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Survey research shows that voters know very little about politics. Left unexamined is whether political knowledge is a distinct type of knowledge when compared to other subjects. We seek to establish a baseline by putting political knowledge into a broader context. We show that our respondents’ knowledge about politics is similar in construction to their knowledge about other subjects, such as shopping, sports, popular culture, geography, economics, and the rules of the road. We conclude that knowledge of politics largely resides on the same dimension as other knowledge topics, implying that knowledge of politics is not a unique construct.
Compensatory gain describes an accelerated growth seen in animals following a period of nutrient restriction. Methionine (Met) is the second limiting amino acid in typical swine diets and is essential for muscle growth. This study was conducted to determine (1) if a Met-deficient diet can cause growth retardation in growing pigs, (2) if returning to a normal feeding can yield compensatory gain in the pigs previously fed the Met-deficient diet, and (3) if this Met-deficiency followed by the normal feeding program affects carcass characteristics. Twenty individually-penned crossbred young barrows were randomly allotted to two dietary treatments (n = 10). One Met-deficient (D1) and one Met-adequate (D2) diets were formulated based on corn and soybean meal and fed to respective pigs for 31 days. After that, all pigs were fed the same commercial grower-finisher diet until market weight (around 125 kg), then slaughtered, and carcass characteristics measured. The D1 and D2 pigs began with similar body weights (23.5 vs. 23.6 kg; P = 0.935), but after 31-days on the dietary treatments, D1 pigs were lighter than D2 pigs (51.6 vs. 55.0 kg; P = 0.102). After feeding the normal diet for 55 days, D1 and D2 pigs had similar body weights (122.7 vs. 122.6 kg; P = 0.989). In terms of carcass characteristics, however, D1 pigs had thicker back-fat (at 10th rib; 2.95 vs. 2.51 cm; P = 0.015), heavier belly weight (11.0 vs. 9.6 kg; P = 0.005), lighter ham weights (untrimmed: 20.8 vs. 21.6 kg; P = 0.043; trimmed: 19.6 vs. 20.6 kg; P = 0.016), lighter picnic shoulder weight (8.72 vs. 9.80 kg; P = 0.041), lighter total lean cut weight (51.8 vs. 53.8 kg; P = 0.055), and lower lean cut percentage (56.4 vs. 59.0%; P = 0.012). These results indicate that the Met-deficient diet produced growth-retarded pigs, which showed compensatory gain after the normal feeding. At slaughter, the pigs previously fed the Met-deficient diet had more fat and less lean tissue than their non-deficient counterparts.
Phased Array Feed (PAF) technology is the next major advancement in radio astronomy in terms of combining high sensitivity and large field of view. The Focal L-band Array for the Green Bank Telescope (FLAG) is one of the most sensitive PAFs developed so far. It consists of 19 dual-polarization elements mounted on a prime focus dewar resulting in seven beams on the sky. Its unprecedented system temperature of ~17 K will lead to a 3 fold increase in pulsar survey speeds as compared to contemporary single pixel feeds. Early science observations were conducted in a recently concluded commissioning phase of the FLAG where we clearly demonstrated its science capabilities. We observed a selection of normal and millisecond pulsars and detected giant pulses from PSR B1937+21.
We present an age-structured mathematical model of malaria and pneumonia to study the effect of two capacity-building interventions: Integrated Management of Infectious Diseases (IMID) and On-site Support Services (OSS). IMID leads to a reduction in malaria prevalence by more than 2·4% across the [0,5), [5,14) and [14,50) age groups. IMID + OSS reduces it by more than 16·0% across all age groups. IMID decreases pneumonia prevalence by more than 3·0% across all age groups while IMID + OSS decreases it by more than 1·0% across all age groups. The number of malaria and pneumonia deaths is reduced by 7·8% by IMID across all age groups and IMID + OSS decreases this number by 30·5% across all age groups, which translates to saving a life of a child per month. Prevalence of malaria-pneumonia for the [0,5) age group is 0·52% at baseline, and IMID and IMID + OSS reduce it by 6·6% and 23·6%, respectively. There is no change in incidence of malaria or pneumonia disease episodes. The results also indicate that triaging of children contributes more than 50% to the effect of the interventions in reduction of deaths and a range of 14–91% in reduction of disease cases.
Traditionally, Emergency Medical Services (EMS) educators have divided the pediatric population into age groups to assist in targeting their clinical and didactic curriculum. Currently, the accrediting body for paramedic training programs requires student exposure to pediatric patients based entirely on age without specifying exposure to specific pathologies within each age stratification. Identifying which pathologies are most common within the different pediatric age groups would allow educators to design curriculum targeting the most prevalent pathologies in each age group and incorporating the physiologic and psychological developmental milestones commonly seen at that age.
