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Accurate disparity prediction is a hot spot in computer vision, and how to efficiently exploit contextual information is the key to improve the performance. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective non-local context attention network to exploit the global context information by using attention mechanisms and semantic information for stereo matching. First, we develop a 2D geometry feature learning module to get a more discriminative representation by taking advantage of multi-scale features and form them into the variance-based cost volume. Then, we construct a non-local attention matching module by using the non-local block and hierarchical 3D convolutions, which can effectively regularize the cost volume and capture the global contextual information. Finally, we adopt a geometry refinement module to refine the disparity map to further improve the performance. Moreover, we add the warping loss function to help the model learn the matching rule of the non-occluded region. Our experiments show that (1) our approach achieves competitive results on KITTI and SceneFlow datasets in the end-point error and the fraction of erroneous pixels
; (2) our proposed method particularly has superior performance in the reflective regions and occluded areas.
To assess helical tomotherapy (TOMO) current clinical application and practice in mainland China.
Materials and methods:
Data were collected for all TOMO units clinically operational in mainland China by 30 April 2016, including (a) the distribution of installation and staffing levels; (b) types of cancers treated; (c) utilisation efficiency; (d) quality assurance; (e) maintenance; (f) optional features; and (g) satisfaction levels. The data were collected as a census and analysed qualitatively and quantitatively.
As of 30 April 2016, 23 TOMO units were used clinically by 22 hospitals in mainland China. In the same period, 22,558 cancer patients were treated. For TOMO units with more than a year of clinical utilisation, a median of 378 cases were treated annually per machine. The median daily operation was 10·5 hours, and treatment headcount was 38·3 patients. The median service outage rate was 2·6%, and the most common cause was malfunction of the multi-leaf collimator. In terms of overall satisfaction levels, 3 hospitals were very satisfied, 16 were satisfied and 3 considered their satisfaction level as average.
The overall operation of TOMO is good, but there are some problems due to running at full capacity, lack of clinical efficacy research and insufficient quality assurance regulations.
In inertial confinement fusion experiments that involve short-laser pulses such as fast ignition (FI), diagnosis of neutrons is usually very challenging because high-intensity γ rays generated by short-laser pulses would mask the much weaker neutron signal. In this paper, fast-response scintillators with low afterglow and gated microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes are combined to build neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) spectrometers for such experiments. Direct-drive implosion experiments of deuterium-gas-filled capsules were performed at the Shenguang-II Upgrade (SG-II-UP) laser facility to study the compressed fuel areal density (〈ρR〉) and evaluate the performance of such nTOF diagnostics. Two newly developed quenched liquid scintillator detectors and a gated ultrafast plastic scintillator detector were used to measure the secondary DT neutrons and primary DD neutrons, respectively. The secondary neutron signals were clearly discriminated from the γ rays from (n, γ) reactions, and the compressed fuel areal density obtained with the yield-ratio method agrees well with the simulations. Additionally, a small scintillator decay tail and a clear DD neutron signal were observed in an integrated FI experiment as a result of the low afterglow of the oxygen-quenched liquid scintillator.
A novel dual-band planar antenna with a low profile for mobile communication system is proposed in this paper. The antenna is composed of one shorted patch with two radiating notches for low frequency resonance and one square patch for high frequency resonance. The low profile is achieved via the shorting patch, which introduces the parallel electrical field between the reflector and antenna. A step-impedance microstrip line is used to feed the antenna. The coupling between the square patch and microstrip line cancels out the inductance of shorting probe, which increases the working bandwidth of proposed antenna. A prototype with a low profile of 0.0286λ is fabricated and measured. The antenna achieves dual impedance bandwidths of 1.6% for the low frequency band and 60% for the high frequency band, covering the frequency range 851–865 MHz and 1.97–3.65 GHz, respectively. The measured results show good agreements with the simulated ones.
Based on the finite-differences approach, we study the electronic properties of two-dimensional electron gas under an inhomogeneous magnetic field. Such structure can be realized by deposition of ferromagnetic strips on the surface of a semiconductor heterostructure. It is found that the system exhibits rich band structures. Many bound states are twofold degenerate for θ = π/2, which defines the magnetization direction in the ferromagnetic strips, while few degenerate state exist for θ = 0. Despite of this, there are three kinds of electronic states in our system: the extended, localized and intermediate ones, which is very different from the case of absence of magnetic field.
A detailed history of volcanism covering the last 2840 years is reconstructed from the top 100.42 m of a 109.91 m ice core from Dome A (DA2005 ice core), East Antarctica. Using two known volcanic stratigraphic markers, the mean accumulation rate during the period AD 1260-1964 is found to be 23.2 mmw.e. a-1, consistent with the previously reported accumulation rate at Dome A. This mean accumulation rate is used to date the entire core. Volcanic eruptions in the period 840 BC-AD1998 are detected as outstanding sulphate events. Seventy-eight eruptions are identified, with a mean of 2.7 eruptions per century. Comparisons with previous Antarctic ice-core volcanic records are made to assess the quality of this new DA2005 record. In terms of dates for volcanic events, the DA2005 record is in good agreement with previous records in the second millennium ad (ad 1000-1998). A series of volcanic signatures found in both the DA2005 record and several other Antarctic ice-core records in the first millennium ad (ad 1-1000) appear to validate the DA2005 record during this time period. For the older periods, direct comparisons are difficult between the DA2005 record and other Antarctic ice-core records due to the lack of well-dated stratigraphic horizons.
