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We revisit the holotype of Calcardea junnei Gingerich, 1987 from the latest Paleocene (Clarkforkian) of the Willwood Formation (Wyoming, USA). The species is based on a partial skeleton and was originally assigned to the Ardeidae (herons). As we show, this classification cannot be upheld and Calcardea Gingerich, 1987 more closely resembles the taxon Vastanavis Mayr et al., 2007 (Vastanavidae), a parrot-like bird from the early Eocene of India. Even though C. junnei is a large bird, its long wings and short tarsometatarsus argue against a predominantly terrestrial way of living, and the morphology of the tarsometatarsus and pedal phalanges instead suggest strong grasping feet. We conclude that an assignment of Calcardea to the landbird clade (Telluraves) is better supported than its classification into the waterbird clade (Aequornithes), which includes Ardeidae and other ‘ciconiiform’ and ‘pelecaniform’ taxa. Calcardea junnei is one of the oldest known representatives of Telluraves and its morphology shows plesiomorphic features, which contributed to its previous misidentification as a heron. Calcardea exhibits a distinctive osteology and affords a glimpse of a previously unknown late Paleocene avian morphotype.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Illegal killing/taking of birds is a growing concern across the Mediterranean. However, there are few quantitative data on the species and countries involved. We assessed numbers of individual birds of each species killed/taken illegally in each Mediterranean country per year, using a diverse range of data sources and incorporating expert knowledge. We estimated that 11–36 million individuals per year may be killed/taken illegally in the region, many of them on migration. In each of Cyprus, Egypt, Italy, Lebanon and Syria, more than two million birds may be killed/taken on average each year. For species such as Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla, Common Quail Coturnix coturnix, Eurasian Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, House Sparrow Passer domesticus and Song Thrush Turdus philomelos, more than one million individuals of each species are estimated to be killed/taken illegally on average every year. Several species of global conservation concern are also reported to be killed/taken illegally in substantial numbers: Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata, Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca and Rock Partridge Alectoris graeca. Birds in the Mediterranean are illegally killed/taken primarily for food, sport and for use as cage-birds or decoys. At the 20 worst locations with the highest reported numbers, 7.9 million individuals may be illegally killed/taken per year, representing 34% of the mean estimated annual regional total number of birds illegally killed/taken for all species combined. Our study highlighted the paucity of data on illegal killing/taking of birds. Monitoring schemes which use systematic sampling protocols are needed to generate increasingly robust data on trends in illegal killing/taking over time and help stakeholders prioritise conservation actions to address this international conservation problem. Large numbers of birds are also hunted legally in the region, but specific totals are generally unavailable. Such data, in combination with improved estimates for illegal killing/taking, are needed for robustly assessing the sustainability of exploitation of birds.
In this study we explore whether world knowledge (WK) processing differs between individuals listening to their native (L1) or their non-native (L2) language. We recorded event-related brain potentials in L1 and L2 speakers of Spanish while they listened to sentences uttered by native speakers of Spanish. Sentences were either congruent or incongruent with participants’ WK. In addition, participants also listened to sentences in which upcoming words could not be anticipated on the basis of WK. WK violations elicited a late negativity of greater magnitude and duration in the L2 than the L1 group. However, sentences in which WK was not helpful regarding word anticipation elicited similar N400 modulations in both groups. These results suggest that WK processing requires a deeper lexical search in L2 comprehension than in L1 comprehension.
Commission 12 of the International Astronomical Union encompasses investigations of the internal structure and dynamics of the Sun, the quiet solar atmosphere, solar radiation and its variability, and the nature of relatively stable magnetic structures like sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network. The Commission sees participation of over 300 scientists worldwide.
After a little more than forty years of work related to the interplanetary plasma and the heliosphere the IAU's Commission 49 was formally discontinued in 2015. The commission started its work when the first spacecraft were launched to measure the solar wind in–situ away from Earth orbit, both inward and outward from 1 AU. It now hands over its activities to a new commission during an era of space research when Voyager 1 measures in–situ the parameters of the local interstellar medium at the edge of the heliosphere. The commission will be succeeded by C.E3 with a similar area of responsibility but with more focused specific tasks that the community intends to address during the coming several years. This report includes a short description of the motivation for this commission and of the historical context. It then describes work from 2012 to 2015 during the present solar cycle 24 that has been the weakest in the space era so far. It gave rise to a large number of studies on solar energetic particles and cosmic rays. Other studies addressed e.g. the variation of the solar wind structure and energetic particle fluxes on long time scales, the detection of dust in the solar wind and the Voyager measurements at the edge of the heliosphere. The research is based on measurements from spacecraft that are at present operational and motivated by the upcoming Solar Probe + and Solar Orbiter missions to explore the vicinity of the Sun. We also report here the progress on new and planned radio instruments and their importance for heliospheric studies. Contributors to this report are Carine Briand, Yoichiro Hanaoka, Eduard Kontar, David Lario, Ingrid Mann, John D. Richardson.
