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Evaluation of Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Se in humans is challenged by the potentially high within-individual variability of these elements in biological specimens, which are poorly characterised. This study aimed to evaluate their within-day, between-day and between-month variability in spot samples, first-morning voids and 24-h collections. A total of 529 spot urine samples (including eighty-eight first-morning voids and 24-h collections) were collected from eleven Chinese adult men on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 30, 60 and 90 and analysed for these five elements using inductively coupled plasma-MS. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were utilised to characterise the reproducibility, and their sensitivity and specificity were analysed to assess how well a single measurement classified individuals’ 3-month average exposures. Serial measurements of Zn in spot samples exhibited fair to good reproducibility (creatinine-adjusted ICC = 0·47) over five consecutive days, which became poor when the samples were gathered months apart (creatinine-adjusted ICC = 0·33). The reproducibility of Cr, Mn, Fe and Se in spot samples was poor over periods ranging from days to months (creatinine-adjusted ICC = 0·01–0·12). Two spot samples were sufficient for classifying 60 % of the men who truly had the highest (top 33 %) 3-month average Zn concentrations; for Cr, Mn, Fe and Se, however, at least three specimens were required to achieve similar sensitivities. In conclusion, urinary Cr, Mn, Fe, Zn and Se concentrations showed a strong within-individual variability, and a single measurement is not enough to efficiently characterise individuals’ long-term exposures.
Cryoconite is a dark-coloured granular sediment that contains biological and mineralogical components, and it plays a pivotal role in geochemistry, carbon cycling and glacier mass balance. In this work, we collected cryoconite samples from Laohugou Glacier No. 12 (LHG) on the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau during the summer of 2015 and measured the spectral albedo. To explore the impacts of this sediment on surface ablation, the ice melting differences between the cryoconite-free (removed) ice and the intact layers were compared. The results showed that the mean concentrations of black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and total iron (Fe) in the LHG cryoconite were 1.28, 11.18 and 39.94 mg g−1, respectively. BC was found to play a stronger role in solar light adsorption than OC and free Fe. In addition, ice covered by cryoconite exhibited the lowest mean reflectance (i.e., <0.1). Compared with the cryoconite-free ice surface, cryoconite effectively absorbed solar energy and enhanced glacial melting at a rate of 2.27–3.28 cm d−1, and free Fe, BC and OC were estimated to contribute 1.01, 0.99 and 0.76 cm d−1, respectively. This study provides important insights for understanding the role of cryoconite in the glacier mass balance of the northern Tibetan Plateau.
The association of soft drink consumption with mental problems in Asian adolescents has not been reported. The present study aimed to investigate the association of soft drink consumption and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adolescents in China.
A cross-sectional study to investigate the association of intake of soft drinks and sugars from soft drinks with symptoms of anxiety and depression measured by the two-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-2) and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), respectively.
A comprehensive university in Changsha, China.
Newly enrolled college students in 2017.
In total, 8226 students completed the investigation and 8085 students with no systemic disorders were finally analysed. Students consuming soft drinks ≥7 times/week had significantly higher (mean difference; 95 % CI) GAD-2 (0·15; 0·07, 0·23) and PHQ-2 (0·27; 0·19, 0·35) scores compared with those barely consuming soft drinks, adjusted for demographic and behavioural factors. Those consuming >25 g sugar/d from soft drinks had significantly higher GAD-2 (0·11; 0·04, 0·18) and PHQ-2 (0·22; 0·15, 0·29) scores compared with non-consumers. The mediation effect of obesity in the associations was not clinically significant.
Adolescents consuming soft drinks ≥7 times/week, or >25 g sugar/d from soft drinks, had significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression. Dietary suggestion is needed to prevent anxiety and depression in adolescents.
CrFeNiTix (x = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 molar ratio) compositionally complex alloys were fabricated by vacuum arc melting to investigate the microstructure, hardness, and compressive properties. The results revealed that CrFeNiTix alloys consisted of the principal face-centered cubic (FCC) phase and body-centered cubic (BCC) solid solution, with an amount of (Ni, Ti)-rich hexagonal close-packed phase. CrFeNiTix alloys exhibited the typical dendrite. Ti0.2 and Ti0.3 alloys were composed of FCC and BCC solid solutions in the dendrite, as well as ε (Ni3Ti) and R (Ni2.67Ti1.33) phases in the inter-dendrite, simultaneously. For Ti0.4, Ti0.5, and Ti0.6 alloys, (Fe, Cr)-rich solid solution separated out and ε phase transformed into R phase gradually. Meanwhile, TEM analysis indicated that Ti0.4 alloy matrix consisted of the principal FCC phase containing (Ni, Ti)-rich intragranular nanoprecipitates. The hardness values of CrFeNiTix alloys were increased with the addition of Ti content and the high compressive strength of CrFeNiTix alloys was maintained, which was attributed to the solid solution strengthening and precipitation hardening.
