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Lichens are a well-known symbiosis between a host mycobiont and eukaryote algal or cyanobacterial photobiont partner(s). Recent studies have indicated that terrestrial lichens can also contain other cryptic photobionts that increase the lichens’ ecological fitness in response to varying environmental conditions. Marine lichens live in distinct ecosystems compared with their terrestrial counterparts because of regular submersion in seawater and are much less studied. We performed bacteria 16S and eukaryote 18S rRNA gene metabarcoding surveys to assess total photobiont diversity within the marine lichen Lichina pygmaea (Lightf.) C. Agardh, which is widespread throughout the intertidal zone of Atlantic coastlines. We found that in addition to the established cyanobacterial photobiont Rivularia, L. pygmaea is also apparently host to a range of other marine and freshwater cyanobacteria, as well as marine eukaryote algae in the family Ulvophyceae (Chlorophyta). We propose that symbiosis with multiple freshwater and marine cyanobacteria and eukaryote photobionts may contribute to the ability of L. pygmaea to survive the harsh fluctuating environmental conditions of the intertidal zone.
We consider linear and nonlinear waves in a stratified hydrostatic fluid within a channel of variable area, under the restriction of one-dimensional flow. We derive a modified version of Riemann's invariant that is related to the wave luminosity. This quantity obeys a simple dynamical equation in linear theory, from which the rules of wave reflection are easily discerned; and it is adiabatically conserved in the high-frequency limit. Following a suggestion by Lighthill, we apply the linear adiabatic invariant to predict mildly nonlinear waves. This incurs only moderate error. We find that Lighthill's criterion for shock formation is essentially exact for leading shocks, and for shocks within high-frequency waves. We conclude that approximate invariants can be used to accurately predict the self-distortion of low-amplitude acoustic pulses, as well as the dissipation patterns for weak shocks, in complicated environments such as stellar envelopes. We also identify fully nonlinear solutions for a restricted class of problems.
Dual diagnosis patients are characterized by low rates of adherence and treatment compliance. During last years new resources have dedicated to these patients where substance use and mental disorder are treated simultaneously.
The aim of this study is to describe sociodemographic and psychopatology features of dual diagnosis outpatient.
All subjects in the study were outpatients at dual diagnosis program at Vall d’Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona, Spain during 2007 to 2008. These patients were following up until December 2009. Sociodemographic data, psychiatric diagnosis and substance abuse were assessed by using EuropASI, SCID-I y SCID-II and by reviewing their medical histories.
A total of 90 patients were recruited for this study during 2007–2008 and were followed one year. 62,5% of them remain until the end of the treatment. 67,9% were men, medium age was 37 years old (± 1.4). Most of them live with their own families (57,1%) and their marital status was single (48,2%). In this sample the most prevalent psychiatric diagnosis was Major Depressive Disorder (36,4%) followed by Psychotic Disorder (36,2%). The most abused substance was cocaine (33,9%) followed by cannabis (26,8%), alcohol (16,1%), heroin (17,9%). More of 60% were polydrug.
The patients who maintained inculcation with the outpatient program of dual diagnosis were men with medium level of academic level and good family and social environment.
Cocaine dependence disorder has been widely described. However, differences due to gender remain unknown.
To compare clinical gender differences in a large sample of cocaine-dependent patients.
We performed a cross-sectional, observational study in 902 patients (35.47 yo, 21.3% women) with a cocaine dependence according DSM-IV criteria, seeking treatment during 2005 to 2013. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were collected The SCID-I, SCID–II, BIS and a structured interview about cocaine-induced psychosis were performed. Simple descriptive statistics were carried out for demographic and clinical data. Bivariate analysis was made to compare the main variables by sex using SPSSvs18.0.
No differences in age of dependence onset, other clinical variables or cocaine-induced psychosis were detected. However, less cocaine used in the last month (2.12 vs 3.37g) (p < 0.009), more impulsivity (67.2 vs 63.03) (p < 0.040), and more sedative dependence (21.2% % vs 8.3%)(p< 0.00) were detected in women than in men. Affective disorders lifetime were the most prevalent (57,4%) in women. More comorbidity with anxiety disorders (p< 0.025) eating disorders (p< 0.000) and personality disorders (p< 0.039) were detected in women than in men.
Sedative dependence and anxiety disorders should be investigated in cocaine-dependent women in order to treat these conditions. Surprisingly high impulsivity level was detected and could moderate cocaine consumption. However, no difference have been found previously in studies about gender differences in cocaine-dependent patients, so this finding should be confirm in new studies.
Life functioning difficulties are a relevant but undervalued consequence of major depression. Mood symptoms and cognitive deficits have a significant, and somehow independent, impact on them. Therefore, cognitive difficulties should be considered a potential target to improve patients’ functioning.
