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The Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ), a widely used instrument that has been validated mostly in high-income countries, has limitations in its factorial validity when used among different cultures. This study examines whether the CEBQ instrument is culturally appropriate and valid to be used in a low- and middle-income country (LMIC) in a setting where child undernutrition remains prevalent.
The study employed a qualitative process to validate the content of items relative to the culture and setting, which was followed by a survey to test the psychometric properties of the instrument. Tests of factorial validity, convergent validity and reliability were performed.
Three different socio-economic settings of Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
The participants of this study were mothers of children aged 25–60 months. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty-four mothers and the questionnaire validation process involved 238 mothers in the survey.
A Confirmatory Factor Analysis model with eight subscales provided the best fit (root-mean-square error of approximation = 0·048 (90 % CI 0·040, 0·057); Comparative Fit Index = 0·95 and Tucker Lewis Index = 0·95) after three new items and eight items from the original CEBQ were removed. Convergent validity with child’s weight was found for two subscales, slowness in eating and satiety responsiveness. Reliability measured using Cronbach’s alpha provided values between 0·62 and 0·78.
The original eight-factor structure of the CEBQ showed adequate content validity and provided factorial, discriminant and convergent validity with mothers of preschool children living in a LMIC where child nutrition remains a significant public health issue.
Of the three branches of government traditionally distinguished since Montesquieu, two have received ample scholarly attention in their relation with the European Union. A plethora of books and articles have been written on the role and position of national courts and national parliaments in Europe. As to the former, the interaction of national courts with the Court of Justice of the European Union is still massively researched. As to the latter, it has been thoroughly analysed how national parliaments were sidelined from the start of the integration process, only to regain lost ground later. In particular, attempts to include the national parliaments in EU decision-making, via the renewed Subsidiarity Protocol among other ways, have attracted numerous research activities.
At the time of writing of this editorial, in the high summer of 2011, the ‘market forces” are meeting up for an attack on the first major member of the Eurozone, Italy. It begins, as has now become familiar, with a rise in the rate of interest that a country has to pay for money to service its sovereign debt. Above a critical percentage, around seven in this case, the servicing of its debt, compounded with the loss of tax income due to a slackening economy, will send the country into the downward spiral of ever-increasing debt. The perspective of a possible default in turn will send the interest rate further upward, pushing the country into a more certain default, and so on. It is a self-fulfilling perspective.
To elicit predictors of variation in likelihood to purchase foods rich in
long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.
Design, setting and subjects
Responses from a community sample (n =
220) were elicited using a computer-administered questionnaire based on an
adaptation of Protection Motivation Theory including measures of perceived
risk and vulnerability to coronary heart disease (CHD). Other measures
included health status, body mass index (BMI), perceived risk/benefits of
novel technologies and sociodemographics. Descriptions of model products
were presented, including farmed fish fed fishmeal (FFFF); farmed fish fed
genetically modified (GM) oilseed (FFFGM); bread, milk and supplements
containing fish oil (SFO) or GM oilseed. It was hypothesised that perceived
vulnerability to CHD would enhance acceptance of GM products (H1).
Furthermore, information describing the benefits of LCO3FA, limitations to
fish supply and potential alternatives was given to a treatment group (50%)
and hypothesised to have a positive effect on the acceptance of GM products
No evidence was found to support H1 or H2. FFFF was most likely to be
purchased (P < 0.01), followed
by SFO and FFFGM. Multivariate regression analysis identified significant
(P < 0.05) predictors
(standardised β) for
likelihood to purchase FFFF: self-efficacy 0.56; behaviour (product)
efficacy 0.19; belief that fishmeal is unnatural −0.14 (R2 = 0.44) and for FFFGM:
self-efficacy 0.65; perceived severity of CHD 0.15; BMI −0.13;
significant other has/had arthritis 0.11; belief that GM oilseed is
unnatural 0.11 (R2 =
Self-efficacy (confidence to consume) was the most important predictor of
likelihood to purchase all products.