Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Nuclear diagnosis of the fuel areal density for direct-drive deuterium fuel implosion at the Shenguang-II Upgrade laser facility

  • Bo Cui (a1), Zhiheng Fang (a2), Zenghai Dai (a1), Hongjie Liu (a1), Wei Wang (a2), Jiabin Chen (a1), Bi Bi (a1), Chao Tian (a1), Dongxiao Liu (a1), Weiwu Wang (a1), Lianqiang Shan (a1), Feng Lu (a1), Gang Li (a1), Faqiang Zhang (a1), Bo Zhang (a1), Zhimeng Zhang (a1), Zhigang Deng (a1), Shukai He (a1), Jian Teng (a1), Wei Hong (a1), Yuqiu Gu (a1) and Baohan Zhang (a1)...

Abstract

In inertial confinement fusion experiments that involve short-laser pulses such as fast ignition (FI), diagnosis of neutrons is usually very challenging because high-intensity γ rays generated by short-laser pulses would mask the much weaker neutron signal. In this paper, fast-response scintillators with low afterglow and gated microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes are combined to build neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) spectrometers for such experiments. Direct-drive implosion experiments of deuterium-gas-filled capsules were performed at the Shenguang-II Upgrade (SG-II-UP) laser facility to study the compressed fuel areal density (〈ρR〉) and evaluate the performance of such nTOF diagnostics. Two newly developed quenched liquid scintillator detectors and a gated ultrafast plastic scintillator detector were used to measure the secondary DT neutrons and primary DD neutrons, respectively. The secondary neutron signals were clearly discriminated from the γ rays from (n, γ) reactions, and the compressed fuel areal density obtained with the yield-ratio method agrees well with the simulations. Additionally, a small scintillator decay tail and a clear DD neutron signal were observed in an integrated FI experiment as a result of the low afterglow of the oxygen-quenched liquid scintillator.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Author for correspondence: Y.Q. Gu and H.J. Liu, Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, China, E-mail: yqgu@caep.cn; buyijie@163.com

References

Hide All
Ahlborn, B and Key, MH (1981) Scaling laws for laser driven exploding pusher targets. Plasma Physics 23, 435447.
Azechi, H, Miyanaga, N, Stapf, RO, Itoga, K, Nakaishi, H, Yamanaka, M, Shiraga, H, Tsuji, R, Ido, S and Nishihara, K (1986) Experimental determination of fuel density-radius product of inertial confinement fusion targets using secondary nuclear fusion reactions. Applied Physics Letters 49, 555557.
Azechi, H, Mima, K, Shiraga, S, Fujioka, S, Nagatomo, H, Johzaki, T, Jitsuno, T, Key, M, Kodama, R, Koga, M, Kondo, K, Kawanaka, J, Miyanaga, N, Murakami, M, Nagai, K, Nakai, M, Nakamura, H, Nakamura, T, Nakazato, T, Nakao, Y, Nishihara, K, Nishimura, H, Norimatsu, T, Norreys, P, Ozaki, T, Pasley, J, Sakagami, H, Sakawa, Y, Sarukura, N, Shigemori, K, Shimizu, T, Sunahara, A, Taguchi, T, Tanaka, K, Tsubakimoto, K, Fujimoto, Y, Homma, H and Iwamoto, A (2013) Present status of fast ignition realization experiment and inertial fusion energy development. Nuclear Fusion 53, 587593.
Blue, TE and Harris, DB (1981) Ratio of d-t to d-d reactions as a measure of the fuel density-radius product in initially tritium-free inertial confinement fusion targets. Nuclear Science and Engineering 77, 463469.
Burns, EJT, Falacy, SM, Hill, RA, Thacher, PD, Koehler, HA and Davis, B (1989) A compact dense-plasma-focus neutron source for detector calibrations. Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research, Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 40–41, 12481251.
Cable, MD and Hatchett, SP (1987) Neutron spectra from inertial confinement fusion targets for measurement of fuel areal density and charged particle stopping powers. Journal of Applied Physics 62, 22332236.
