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Duck production has the potential to play a major role in agricultural economy. Asian countries alone contribute 84.2% of total duck meat produced in the world. Driven by the demand of processed foods among consumers, the global duck meat market is expected to grow at a steady pace, reaching a value of about $11.23 billion in the coming years. Duck meat has higher muscle fibre content in breast meat compared to chicken, and is considered as red meat. Moreover, due to a higher fat content (13.8%) than chicken and a stronger gamey flavour, duck meat can be less appreciated by the consumer. Development and diversification of ready-to-eat duck meat products is expected to increase consumption levels. Hence, the status of duck meat production, physicochemical properties, processing, including traditional products, and development of novel value-added ready-to-eat products from spent duck meat is discussed in detail to explore its importance as an alternative to chicken.
The solar active region (AR) 12192 was one of the most flare productive region of solar cycle 24, which produced many X-class flares; the most energetic being an X3.1 flare on October 24, 2014 at 21:10 UT. Customarily, such events are believed to be triggered by magnetic reconnection in coronal magnetic fields. Here we use the vector magnetograms from solar photosphere, obtained from Heliospheric Magnetic Imager (HMI) to investigate the magnetic field topology prior to the X3.1 event, and ascertain the conditions that might have caused the flare. To infer the coronal magnetic field, a novel non-force-free field (NFFF) extrapolation technique of the photospheric field is used, which suitably mimics the Lorentz forces present in the photospheric plasma. We also highlight the presence of magnetic null points and quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) in the magnetic field topology, which are preferred sites for magnetic reconnections and discuss the probable reconnection scenarios.
Magnetic reconnections (MRs) for various magnetic field line (MFL) topologies are believed to be the initiators of solar eruptive events like flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Consequently, important is a thorough understanding and quantification of the MFL topology and their evolution which leads to MRs. Contemporary standard is to extrapolate the coronal MFLs using equilibrium models where the Lorentz force on the coronal plasma is zero everywhere. In tandem, a non-force-free-field (NFFF) extrapolation scheme has evolved and allows for a Lorentz force which is non-zero only at the photosphere but asymptotically vanishes with height. The paper reports magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)- simulations initiated by NFFF extrapolation of the coronal MFLs for a flare producing active region NOAA 11158. Interestingly, quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) which facilitate MRs are detected in the extrapolated MFLs and, here the paper makes an attempt to asses the role of QSLs in the flare onsets.
The technology leading to very large aperture telescopes and their optics has progressed well in the period since 1984 and plans for many new large aperture telescopes have been made. Focal plane instrumentation continues to become more sophisticated or more efficient: multi-object capabilities, automatic instrument control and operation, and increasing use of CCDs are examples of areas to which this applies. The proportion of time devoted to observations using two-dimensional photoelectronic detectors has grown substantially at many observatories, particularly with telescopes of moderate aperture; and the use of high quantum efficiency array detectors is now being extended into the infrared spectral region. Important advances have also been made in instrumentation and techniques for ground-based high angular resolution interferometry.
Although the association between cannabis use and violence has been reported in the literature, the precise nature of this relationship, especially the directionality of the association, is unclear.
Young males from the Cambridge Study of Delinquent Development (n = 411) were followed up between the ages of 8 and 56 years to prospectively investigate the association between cannabis use and violence. A multi-wave (eight assessments, T1–T8) follow-up design was employed that allowed temporal sequencing of the variables of interest and the analysis of violent outcome measures obtained from two sources: (i) criminal records (violent conviction); and (ii) self-reports. A combination of analytic approaches allowing inferences as to the directionality of associations was employed, including multivariate logistic regression analysis, fixed-effects analysis and cross-lagged modelling.
Multivariable logistic regression revealed that compared with never-users, continued exposure to cannabis (use at age 18, 32 and 48 years) was associated with a higher risk of subsequent violent behaviour, as indexed by convictions [odds ratio (OR) 7.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.19–23.59] or self-reports (OR 8.9, 95% CI 2.37–46.21). This effect persisted after controlling for other putative risk factors for violence. In predicting violence, fixed-effects analysis and cross-lagged modelling further indicated that this effect could not be explained by other unobserved time-invariant factors. Furthermore, these analyses uncovered a bi-directional relationship between cannabis use and violence.
Together, these results provide strong indication that cannabis use predicts subsequent violent offending, suggesting a possible causal effect, and provide empirical evidence that may have implications for public policy.
