation has emerged as a fundamental tenet of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and cognitive science. But what kind of computation—what kind of computer program—is cognition?