Cai, HB, Wu, SZ, Wu, JF, Mo, C, Hua, Z, He, MQ, Cao, LH, Zhou, CT, Zhu, SP and He, XT (2014) Review of the current status of fast ignition research at the IAPCM. High Power Laser Science and Engineering 2, 19.
Chen, JB, Zheng, ZJ, Peng, HS, Zhang, BH, Ding, YK, Chen, M, Chen, HS and Wen, TS (2001) Fusion fuel ion temperatures diagnostic for directly driven implosions. Review of Scientific Instruments 72, 35343536.
Cui, B, He, SK, Liu, HJ, Dai, ZH, Yan, YH, Lu, F, Li, G, Zhang, FQ, Hong, W and Gu, YQ (2016) Neutron spectrum measurement for picosecond laser pulse neutron source experiment with liquid scintillator detector. High Power Laser and Particle Beams 28, 124005.
Eljen Technology (2013) EJ-232Q data sheet. Sweetwater, TX 79556, USA. http://www.eljentechnology.com
Forrest, CJ, Radha, PB, Glebov, VY, Goncharov, VN, Knauer, JP, Pruyne, A, Romanofsky, M, Sangster, TC, Shoup, MJ III, Stoeckl, C, Casey, DT, Gatu-Johnson, M and Gardner, S (2012) High-resolution spectroscopy used to measure inertial confinement fusion neutron spectra on Omega. Review of Scientific Instruments 83, 10D919.
Gao, YQ, Ma, WX, Cao, ZD, Zhu, J, Yang, XD, Da, YP, Zhu, BQ and Lin, ZQ (2013). Status of the SG-II-UP laser facility. Conference Status of the SG-II-UP laser facility, pp. 7374.
Geng, T (2007) Scintillation neutron detector for DPF device. High Power Laser and Particle Beams 19, 10081010.
Glebov, VY, Meyerhofer, DD, Stoeckl, C and Zuegel, JD (2001) Secondary-neutron-yield measurements by current-mode detectors. Review of Scientific Instruments 72, 824827.
Glebov, VY, Forrest, CJ, Marshall, KL, Romanofsky, M, Sangster, TC, Shoup, MJ III and Stoeckl, C (2014) A new neutron time-of-flight detector for fuel-areal-density measurements on OMEGA. Review of Scientific Instruments 85, 11E102.
Gu, YQ, Yu, JQ, Zhou, WM, Wu, FJ, Wang, J, Liu, HJ, Cao, LF and Zhang, BH (2013) Collimation of hot electron beams by external field from magnetic-flux compression. Laser and Particle Beams 31, 579582.
Habara, H, Norreys, PA, Kodama, R, Stoeckl, C and Glebov, VY (2006) Neutron measurements and diagnostic developments relevant to fast ignition. Fusion Science and Technology 49, 517531.
Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Photomultiplier Tube (2014) R5916U data sheet. 1820, Kurematsu, Nishi-ku, Hamamatsu City 431-1202, Japan. http://www.hamamatsu.com.
Hicks, DG (1999) Charged-Particle Spectroscopy: A New Window on Inertial Confinement Fusion (Ph.D. thesis). Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston.
Izumi, N, Lerche, RA, Phillips, TW, Schmid, GJ, Moran, MJ, Koch, JA, Azechi, H and Sangster, TC (2003) Development of a gated scintillation fiber neutron detector for areal density measurements of inertial confinement fusion capsules. Review of Scientific Instruments 74, 17221725.
Kurebayashi, S, Frenje, JA, Séguin, FH, Rygg, JR, Li, CK, Petrasso, RD, Glebov, VY, Delettrez, JA, Sangster, TC, Meyerhofer, DD, Stoeckl, C, Soures, JM, Amendt, PA, Hatchett, SP and Turner, RE (2005) Using nuclear data and Monte Carlo techniques to study areal density and mix in D2 implosions. Physics of Plasmas 12, 032703.
Lauck, R, Brandis, M, Bromberger, B, Dangendorf, V, Goldberg, MB, Mor, I, Tittelmeier, K and Vartsky, D (2009) Low-afterglow, high-refractive-index liquid scintillators for fast-neutron spectrometry and imaging applications. IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 56, 989993.