Since early detection of pathogens and their virulence factors contribute to intervention and control strategies, we assessed the enteropathogens in diarrhoea disease and investigated the link between toxigenic strains of Escherichia coli from stool and drinking-water sources; and determined the expression of toxin genes by antibiotic-resistant E. coli in Lagos, Nigeria. This was compared with isolates from diarrhoeal stool and water from Wisconsin, USA. The new Luminex xTAG GPP (Gastroplex) technique and conventional real-time PCR were used to profile enteric pathogens and E. coli toxin gene isolates, respectively. Results showed the pathogen profile of stool and indicated a relationship between E. coli toxin genes in water and stool from Lagos which was absent in Wisconsin isolates. The Gastroplex technique was efficient for multiple enteric pathogens and toxin gene detection. The co-existence of antibiotic resistance with enteroinvasive E. coli toxin genes suggests an additional prognostic burden on patients.
What determines inter-individual variability to impairments in behavioural control that may underlie road-traffic accidents, and impulsive and violent behaviours occurring under the influence of cannabis, the most widely used illicit drug worldwide?
Employing a double-blind, repeated-measures design, we investigated the genetic and neural basis of variable sensitivity to cannabis-induced behavioural dyscontrol in healthy occasional cannabis users. Acute oral challenge with placebo or Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, was combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging, while participants performed a response inhibition task that involved inhibiting a pre-potent motor response. They were genotyped for rs1130233 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the protein kinase B (AKT1) gene.
Errors of inhibition were significantly (p = 0.008) increased following administration of THC in carriers of the A allele, but not in G allele homozygotes of the AKT1 rs1130233 SNP. The A allele carriers also displayed attenuation of left inferior frontal response with THC evident in the sample as a whole, while there was a modest enhancement of inferior frontal activation in the G homozygotes. There was a direct relationship (r = − 0.327, p = 0.045) between the behavioural effect of THC and its physiological effect in the inferior frontal gyrus, where AKT1 genotype modulated the effect of THC.
These results require independent replication and show that differing vulnerability to acute psychomotor impairments induced by cannabis depends on variation in a gene that influences dopamine function, and is mediated through modulation of the effect of cannabis on the inferior frontal cortex, that is rich in dopaminergic innervation and critical for psychomotor control.
Cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of developing a psychotic disorder but the temporal relationship between cannabis use and onset of illness is unclear. The objective of this study was to assess prospectively the influence of cannabis use on transition to psychosis in people at ultra-high risk (UHR) for the disorder.
Lifetime and continued cannabis use was assessed in a consecutively ascertained sample of 182 people (104 male, 78 female) at UHR for psychosis. Individuals were then followed clinically for 2 years to determine their clinical outcomes.
Lifetime cannabis use was reported by 134 individuals (73.6%). However, most of these individuals had stopped using cannabis before clinical presentation (n = 98, 73.1%), usually because of adverse effects. Among lifetime users, frequent use, early-onset use and continued use after presentation were all associated with an increase in transition to psychosis. Transition to psychosis was highest among those who started using cannabis before the age of 15 years and went on to use frequently (frequent early-onset use: 25%; infrequent or late-onset use: 5%; χ21 = 10.971, p = 0.001). However, within the whole sample, cannabis users were no more likely to develop psychosis than those who had never used cannabis (cannabis use: 12.7%; no use: 18.8%; χ21 = 1.061, p = 0.303).
In people at UHR for psychosis, lifetime cannabis use was common but not related to outcome. Among cannabis users, frequent use, early-onset use and continued use after clinical presentation were associated with transition to psychosis.
Cannabis can induce transient psychotic symptoms, but not all users experience these adverse effects. We compared the neural response to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in healthy volunteers in whom the drug did or did not induce acute psychotic symptoms.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, pseudorandomized design, 21 healthy men with minimal experience of cannabis were given either 10 mg THC or placebo, orally. Behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging measures were then recorded whilst they performed a go/no-go task.
The sample was subdivided on the basis of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale positive score following administration of THC into transiently psychotic (TP; n = 11) and non-psychotic (NP; n = 10) groups. During the THC condition, TP subjects made more frequent inhibition errors than the NP group and showed differential activation relative to the NP group in the left parahippocampal gyrus, the left and right middle temporal gyri and in the right cerebellum. In these regions, THC had opposite effects on activation relative to placebo in the two groups. The TP group also showed less activation than the NP group in the right middle temporal gyrus and cerebellum, independent of the effects of THC.