We investigate a strategy to address the problem of low aircraft detection probability of space-based Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B). A nineteen-element hexagonal array and adaptive multi-beamforming method is proposed. This method aims to adjust the beam pattern dynamically to reduce signal collision and enlarge coverage. With the focus on the mission requirement of global aircraft detection by 2020, the appropriate gain and direction of beams are studied and designed in detail. Theoretical analysis and simulations show that this adaptive multi-beam antenna can greatly improve flight detection probability at an average reporting interval from 10 seconds to 5 seconds when compared with the traditional fixed multi-beam antenna. The results of this work show that the design of a 19-element antenna along with the adaptive multi-beamforming method can be considered as a building block of future space-based ADS-B.
Energy restriction (ER) has been widely studied as a novel intervention, and its ability to prolong life has been fully demonstrated. For example, ER can significantly extend the lifespans of model flies, worms, rodents and other mammals. The role of ER in renal protection has also been elucidated. In preclinical studies, adjusting total energy intake or consumption of specific nutrients has prophylactic or therapeutic effects on ageing-related kidney disease and acute and chronic kidney injury. Amino acid restriction has gradually attracted attention. ER mimetics have also been studied in depth. The protective mechanisms of ER and ER mimetics for renal injury include increasing AMP-activated protein kinase and sirtuin type 1 (Sirt1) levels and autophagy and reducing mammalian target of rapamycin, inflammation and oxidative stress. However, the renal protective effect of ER has mostly been investigated in rodent models, and the role of ER in patients cannot be determined due to the lack of large randomised controlled trials. To protect the kidney, the mechanism of ER must be thoroughly researched, and more accurate diet or drug interventions need to be identified.
In order to investigate the benefits of compound waterways more fully, this study reveals vessel navigational mode and traffic conflicts in a compound waterway through a case analysis, following which a type of simplified prototype of a compound waterway is proposed and three key conflict areas are specified. Based on the three key sub-models of slot allocation for vessels in a waterway entrance, traffic flow conversion of a main and auxiliary waterway in a precautionary area, and traffic flow coordination of division and confluence in a Y crossing area, a vessel traffic scheduling optimisation model is presented, with the minimum waterway occupancy time and minimum total waiting time of vessels as the objective. Furthermore, a multi-objective genetic algorithm is proposed to solve the model and a simulation experiment is carried out. By analysing the optimised solution and comparing it with other scheduling schemes in common use, the results indicate that this method can effectively improve navigation safety and efficiency in a compound waterway.
Given the global water challenges, solar-driven steam generation has become a renewed topic recently as an energy-efficient way for clean water production. Here, a hybrid plasmonic structure consisting of a top layer of TiN nanoparticles (NPs) and a bottom layer of mesoporous anodized alumina membrane (AAM) was rationally designed and fabricated. The top TiN NPs with broadband light absorption acted as a plasmonic heating layer, which converted the absorbed light to heat efficiently for interfacial water heating. The AAM acted as the mechanical support layer, guaranteeing the heat isolation and continuous water replenishment. With optimized thickness of the TiN top layer, a solar steam generation efficiency of 87.7% was achieved in this study. This efficiency is comparable or even higher than prior studies. The current work proves the capability of the TiN NPs as an alternative photothermal material.
The elastic polymer composite embedded with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is an ideal candidate for stretchable and flexible sensor fabrication due to the perfect combination between the excellent properties of CNTs and the high stretchability of the elastomer. A cube model of nanotube/polymer composite is constructed to comprehensively and theoretically analyze its electrical behavior, which is dominantly governed by the CNT network. The aspect ratio and alignment of CNTs significantly influence both the percolation threshold range and the electrical conductivity; however, the electrical conductivity of CNTs has little impact on the percolation threshold. The piezoresistivity of the composite is not only governed by the property of CNTs but also by the mechanical property of the polymer matrix, including the Poisson’s ratio and alignment of CNTs. The specific reasons why the composite resistance rises when it is stretched are investigated. Finally, one optimizing suggestion is given for making the CNTs/polymer composite with high sensitivity.
Actinocerid nautiloids from the Lhasai Formation in the Xainza region are studied systematically for the first time. The nautiloids are identified as Middle Ordovician in age based on stratigraphic correlations with those from North China, Sibumasu, North Australia (northern Gondwana), and North America (Laurentia). A cluster analysis shows strong affinities between the actinocerid nautiloids of the Lhasa Terrane and those of the Himalaya, North China, and Sibumasu terranes. Our results support Middle Ordovician paleogeographic reconstructions that place North China rather than South China much closer to Australia. Nine species assigned to six genera of Meitanoceratidae, Wutinoceratidae, Armenoceratidae, Ormoceratidae, and Discoactinoceratidae are described in detail: Pomphoceras nyalamense (Chen, 1975), Pomphoceras yaliense (Chen, 1975), Wutinoceras cf. W. foerstei (Endo, 1930), Mesowutinoceras giganteum Chen in Chen and Zou, 1984, Armenoceras tani (Grabau, 1922), Armenoceras teicherti Endo, 1932, Armenoceras xizangense new species, Deiroceras globosom Zou and Shen in Chen and Zou, 1984, and Discoactinoceras cf. D. multiplexum Kobayashi, 1927.