Lerche, RA and Remington, BA (1990) Detector distance selection for neutron time-of-flight temperature measurements. Review of Scientific Instruments 61, 31313133.
Leskovar, B (1977) Microchannel plates. Physics Today 30, 4249.
Patronis, N, Kokkoris, M, Giantsoudi, D, Perdikakis, G, Papadopoulos, CT and Vlastou, R (2007) Aspects of GEANT4 Monte-Carlo calculations of the BC501A neutron detector. Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research, Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment 578, 351355.
Photek Ltd. (2013) PMT240 data sheet. St. Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex, TN38 9NS, United Kingdom. http://www.photek.co.uk.
Ramis, R, Schmalz, J and Meyer-ter-Vehn, J (1988) MUTLI: a computer code for one-dimensional multigroup radiation hydrodynamics. Computer Physics Communications 49, 475.
Rinderknecht, HG, Rosenberg, MJ, Zylstra, AB, Lahmann, B, Séguin, FH, Frenje, JA, Li, CK, Gatu Johnson, M, Petrasso, RD, Berzak Hopkins, LF, Caggiano, JA, Divol, L, Hartouni, EP, Hatarik, R, Hatchett, SP, Le Pape, S, Mackinnon, AJ, McNaney, JM, Meezan, NB, Moran, MJ, Bradley, PA, Kline, JL, Krasheninnikova, NS, Kyrala, GA, Murphy, TJ, Schmitt, MJ, Tregillis, IL, Batha, SH, Knauer, JP and Kilkenny, JD (2015) Using multiple secondary fusion products to evaluate fuel pR, electron temperature, and mix in deuterium-filled implosions at the NIF. Physics of Plasmas 22, 082709.
Rosen, MD and Nuckolls, JH (1979) Exploding pusher performance– A theoretical model. Physics of Fluids 22, 13931396.
Rosenberg, MJ, Zylstra, AB, Séguin, FH, Rinderknecht, HG, Frenje, JA, Johnson, MG, Sio, H, Waugh, CJ, Sinenian, N, Li, CK, Petrasso, RD, McKenty, PW, Hohenberger, M, Radha, PB, Delettrez, JA, Glebov, VY, Betti, R, Goncharov, VN, Knauer, JP, Sangster, TC, LePape, S, Mackinnon, AJ, Pino, J, McNaney, JM, Rygg, JR, Amendt, PA, Bellei, C, Benedetti, LR, Hopkins, LB, Bionta, RM, Casey, DT, Divol, L, Edwards, MJ, Glenn, S, Glenzer, SH, Hicks, DG, Kimbrough, JR, Landen, OL, Lindl, JD, Ma, T, MacPhee, A, Meezan, NB, Moody, JD, Moran, MJ, Park, H-S, Remington, BA, Robey, H, Rosen, MD, Wilks, SC, Zacharias, RA, Herrmann, HW, Hoffman, NM, Kyrala, GA, Leeper, RJ, Olson, RE, Kilkenny, JD and Nikroo, A (2014) Investigation of ion kinetic effects in direct-drive exploding-pusher implosions at the NIF. Physics of Plasmas 21, 122712.
Ruiz, CL, Leeper, RJ, Schmidlapp, FA, Cooper, G and Malbrough, DJ (1992) Absolute calibration of a total yield indium activation detector for DD and DT neutrons. Review of Scientific Instruments 63, 48894991.
Ruiz, CL, Chandler, GA, Cooper, GW, Fehl, DL, Hahn, KD, Leeper, RJ, McWatters, BR, Nelson, AJ, Smelser, RM, Snow, CS and Torres, JA (2012) Progress in obtaining an absolute calibration of a total deuterium-tritium neutron yield diagnostic based on copper activation. Review of Scientific Instruments 83, 10D913.