To examine the degree in which objective and subjective cognition explain functional outcome.
To assess objective cognitive function (CF) with a neuropsychological battery and to measure subjective CF using measures of cognitive perception.
Ninety-nine patients with depression were assessed by age, sex and level of schooling. Depressive symptoms severity was measured by Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17). Objective CF consisted in the following cognitive domains: memory, attention, executive functioning and processing speed. Subjective CF was assessed with Perceived Deficit Questionnaire-Depression (PDQ-D). Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) was used to evaluate life functioning, excluding the cognitive domain. All the listed measures were included in a multiple regression analysis with FAST scores as dependent variable.
The regression model was significant (F1,98 = 67.484, P < 0.001) with an R of 0.825. The variables showing statistical power included (from higher to lower β-coefficient) HDRS-17 (β = 0.545, t = 8.453, P < 0.001), PDQ-D (β = 0.383, t = 6.047, P < 0.001) and DSST (β = −0.123, t = −1.998, P = 0.049).
The severity of depressive symptoms is the variable that best explains life functioning. Surprisingly, the second factor hindering it is the patients’ perception of their cognition. Current findings highlight the importance of correcting cognitive bias in order to improve functionality. However, results have to be taken cautiously as mood symptoms could partly explain the bias.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Pain medication misuse is commonly found in patients under headache treatment and may produce co-morbid anxiety and depressive symptomatology. Management of this issue requires a comprehensive and integrative treatment including psychotherapy. Group interventions have been scarcely studied in addictive disorders, those interventions aims to decrease drug misuse and improve related psychiatric symptoms.
To study the efficacy of group interventions base on cognitive-behavior approach in patients with pain medication misuse.
Patients with pain medication misuse were included and were evaluated with BDI, STAI, SF36 and HIT scales (basal and at the end of treatment sessions). Patients were recruited from headache outpatient unit. Twelve sessions of one hour were performed with a cognitive-behavior approach (weekly).
We present preliminary results about the efficacy of group interventions in patients with pain medication misuse. Descriptive results pre- and post- treatment were analyzed in depressive symptoms (M = 20.14, SD = 12.25; M = 14.67, SD = 19.50) and in areas of quality of life: physical functioning (M = 48.75, SD = 31.13; M = 60.50, SD = 41.68), bodily pain (M = 12, SD = 9.25; M = 42.75, SD = 34.09), general health perceptions (M = 25.75, SD = 16.96; M = 44.25, SD = 22.33), vitality (M = 33.75, SD = 13.82; M = 48, SD = 34.82).
Pain medication misuse is commonly found in chronic headache patients, consequently worst outcomes for both pathologies. Group interventions may be useful in management of pain, anxiety and other comorbidities. Furthermore, it may favor drug use decrease and even abstinence.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Legal and illegal drugs can cause psychotic symptoms, in cocaine-dependent patients the prevalence of these symptoms may reach 86% (Vorspan, 2012). It is estimated that 13–32% of cocaine-dependent patients have kinaesthetic hallucinations (Siegel, 1978; Mahoney, 2008; Roncero, 2012).
To compare the prevalence of substance-induced psychotic symptoms and compare the use of welfare/social resources and social adjustment among cocaine-dependent patients (CD) and other substances dependences (OtherD).
Two hundred and six patients seeking treatment at the Addictions and Dual Diagnosis Unit of the Vall d’Hebron. Patients were assessed by ad hoc questionnaire designed to collect demographic data and psychotic symptoms associated with consumption, a record of the care/social resources used by the patient and the scale of social adaptation (SASS). A descriptive and bivariate analysis of the data was performed.
CD were 47.1% vs. 52.9% OtherD (66.1% alcohol, 17.4% cannabis, 8.3% opioid, 8.3% benzodiazepines/other drugs). Of cocaine dependent-patients, 65.6% present psychotic symptoms vs. 32.1% for the OtherD. Different exhibiting psychotic symptoms are: self-referential (69.7% vs. 30.7%), delusions of persecution (43.4% vs. 12.2%), hallucinations (49.4% vs. 14.3%), auditory hallucinations (43.5% vs. 11.4%), visual hallucinations (30.4% vs. 5.7%) and kinaesthetic hallucinations (7.2% vs. 2.9%).
Cocaine-dependent patients significantly use more health care resources in reference addiction unit (76.3% vs. 62.4%, P:.035) and infectious diseases (22.7% vs. 5.5%, P:.000) and justice-related (50.5% vs. 26 resources 0.6%; P:1.001) and less resources and mental health (25.8% vs. 43.1%; P:.013).