This study examined the mediating effects of future social expectations and interpersonal distrust on the relationship between individual relative deprivation and intention to rebel. Data were gathered from 807 people from multiple occupational backgrounds in a municipality in southwest China. Structural equation modelling showed that individual relative deprivation predicted intention to rebel directly and also that it predicted intention to rebel indirectly via negative future social expectations, interpersonal distrust, and a chain mediating effect of negative future social expectations and interpersonal distrust. These results highlight the importance of the associations between future social expectations and interpersonal distrust with intention to rebel in people who report relative deprivation. The findings also indicate that prevention and intervention programs related to relative deprivation and intention to rebel in China are worthy of further research.
SCN5A encodes sodium-channel α-subunit Nav1.5. The mutations of SCN5A can lead to hereditary cardiac arrhythmias such as the long-QT syndrome type 3 and Brugada syndrome. Here we sought to identify novel mutations in a family with arrhythmia.
Genomic DNA was isolated from blood of the proband, who was diagnosed with atrial flutter. Illumina Hiseq 2000 whole-exome sequencing was performed and an arrhythmia-related gene-filtering strategy was used to analyse the pathogenic genes. Sanger sequencing was applied to verify the mutation co-segregated in the family.
Results and conclusions
A novel missense mutation in SCN5A (C335R) was identified, and this mutation co-segregated within the affected family members. This missense mutation was predicted to result in amplitude reduction in peak Na+ current, further leading to channel protein dysfunction. Our study expands the spectrum of SCN5A mutations and contributes to genetic counselling of families with arrhythmia.
We analyzed a 2-year time series of meteorological data (January 2011–December 2012) from three automatic weather stations on Laohugou glacier No. 12, western Qilian Mountains, China. Air temperature, humidity and incoming radiation were significantly correlated between the three sites, while wind speed and direction were not. In this work, we focus on the effects of clouds on other meteorological parameters and on glacier melt. On an average, ~18% of top-of-atmosphere shortwave radiation was attenuated by the clear-sky atmosphere, and clouds attenuated a further 12%. Most of the time the monthly average increases in net longwave radiation caused by clouds were larger than decreases in net shortwave radiation but there was a tendency to lose energy during the daytime when melting was most intense. Air temperature and wind speed related to turbulent heat flux were found to suppress glacier melt during cloudy periods, while increased water vapor pressure during cloudy days could enhance glacier melt by reducing energy loss by latent heat. From these results, we have increased the physical understanding of the significance of cloud effects on continental glaciers.
Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) effect is currently the major limitation for the power scaling of single-frequency/narrow linewidth fiber laser systems. A single-mode linearly polarized all-fiber amplifier system is set up to investigate SBS effect in triple-frequency high-power amplifiers. With this amplifier, up to 302 W output power with 83% slope efficiency is achieved and the SBS threshold is scaled up to 12 dB. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power of multifrequency laser from a single-mode polarization maintaining fiber. Good spectral properties and high brightness make this laser source available for the application of second harmonic generation, coherent beam combining.
This work presents the recent progress in the development of the concurrent atomistic-continuum (CAC) method for coarse-grained space- and time-resolved atomistic simulations of phonon transport. Application examples, including heat pulses propagating across grain boundaries and phase interfaces, as well as the interactions between phonons and moving dislocations, are provided to demonstrate the capabilities of CAC. The simulation results provide visual evidence and reveal the underlying physics of a variety of phenomena, including phonon focusing, wave interference, dislocation drag, interfacial Kapitza resistance caused by quasi-ballistic phonon transport, etc. A new method to quantify fluxes in transient transport processes is also introduced.
This paper optimises two-ship collision-avoidance manoeuvres accounting for both collision risk and fuel use. A collision-avoidance manoeuvring optimisation model is developed to minimise fuel consumption while assuring ships' operational safety. The model can optimally determine when to begin collision-avoidance actions, how to change courses, and what rudder angles are needed. A quantitative scenario simulation is developed to illustrate the model application. The methodology can be further developed to guide practical ship collision-avoidance manoeuvring decisions made under more operational scenarios. In particular, this research can contribute to the development of computer-aided collision-avoidance operations to improve the safety and energy efficiency of maritime transportation.
This work designed a facile preparation for an SiO2/C composite as the anode material for lithium ion battery. Both SiO2 and carbon are amorphous. SiO2 and carbon are mixed uniformly. The SiO2/C composite shows high specific capacity, cycle stability, and rate capability in lithium ion battery charge–discharge test. A stable reversible capacity of 1024 mA h/g at the current density of 100 mA/g is reached. The capacity retains 83% after 100 cycles. The uniform mixture of SiO2 and carbon leads to reduced volume change during the lithiation and delithiation of SiO2, together with the amorphous nature of SiO2 explains the high cycling stability. The carbon coating is a key factor for the high capacity and stability due to the increased electrical conductivity and reduced volume change. The resistance of the solid electrolyte interface film and charge transfer resistance of the SiO2/C composite are much smaller than those of pure carbon, which is a direct proof of the improved conductivity of the material by the carbon coating.