It was hypothesized that there are unique clusterings of pathologies, represented by paramedic student primary impressions, that are found in different age groups which can be used to target provider education.
This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data documented by paramedic students in the Fisdap (Field Internship Student Data Acquisition Project; Saint Paul, Minnesota USA) database over a one-year period. For the purposes of this study, pediatric patients were defined arbitrarily as those between the ages of 0-16 years. All paramedic student primary impressions recorded in Fisdap for patients aged 0-16 years were abstracted. Primary impression by age was calculated and graphed. The frequency of primary impression was then assessed for significance of trend by age with an alpha ≤.05 considered significant.
The following primary impressions showed clinically and statistically significant variability in prevalence among different pediatric age groups: respiratory distress, medical-other, abdominal pain, seizure, overdose/poisoning, behavioral, and cardiac. In patients less than 13 years old, respiratory and other-medical were the most common two primary impressions and both decreased with age. In patients 5-16 years old, the prevalence of abdominal pain and behavioral/psych increased. Bimodal distributions for overdose were seen with one spike in the toddler and another in the adolescent population. Seizures were most common in the age group associated with febrile seizure. Sepsis was seen most often in the youngest patients and its prevalence decreased with age.
There are statistically significant variations in the frequency of paramedic student primary impressions as a function of age in the pediatric population. Emphasizing paramedic student exposure to the most common pathologies encountered in each age group, in the context of the psychological and physiological milestones of each age, may improve paramedic student pediatric practice.
Prevalence of Unique Pediatric Pathologies Encountered by Paramedic Students Across Age Groups. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016; 31(4):386–391.
Prior research with racially/ethnically homogeneous samples has demonstrated widespread co-occurrence of psychotic experiences (PEs) and common mental health conditions, particularly multi-morbidity, suggesting that psychosis may be related to the overall severity of psychiatric disorder rather than any specific subtype. In this study we aimed to examine whether PEs are associated with the presence of specific disorders or multi-morbidity of co-occurring disorders across four large racially/ethnically diverse samples of adults in the USA.
Data were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R), the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) and separately from the Asian and Latino subsamples of the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS). Logistic regression models were used to examine the relationship between PEs and individual subtypes of DSM-IV disorder, and to test for a linear dose–response relationship between the number of subtypes and PEs.
Prevalence of PEs was moderately greater among individuals with each subtype of disorder in each data set [odds ratios (ORs) 1.8–3.8], although associations were only variably significant when controlling for clinical and demographic variables. However, the sum of disorder subtypes was related to odds for PEs in a linear dose–response fashion across all four samples.
PEs are related primarily to the extent or severity of psychiatric illness, as indicated by the presence of multiple psychiatric disorders, rather than to any particular subtype of disorder in these data. This relationship applies to the general population and across diverse racial/ethnic groups.
A clean hot-water drill was used to gain access to Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW) in late January 2013 as part of the Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (WISSARD) project. Over 3 days, we deployed an array of scientific tools through the SLW borehole: a downhole camera, a conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) probe, a Niskin water sampler, an in situ filtration unit, three different sediment corers, a geothermal probe and a geophysical sensor string. Our observations confirm the existence of a subglacial water reservoir whose presence was previously inferred from satellite altimetry and surface geophysics. Subglacial water is about two orders of magnitude less saline than sea water (0.37–0.41 psu vs 35 psu) and two orders of magnitude more saline than pure drill meltwater (<0.002 psu). It reaches a minimum temperature of –0.55~C, consistent with depression of the freezing point by 7.019 MPa of water pressure. Subglacial water was turbid and remained turbid following filtration through 0.45 µm filters. The recovered sediment cores, which sampled down to 0.8 m below the lake bottom, contained a macroscopically structureless diamicton with shear strength between 2 and 6 kPa. Our main operational recommendation for future subglacial access through water-filled boreholes is to supply enough heat to the top of the borehole to keep it from freezing.
Voters in many American states have considered important social policies that redefine civil liberties within their state through the initiative and referendum. An important question remaining is, are voters knowledgeable enough to make decisions on these social policies that have far-reaching effects? The common wisdom is that voters rely on information shortcuts in lieu of extensive knowledge about the issues. Unlike candidate elections, however, ballot measures lack some prominent and useful information shortcuts (i.e. party identification). We test the hypothesis that voters use shortcuts to inform their decisions on two ballot measures central to today's policy debates: California's Proposition 4 on parental notification for abortion and Proposition 8 on same-sex marriage. We show that voters do not use cues universally, and, furthermore, factual information has a limited effect on voters’ decisions. In particular, we find that the persuasiveness of an endorsement is conditional on whether an individual trusts the source.