Regarding social adaptation, no differences were found in the SASS. Kinaesthetic hallucinations do not appear to be related to a greater use of resources and in social adaptation.
References not available.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Host behavioural manipulation is a common strategy used by parasites to enhance their survival and/or transmission. Baculoviruses induce hyperactivity and tree-top disease (pre-death climbing behaviour) in their caterpillar hosts. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this behavioural manipulation. A previous study showed that the baculovirus Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) induced tree-top disease at 3 days post infection in third instar S. exigua larvae and that light plays a key role in triggering this behaviour. Here we investigated the temporal requirements for the presence of light to trigger this behaviour and found that light from above was needed between 43 and 50 h post infection to induce tree-top disease. Infected larvae that were not exposed to light from above in this period finally died at low positions. Exposure to light prior to this period did not affect the final positions where larvae died. Overall we conclude that light in a particular time frame is needed to trigger SeMNPV-induced tree-top disease in S. exigua larvae.
Gender equity is imperative to the attainment of healthy lives and wellbeing of all, and promoting gender equity in leadership in the health sector is an important part of this endeavour. This empirical research examines gender and leadership in the health sector, pooling learning from three complementary data sources: literature review, quantitative analysis of gender and leadership positions in global health organisations and qualitative life histories with health workers in Cambodia, Kenya and Zimbabwe. The findings highlight gender biases in leadership in global health, with women underrepresented. Gender roles, relations, norms and expectations shape progression and leadership at multiple levels. Increasing women's leadership within global health is an opportunity to further health system resilience and system responsiveness. We conclude with an agenda and tangible next steps of action for promoting women's leadership in health as a means to promote the global goals of achieving gender equity.
The reminiscence functions scale (RFS) is a 43-item self-report instrument designed to assess the use of reminiscence for different functions. This study aims, on one hand, to analyze the factorial structure and the psychometric properties of the RFS and, on the other, to examine the relationship between the functions of reminiscence and mental health.
RFS scale and measures of depressive symptomology, despair, and life satisfaction were administered to a sample of persons over the age of sixty (n = 364).
After eliminating three conflictive items from the original scale, the confirmatory factor analysis results present a factorial structure comprising eight traditional factors and adequate reliability scores (from 0.73 to 0.87). Using structural equation modeling, we find that these reminiscence factors are organized in three second-order factors (self-positive, self-negative, and prosocial). Results show that the self-positive factor relates negatively and the self-negative factor relates positively with symptoms of mental health problems.
These results, on one hand, confirm that the RFS scale is a useful instrument to assess reminiscence functions in a sample of Spanish older adults and, on the other, that the three-factor model of reminiscence is a better predictor of mental health than the alternative four-factor model.
The dietary inflammatory index (DII) is a new tool to assess the inflammatory potential of the diet. In the present study, we aimed to determine the association between the DII and BMI, waist circumference and waist:height ratio (WHtR). We conducted a cross-sectional study of 7236 participants recruited into the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea trial. Information from a validated 137-item FFQ was used to calculate energy, food and nutrient intakes. A fourteen-item dietary screener was used to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDiet). Sex-specific multivariable linear regression models were fitted to estimate differences (and 95 % CI) in BMI, waist circumference and WHtR across the quintiles of the DII. All nutrient intakes, healthy foods and adherence to the MeDiet were higher in the quintile with the lowest DII score (more anti-inflammatory values) except for intakes of animal protein, saturated fat and monounsaturated fat. Although an inverse association between the DII and total energy was apparent, the DII was associated with higher average BMI, waist circumference and WHtR after adjusting for known risk factors. The adjusted difference in the WHtR for women and men between the highest and lowest quintiles of the DII was 1·60 % (95 % CI 0·87, 2·33) and 1·04 % (95 % CI 0·35, 1·74), respectively. Pro-inflammatory scores remained associated with obesity after controlling for the effect that adherence to a MeDiet had on inflammation. In conclusion, the present study shows a direct association between the DII and indices of obesity, and supports the hypothesis that diet may have a role in the development of obesity through inflammatory modulation mechanisms.
The effects of bread consumption change over time on anthropometric measures have been scarcely studied. We analysed 2213 participants at high risk for CVD from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial to assess the association between changes in the consumption of bread and weight and waist circumference gain over time. Dietary habits were assessed with validated FFQ at baseline and repeatedly every year during 4 years of follow-up. Using multivariate models to adjust for covariates, long-term weight and waist circumference changes according to quartiles of change in energy-adjusted white and whole-grain bread consumption were calculated. The present results showed that over 4 years, participants in the highest quartile of change in white bread intake gained 0·76 kg more than those in the lowest quartile (P for trend = 0·003) and 1·28 cm more than those in the lowest quartile (P for trend < 0·001). No significant dose–response relationships were observed for change in whole-bread consumption and anthropometric measures. Gaining weight (>2 kg) and gaining waist circumference (>2 cm) during follow-up was not associated with increase in bread consumption, but participants in the highest quartile of changes in white bread intake had a reduction of 33 % in the odds of losing weight (>2 kg) and a reduction of 36 % in the odds of losing waist circumference (>2 cm). The present results suggest that reducing white bread, but not whole-grain bread consumption, within a Mediterranean-style food pattern setting is associated with lower gains in weight and abdominal fat.