In this first demonstration of inter-subject variability in sensitivity to the psychotogenic effects of THC, we found that the presence of acute psychotic symptoms was associated with a differential effect of THC on activation in the ventral and medial temporal cortex and cerebellum, suggesting that these regions mediate the effects of the drug on psychotic symptoms.
Magnetron sputtered thin films of Cu, Nb, and Cu-Nb multilayers with 2.5 and 5 nm nominal layer thickness were deposited on Si and implanted with 4He+ and 3He+ ions. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis, respectively, were used to measure the 4He+ and 3He+ concentration profile with depth inside the films. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize the helium bubbles. Analysis of the contrast from helium bubbles in defocused transmission electron microscope images showed a minimum bubble diameter of 1.25 nm. While pure Cu and Nb films showed bubble contrast over the entire range of helium implantation, the multilayers exhibited bubbles only above a critical He concentration that increased almost linearly with decreasing layer thickness. The work shows that large amounts of helium can be trapped at incoherent interfaces in the form of stable, nanometer-size bubbles.
The effect of anthanum substitution (0-20%) on phase formation, structural evolution and electrical properties of SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) ceramics were investigated. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that phase pure SBT bulk samples can be synthesized with lanthanum doping without any phase segregation. Raman spectroscopy was used to understand the lattice vibrational characteristics of La substituted SBT compound. The ferroelectric soft mode at 27 cm−1 was shifted towards the lower frequencies at room temperature with increase in La concentrations. The octahedral stretching mode (O-Ta-O) did not influenced by La substitution in SBT. The x-ray photoemission spectroscopy measurements showed the decrease of binding energy of Bi 4f core levels (5/2 and 7/2) upon La substitution in SBT. The dielectric constant was increased from 120 to 190 up to 10% La doping and decreased with further increase in La concentration.
Conducting carbon films are irradiated by high energy ion beam and persistent photoconductivity has been found from the irradiated samples. A complex distribution of traps created mostly by random displacement of carbon atoms by energetic ion beam from its polymeric matrix showed a persistent photoconductivity at low temperatures down to 50K. From the photo decay constants and the magnitude of photocurrent the density of traps and the corresponding activation energies have been calculated.
The results of an in depth study of the dielectric properties of various rubber compounds at different microwave frequencies are discussed. Subsequently, the influence of carbon black volume percentage on the dielectric properties of rubber is studied in a wide frequency range (5 -24 GHz). The results show that the real and imaginary parts of rubber dielectric constant increase as a function of increasing carbon black percentage. Frequencies around 5 GHz show more sensitivity to small changes in the carbon volume content. The presence of curatives in uncured rubber samples is detected, which is an indication of the sensitivity of microwaves to the chemical reaction triggered by these curatives. Similar approach is used to measure the air content in specially prepared model material (plastic microbaloon-filled epoxy) samples with varying degrees of uniformly distributed air inclusion. The results of these measurements for a wide range of frequencies is also reported. Measurement analysis resulted in detecting variation in the air volume fraction of around 1.5%. The results confirm the utility of microwave NDE techniques for local porosity detection and evaluation in dielectric composites.
Wide band gap semiconductors are attractive for developing high power switching devices because of their ability to operate at both higher temperatures as well as higher frequencies than conventional Si. In this paper we report on the growth and fabrication of GaN/SiC np heterojunction diodes by depositing Si doped n-GaN films by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy directly on SiC without the use of GaN or AlN buffers.
Careful ex-situ and in-situ preparation of the Si terminated 6H- SiC surface was necessary to produce high quality diodes. Vertical circular diodes were fabricated with sizes varying from 200 microns to 1mm in diameter. Mesas were formed by ICP etching of the MBE deposited n-GaN layer using Cl2. A Ti/Al/Ni/Au metal stack was employed as an n-ohmic contact to the GaN layer and an Al/Ti/Au metal stack was employed as a backside p-ohmic contact to the 6H- SiC layer. The diodes were characterized by I-V and C-V measurements. The 1 mm diameter diodes exhibited almost ideal behavior under forward bias with an ideality factor of 1.6, and a reverse saturation current of 10–19 A/cm2. Under reverse bias, these devices were driven up to 1000 V with a measured leakage current of 5×10–7 A. and a dynamic resistance varying from 1010 to 109 ohms with increasing reverse bias. The built-in potential in these n-p heterojunctions was determined from C-V measurements to be 2.25 V. From these values we determined that the heterojunction is of Type II with conduction and valence bands offsets calculated to be 0.65 and 1.1 eV respectively.