The Parkes pulsar data archive currently provides access to 144044 data files obtained from observations carried out at the Parkes observatory since the year 1991. Around 105 files are from surveys of the sky, the remainder are observations of 775 individual pulsars and their corresponding calibration signals. Survey observations are included from the Parkes 70 cm and the Swinburne Intermediate Latitude surveys. Individual pulsar observations are included from young pulsar timing projects, the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array and from the PULSE@Parkes outreach program. The data files and access methods are compatible with Virtual Observatory protocols. This paper describes the data currently stored in the archive and presents ways in which these data can be searched and downloaded.
A study to determine the seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis was carried out in feral cats in Grenada. Of the 137 feral cats tested for circulating antibodies (IgG; lateral-flow immunoassay) and circulating antigens (Ag; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), 8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5–12.5%) were antibody positive and 5.1% (95% CI 1.4–8.8%) were antigen positive. No significant difference between cats aged>1 to 4 years and cats less than 1 year of age was found (P>0.05, χ2). There was also no significant difference (P>0.05, χ2) between male and female cats. Dirofilaria immitis prevalence is relatively high in the feral cat population of Grenada. Evidence of D. immitis infection in feral cats coupled with the endemic nature of heartworm disease in dogs in Grenada leads us to suggest the introduction of heartworm prophylaxis in cats. To the authors' knowledge, this serological evidence of heartworm infection in feral cats in Grenada is the first report from the Caribbean region.
Background. There is considerable debate regarding the clinical issues surrounding the wish to hasten death (WTHD) in the terminally ill. The clinical factors contributing to the WTHD need further investigation among the terminally ill in order to enhance understanding of the clinical assessment and treatment needs that underlie this problem. A more detailed understanding may assist with the development of appropriate therapeutic interventions.
Method. A sample of terminally ill cancer patients (N=256) recruited from an in-patient hospice unit, home palliative care service and a general hospital palliative care consulting service from Brisbane Australia between 1998–2001 completed a questionnaire assessing psychological (depression and anxiety), social (family relationship, social support, level of burden on others) and the impact of physical symptoms. The association between these factors and the WTHD was investigated.
Results. A high WTHD was reported by 14% of patients. A discriminant function analysis revealed that the following variables were associated with a high WTHD (P<0·001): higher levels of depressive symptoms, being admitted to an in-patient hospice setting, a greater perception of being a burden on others, lower family cohesion, lower levels of social support, higher levels of anxiety and greater impact of physical symptoms.
Conclusions. Psychological and social factors are related to a WTHD among terminally ill cancer patients. Greater attention needs to be paid to the assessment of psychological and social issues in order to provide appropriate therapeutic interventions for terminally ill patients.
This study aimed to determine whether motor function and performance is better enhanced by intensive physiotherapy or collaborative goal-setting in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Participants were a convenience sample of 56 children with bilateral CP classified at level III or below on the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), aged between 3 and 12 years. A 2X2 factorial design was used to compare the effects of routine amounts of physiotherapy with intensive amounts, and to compare the use of generalized aims set by the child's physiotherapist with the use of specific, measurable goals negotiated by the child's physiotherapist with each child, carer, and teacher. Following the six-month treatment period there was a further six-month period of observation. Changes in motor function and performance were assessed by a masked assessor using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the Gross Motor Performance Measure (GMPM) at three-month intervals. There was no statistically significant difference in the scores achieved between intensive and routine amounts of therapy or between aim-directed and goal-directed therapy in either function or performance. Inclusion of additional covariates of age and severity levels showed a trend towards a statistically significant difference in children receiving intensive therapy during the treatment period. This advantage declined over the subsequent six months during which therapy had reverted to its usual amount. Differences in goal-setting procedures did not produce any detectable effect on the acquisition of gross motor function or performance.
In 1995, Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) cases in the state of Utah increased fivefold. Isolates were
identified as phage type 4 (PT4). Risk factors and sources of infection were investigated in two
case-control studies, a traceback of implicated foods, and environmental testing. Forty-three
patients with sporadic infections and 86 controls were included in a case-control study of risk
factors for infection. A follow-up case-control study of 25 case and 19 control restaurants
patronized by case and control patients examined risks associated with restaurant practices. In
the first case-control study, restaurant dining was associated with illness (P = 0·002). In the
follow-up case-control study, case restaurants were likelier to use > 2000 eggs per week
(P < 0·02), to pool eggs (P < 0·05), and to use eggs from cooperative ‘A’ (P < 0·009). Eggs
implicated in separately investigated SE PT4 outbreaks were traced to cooperative ‘A’, and SE
PT4 was cultured from one of the cooperative's five local farms. We conclude that SE PT4
transmitted by infected eggs from a single farm caused a fivefold increase in human infections