A number of former forest farms in southern Sichuan province, south-west China have been designated as protected areas following the 1998 logging ban in the upper Yangtze basin. These are within the range of the endemic Sichuan Partridge Arborophila rufipectus which has a fragmented distribution in the remnant broadleaf forests of this region, and is currently listed as ‘Endangered’ by IUCN. The design of a robust conservation plan for this species has been hampered by a lack of knowledge about its habitat preferences in a heavily modified environment. To remedy this, ranging behaviour and habitat utilization by this species was studied through a combination of a call count method and radio tracking of individual birds. The results indicate that A. rufipectus significantly prefers primary and older planted secondary broadleaf forest compared to forest degraded by human activity or scrub. Individual birds were found on the upper parts of slopes and made particular use of areas with a dense canopy and open understorey, whilst avoiding the lower slopes and areas close to trails where human disturbance is likely to be greater. The ongoing conservation programme for this partridge species is based on these findings and includes further protected area designations and management plans, the establishment of new forest corridors, and better control of hunting and other forms of forest exploitation.
The present study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of producing pig transgenic blastocysts expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) and to examine the effects of shape and preparation methods of donor cells on in vitro developmental ability of pig nuclear transferred embryos (NTEs). In experiment 1, the effect of GFP transfection on development of pig NTEs was evaluated. The cleavage and blastocyst rates showed no significant difference between NTEs derived from transfected and non-transfected donors. In experiment 2, the effect of different nuclear donor preparation methods on in vitro development of NTEs was examined. The cleavage rate showed no statistically significant differences among three preparation methods. The blastocyst rates of donor cells treated once at −4 °C and those of freshly digested cells were similar to each other (26.3% vs 17.9%). The lowest blastocyst rates (5.88%) were observed when cells cryopreserved at −196 °C were used as donors. In experiment 3, the effect of different cell cycle synchronization methods on the in vitro development potential of pig NTEs was evaluated. The cleavage rate of NTEs derived from cycling cells was much better than that of NTEs derived from serum-starved cells (64.4% vs 50.5%, p < 0.05), but no significant difference was observed between the the blastocyst rates of the two groups. In experiment 4, the effect of different shapes of cultured fibroblast cells on the in vitro development of pig NTEs was examined. The fusion rate for couplets derived from rough cells was poorer than that observed in couplets derived from round smooth cells (47.8% vs 76.8%, p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences observed in the cleavage rate and blastocyst rate. In conclusion, the present study indicated that (i) refrigerated pig GFP-transfected cells could be used as donors in nuclear transfer and these NTEs could be effectively developed to blastocyst stage; (ii) serum starvation of GFP-transfected cells is not required for preimplantation development of pig NTEs; and (iii) a rough surface of GFP-transfected donor cells affects fusion rate negatively but has no influence on the cleavage rate or blastocyst rate of pig NTEs.
Borna disease virus (BDV) predominantly infects horses and sheep, causing a broad range of behavioural disorders. It is controversial whether BDV infects humans and causes psychiatric disorders.
We searched for BDV-derived nucleic acids in blood of race horses and jockeys riding the horses.
We assayed for the BDV genome in RNA extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 39 race horses and 48 jockeys. Two polymerase chain reaction protocols [one-tube reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and two-step RT-PCR] were used to assay BDV p24 and p40 transcripts.
The p24 and p40 viral nucleic acid sequences were not detected in the PBMC RNAs from any of the race horses or jockeys.
These data do not support an epidemiological association between BDV infection, race horses and humans.
The critically endangered Sichuan Hill-partridge Arborophila rufipectus occupies a restricted range in south-central China. Field surveys within this range were undertaken using line transects in 1996 and 1997. Calling males were recorded from nine subtropical forest tracts within an area totalling 1,793 km2 and consisting of primary, natural secondary and replanted broadleaf forest between 1,100 and 2,235 m elevation. The only sightings obtained were in primary forest. The mean density of calling males estimated from data collected during transect surveys was 0.48 ± 0.06 and 0.24 ± 0.16 calling birds km−2 in 1996 and 1997 respectively. There was no difference in density estimates for calling males between primary forest and secondary/replanted broadleaf forest. The principal threat to the continued survival of the species is clear-felling of primary forest, but clear-felled areas are often replanted with native broadleaf trees and records of Sichuan Hill-partridge calls in such plantations offers hope for its future survival. Forest management should be modified to make forestry practices more sympathetic to the conservation of the Sichuan Hill-partridge.
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