The majority of GaN films and related devices have been grown along the polar  direction, and epitaxial growth along non-polar directions has received much less attention. In this paper we report the study of material properties of GaN and AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) deposited on R-plane (10–12) sapphire substrates using RF plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). In this growth direction, III-Nitrides grow along the non-polar [11–20] direction, with the c-axis in the plane of growth. Various nucleation steps such as surface nitridation, as well as GaN and AlN buffer layers were investigated. Our results indicate that surface nitridation of R-plane sapphire is an undesirable nucleation step, contrary to what has been observed in the case of (0001) sapphire. The AlN buffer layer leads to well-oriented films along the [11–20] direction with many threading defects and faceted surface morphology whereas the GaN buffer leads to the formation of mis-oriented domains close to the buffer region. However, these domains are overgrown and the films have smoother surface morphology with fewer threading defects. These structural findings are supported by photoluminescence and Hall effect measurements done on the same films. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of (11–20) AlGaN/GaN MQWs show much higher intensity than for similar structures grown on the C-plane sapphire, consistent with the absence of internal fields in the non-polar direction.
Recently there is an increasing demand and extensive research on high density memories, in particular to the ferroelectric random access memory composed of 1T/1C (1 transistor/1 capacitor) or 2T/2C. FRAM's exhibit fast random acess in read/write mode, non - volatility and low power for good performance. An integration of the ferroelectric on Si is the key importance and in this regard, there had been various models proposed like MFS, MFIS, MFMIS structure etc., Choosing the proper insulator is very essential for the better performance of the device and to exhibit excellent electrical characteristics. ZrTiO4 is a potential candidate because of its excellent thermal stability and lattice match on the Si substrate. SrBi2Ta2O9 and ZrTiO4 thin films were prepared on p - type Si substrate by pulsed excimer laser ablation technique. Optimization of both ZT and SBT thin films in MFS and MFIS structure had been done based on the annealing, oxygen partial pressures and substrate temperatures to have proper texture of the thin films. The dc leakage current, P - E hysteresis, capacitance - voltage and conductance - voltage measurement were carried out. The effect of the frequency dependence on MFIS structure was observed in the C – V curve. It displays a transition of C - V curve from high frequency to low frequency curve on subjection to varied frequencies. Density of interface states has been calculated using Terman and high - low frequency C - V curve. The effect of memory window in the C - V hysteresis were analysed in terms of film thickness and annealing temperatures. DC conduction mechanism were analysed in terms of poole - frenkel, Schottky and space charge limited conduction separately on MFS, MIS structure.
Glassy Polymeric Carbon (GPC) is a material widely used because of its high temperature properties, inertness and biocompatibility . GPC samples were prepared from a phenolic resin, cured in a careful process at 100 ºC and pyrolyzed to 1000 ºC. In this work, we have introduced 3wt%, 10wt%, and 20 wt% of Carbon Nano Tubes (CNT) in the precursor resin to study the evolution of the electrical conductivities of the nanocomposite as a function of the CNT concentration.
The reported electromagnetic properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) make them a promising material for nanoelectronic applications [1,2]. Addition of CNT has recently been shown to enhance mechanical properties of phenolic-resin polymers . We are attempting to control the electrical transport behavior of phenolic-based polymers doped with CNT as a function of the different nanopowder concentration added to the polymer. In that regard, we developed a technique to obtain a material with homogenous dispersion of nanopowders, an important factor that influences the transport behavior. The chemical structure characterization was also evaluated using optical techniques.
Silicon Carbide (SiC) nanofibers were synthesized from SiC powder dispersed in polyethylene oxide (PEO) solution in Chloroform using the electrospinning technique. The as-spun fibers were then annealed at 1000ËC to 7 hours. The average diameter of the annealed fibers is 500 nm while the length of the annealed fibers is about 50 Âµm. The fibers were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Cathodoluminescence (CL). PL spectra from the annealed SiC fibers show a broad emission in the red-infrared spectral regime. The main peak is centered at 774 nm while the shoulder on the left is at 740 nm