The Bengal Florican is a ‘Critically Endangered’ bustard (Otididae) restricted to India, Nepal and southern Indochina. Fewer than 500 birds are estimated to remain in the Indian subcontinent, whilst the Indochinese breeding population is primarily restricted to grasslands surrounding the Tonle Sap lake, Cambodia. We conducted the first comprehensive breeding season survey of Bengal Florican within the Tonle Sap region (19,500 km2). During 2005/06 and 2006/07 we systematically sampled 1-km squares for territorial males. Bengal Florican were detected within 90 1-km squares at a mean density of 0.34 males km−2 which, accounting for unequal survey effort across grassland blocks, provides a mean estimate of 0.2 males km−2. Based on 2005 habitat extent, the estimated Tonle Sap population is 416 adult males (333–502 ± 95% CI), more than half of them in Kompong Thom province. Tonle Sap grasslands are rapidly being lost due to intensification of rice cultivation and, based on satellite images, we document declines of 28% grassland cover within 10 grassland blocks between January 2005 and March 2007. Based on mean 2005 population densities the remaining grassland may support as few as 294 adult male florican, a decline of 30% since 2005. In response to these habitat declines almost 350 km2 of grassland have been designated as protected areas, set aside for biodiversity and local livelihoods. Conservation activities in these areas include participatory land-use zoning, patrols reporting new developments to government officials, awareness-raising and incentive-led nest protection schemes.
Resveratrol has been shown to have beneficial effects on diseases related to oxidant and/or inflammatory processes and extends the lifespan of simple organisms including rodents. The objective of the present study was to estimate the dietary intake of resveratrol and piceid (R&P) present in foods, and to identify the principal dietary sources of these compounds in the Spanish adult population. For this purpose, a food composition database (FCDB) of R&P in Spanish foods was compiled. The study included 40 685 subjects aged 35–64 years from northern and southern regions of Spain who were included in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Spain cohort. Usual food intake was assessed by personal interviews using a computerised version of a validated diet history method. An FCDB with 160 items was compiled. The estimated median and mean of R&P intake were 100 and 933 μg/d respectively. Approximately, 32 % of the population did not consume R&P. The most abundant of the four stilbenes studied was trans-piceid (53·6 %), followed by trans-resveratrol (20·9 %), cis-piceid (19·3 %) and cis-resveratrol (6·2 %). The most important source of R&P was wines (98·4 %) and grape and grape juices (1·6 %), whereas peanuts, pistachios and berries contributed to less than 0·01 %. For this reason the pattern of intake of R&P was similar to the wine pattern. This is the first time that R&P intake has been estimated in a Mediterranean country.
Intense and stable laser operation with Ni-like Zr and Ag was
demonstrated at pump energies between 2 J and 5 J energy from the PHELIX
pre-amplifier section. A novel single mirror focusing scheme for the TCE
x-ray laser (XRL) has been successfully implemented by the
LIXAM/MBI/GSI collaboration under different pump geometries. This
shows potential for an extension to shorter XRL wavelength. Generation of
high quality XRL beams for XRL spectroscopy of highly charged ions is an
important issue within the scientific program of PHELIX. Long range
perspective is the study of nuclear properties of radioactive isotopes
within the FAIR project.
In this article we report a new wavefront sensor, developed at the Laboratoire de
Spectroscopie Atomique et Ionique, for a full characterization of soft X-ray beams. The
Shack-Hartmann sensor has a theoretical accuracy in the order of $\lambda/100$ at a wavelength
around 13 nm. A cartography of the wave-vectors pointing of laser-pumped soft X-ray laser
has been achieved. It has shown the presence of many ripples probably coming from plasma
instabilities. Capillary discharge soft X-ray laser has been also investigated. For all the
pumping configurations, the wavefront is spherical, divergent with a radius of about 6.5 m at
2.5 m from the plasma end. The best wavefront exhibits an error to a perfect wave of 3λ rms.
Assuming to focus the beam with a f = 50 mm diffraction-limited mirror, a theoretical focal
spot size of 0.5 μm in diameter have been estimated containing 70% of the incident energy. In
that case an intensity of 4 × 1013 W cm−2 should be achieved.