This report covers the workings of Commission 26 over the triennial period 2012-2015 and is the last report of the Commission. Included are reports from Working Groups and the Commission 26 Circular; all of which will be continuing in Commission G1 (Binary and Multiple Stars). Also included is a report of the Splinter Meeting of Commissions 26, 42 & G1, submitted observatory reports and a history of Commission 26.
IAU Commission 6 “Astronomical Telegrams” had a single business meeting during Honolulu General Assembly of the IAU. It took place on Tuesday, 11 August 2015. The meeting was attended by Hitoshi Yamaoka (President), Daniel Green (Director of the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams, CBAT, via Skype), Steven Chesley (JPL), Paul Chodas (JPL), Alan Gilmore (Canterbury University), Shinjiro Kouzuma (Chukyo University), Paolo Mazzali (Co-Chair of the Supernova Working Group), Elena Pian (Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa), Marion Schmitz (chair IAU Working Group Designations + NED), David Tholen (University of Hawaii), Jana Ticha (Klet Observatory), Milos Tichy (Klet Observatory), Giovanni Valsecchi (INAF\slash Italy), Gareth Williams (Minor Planet Center). Apologies: Nikolai Samus (General Catalogue of Variable Stars, GCVS).
Pain is among the foremost complaints of women seeking gynecological consultation, yet the diagnosis is often limited to endometriosis. Chronic Pelvic Pain discusses how to diagnose a broad scope of underlying conditions presenting in relation to pelvic pain in women and their treatment. Starting with an anatomical review from a pain point of view, several chapters continue to explore specific conditions such as vulvodynia, the often overlooked painful bladder syndrome and pelvic inflammatory disease. Also covered are topics such as sexual dysfunction, psychological aspects of chronic pelvic pain and alternative treatment methods. Practical treatment tips for specific conditions which are readily applicable in everyday practice are provided throughout. Special attention is given to the use of sonography and MRI in diagnostics. With its comprehensive approach, addressing both body and mind, this is essential reading for medical specialists and consultants and specialist medical trainees in gynecology, pain medicine, and family practice.
A new tillodont, Anthraconyx hypsomylus, n. gen. n. sp., is described from the early Eocene Cambay Shale Formation at Vastan Lignite Mine, Gujarat, India. Anthraconyx hypsomylus is the smallest Eocene tillodont and is distinguished by having the most buccally hypsodont cheek teeth of any known esthonychine. The closest dental resemblances are to North American Esthonyx and Azygonyx and European Plesiesthonyx, providing further evidence of affinities between the Vastan local fauna and Euroamerican vertebrate faunas.
IAU Commission 6 “Astronomical Telegrams” had a single business meeting during the Beijing General Assembly of the IAU. It took place on Friday, August 24, 2012. The meeting was attended by five C6 members (N. N. Samus; D. W. E. Green; S. Nakano; J. Ticha; and H. Yamaoka). Also present was Prof. F. Genova as a representative of the IAU Division B. She told the audience about the current restructuring of IAU Commissions and Divisions and consequences for the future of C6.
The meeting was attended by the President and Vice-President of the Commission, along with approximately 15 other members. The President reported on the election of new officers that took place at the end of March 2012, for four new members of the Organizing Committee as well as a new Vice-President, and thanked the outgoing members. Tomaz Zwitter (Slovenia) was elected as the new VP (2012–2015), and the new OC members for the period 2012–2018 are Alceste Bonanos (Greece), Alain Jorissen (Belgium), David Katz (France), and Matthias Steinmetz (Germany). The current VP, Dimitri Pourbaix, became the President through 2015.
Commission 42 (C42) co-organized, together with Commission 27 (C27) and Division V (Div V) as a whole, a full day of science and business sessions that were held on 24 August 2012. The program included time slots for discussion of business matters related to Div V, C27 and C42, and two sessions of 2 hours each devoted to science talks of interest to both C42 and C27. In addition, we had a joint session between Div IV and Div V motivated by the proposal to reformulate the division structure of the IAU and the possible merger of the two divisions into a new Div G. The current report gives an account of the matters discussed during the business session of C42.
The President of C12, Alexander Kosovichev, presented the status of the Commission and its working Group(s). Primary activities included organization of international meetings (IAU Symposia, Special Sessions and Joint Discussion); review and support of proposals for IAU sponsored meetings; organization of working groups on the Commission topics to promote the international cooperation; preparation of triennial report on the organizational and science activities of Commission members. Commission 12 broadly encompasses topics of solar research which include studies of the Sun's internal structure, composition, dynamics and magnetism (through helioseismology and other techniques), studies of the quiet photosphere, chromosphere and corona, and also research of the mechanisms of solar radiation, and its variability on various time scales. Some overlap with topics covered by Commission 10 Solar Activity is unavoidable, and many activities are sponsored jointly by these two commissions. The Commission website can be found at http://sun.stanford.edu/IAU-Com12/, with information about related IAU Symposiums and activities, and links to appropriate web sites.