Séguin, FH, Li, CK, Frenje, JA, Hicks, DG, Green, KM, Kurebayashi, S, Petrasso, RD, Soures, JM, Meyerhofer, DD, Glebov, VY, Soures, JM, Meyerhofer, DD, Glebov, VY, Radha, PB, Stoeckl, C, Roberts, S, Sorce, C, Sangster, TC, Cable, MD, Fletcher, K and Padalino, S (2002) Using secondary-proton spectra to study the compression and symmetry of deuterium-filled capsules at OMEGA. Physics of Plasmas 9, 27252737.
Shan, LQ, Cai, HB, Zhang, WS, Tang, Q, Zhang, F, Song, ZF, Bi, B, Ge, FJ, Chen, JB, Liu, DX, Wang, WW, Yang, ZH, Qi, W, Tian, C, Yuan, ZQ, Zhang, B, Yang, L, Jiao, JL, Cui, B, Zhou, WM, Cao, LF, Zhou, CT, Gu, YQ, Zhang, BH, Zhu, SP and He, XT (2018) Experimental evidence of kinetic effects in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion hohlraums. Physical Review Letters 120, 195001.
Shiraga, H, Nagatomo, H, Theobald, W, Solodov, AA and Tabak, M (2014) Fast ignition integrated experiments and high-point design. Nuclear Fusion 54, 054005.
Solodov, AA, Anderson, KS, Betti, R, Betti, V, Gotcheva, V, Myatt, J, Delettrez, JA, Skupsky, S, Theobald, W and Stoeckl, C (2009) Integrated simulations of implosion, electron transport, and heating for direct-drive fast-ignition targets. Physics of Plasmas 16, 056309.
Stoeckl, C, Boehly, TR, Delettrez, JA, Hatchett, SP, Frenje, JA, Glebov, VY, Li, CK, Miller, JE, Petrasso, RD, Séguin, FH, Smalyuk, VA, Stephens, RB, Theobald, W, Yaakobi, B and Sangster, TC (2005) Direct-drive fuel-assembly experiments with gas-filled, cone-in-shell, fast-ignitor targets on the OMEGA Laser. Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 47, B859B867.
Stoeckl, C, Cruz, M, Glebov, VY, Knauer, JP, Lauck, R, Marshall, K, Mileham, C, Sangster, TC and Theobald, W (2010) A gated liquid-scintillator-based neutron detector for fast-ignitor experiments and down-scattered neutron measurements. Review of Scientific Instruments 81, 10D302.
Tabak, M, Hammer, J, Glinsky, ME, Kruer, WL, Wilks, SC, Woodworth, J, Campbell, EM and Perry, MD (1994) Ignition and high gain with ultrapowerful lasers. Physics of Plasmas 1, 16261634.
Theoobald, W, Solodov, AA, Stoeckl, C, Anderson, KS, Betti, R, Boehly, TR, Craxton, RS, Delettrez, JA, Dorrer, C, Frenje, JA, Glebov, VY, Habara, H, Tanaka, KA, Knauer, JP, Lauck, R, Marshall, FJ, Marshall, KL, Meyerhofer, DD, Nilson, PM, Patel, PK, Chen, H, Sangster, TC, Seka, W, Sinenian, N, Ma, T, Beg, FN, Giraldez, E and Stephens, RB (2011) Initial cone-in-shell fast-ignition experiments on OMEGA. Physics of Plasmas 18, 056305.
Wu, XC, Li, RR, Peng, TP, Zhang, JH and Guo, HS (2006) Precise calibration of 14.1 MeV neutron sensitivity of scintillator detector. Nuclear Electron Detection Technologies 26, 710713.
Zhu, TH, Liu, R, Jiang, L, Lu, XX, Wen, ZW, Wang, M and Lin, JF (2007) The associated proton monitoring technique study of D-D source neutron yields at the large angle. Nuclear Electron Detection Technologies 27, 141144.
Zhu, JQ, Zhu, J, Li, XC, Zhu, BQ, Ma, WX, Liu, D, Liu, C, Lu, XQ, Fan, W and Liu, ZG (2017) High power glass laser research progresses in NLHPLP. Conference High power glass laser research progresses in NLHPLP, pp. 1008405.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed