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To clarify the combined effects of the cutting time and cutting height on ratooning ability and rice grain yield of the ratoon crop in the novel ratoon rice cropping, a field experiment was carried out to investigate the combined effects of harvesting time and the stubble-cutting height of the main crop on the growth duration, ratooning ability and grain yield of the ratoon crop. The growth period was shortened by 3.5 days on average when the harvesting time was 10 days ahead of time. On average, the growth duration was prolonged by 7 days per each decrease of 10 cm stubble height. Early harvesting and increasing stubble-cutting height greatly increased the grain yield of the ratoon crop. The highest grain yield was achieved at 10 days after flowering stage and a stubble height of 30 cm, which were 6916 kg·hm−2 for XLY900 and 7262 kg·hm−2 for YY4149, averaged across years. High rice yield of the ratoon crop was mainly depended on panicle numbers and grain-filling percentage, rather than spikelets per panicle. Increasing cutting height and the cutting time of the main crop ahead maintain more stubble biomass and nitrogen content. A significant positive correlation was observed between stubble nitrogen content and tillers-to-stubble ratio (TSR), as well as a significant positive relation was found between panicle-to-stubble ratio and TSR. Therefore, cutting 10 days after flowering stage of the main crop with 30 cm stubble-cutting height enhances ratooning ability due to higher stubble biomass and nitrogen content, and then increases rice yield of the ratoon crop.
Lean hydrogen/air premixed flame flashback in a turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate is investigated using three-dimensional direct numerical simulation with detailed chemical kinetics. The upstream propagation of the flame takes place in near-wall turbulence and the interaction between the flame and the approaching reactant flow is studied. It is found that backflow regions are always present immediately upstream of flame bulges that are convex towards the reactants, confirming earlier observations. A flashback speed, including the effects of flame displacement speed and flow velocity, is introduced to quantify the flame flashback behaviour. This analysis indicates that the flashback speed is overall positive and it is considerably affected by the presence of the backflow regions. A budget analysis of the pressure transport equation is performed to explain the presence of the backflow regions. It is suggested that the positive dilatation and thermal diffusion terms near the leading edge of flame bulges are the main reasons for the pressure increase, leading to an adverse pressure gradient. The effects of the flame-induced adverse pressure gradient on the structures of the turbulent boundary layer are also investigated. It is revealed that the near-wall mean velocity and skin-friction coefficient are reduced due to the adverse pressure gradient. The coherent vortical structures of the boundary layer turbulence are lifted by the adverse pressure gradient. The analysis of the Reynolds stress component showed that the ejection event is augmented by combustion while the sweep event is attenuated, which facilitates the occurrence of flame flashback.
With advancements in cancer treatments, the survival rates of patients with their first primary cancer (FPC) have increased, resulting in a rise in the number of patients with second primary cancer (SPC). However, there has been no assessment on the incidence of suicide among patients with SPC. This study assessed the occurrence of suicide among patients with SPC and compared them with that in patients with FPC.
This was a retrospective, population-based cohort study that followed patients with FPC and SPC diagnosed from the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 17 registries database between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2019.
For patients with SPC, an age of 85+ years at diagnosis was associated with a higher incidence of suicide death (HR, 1.727; 95% CI, 1.075–2.774), while the suicide death was not considerably different in the chemotherapy group (P > 0.05). Female genital system cancers (HR, 3.042; 95% CI, 1.819–6.361) accounted for the highest suicide death among patients with SPC. The suicide death distribution of patients with SPC over time indicated that suicide events mainly occurred within 5 to 15 years of diagnosis. Compared with patients with FPC, patients with SPC in general had a lower risk of suicide, but increased year by year.
The risk of suicide was reduced in patients with SPC compared with patients with FPC, but increased year by year. Therefore, oncologists and related health professionals need to provide continuous psychological support to reduce the incidence of suicide. The highest suicide death was found among patients with female genital system cancer.
Maternal depressive symptoms are a crucial risk factor for children’s internalizing problems, though positive mother–child relationships may buffer this risk transmission. Mother–child physiological coregulation (e.g., synchrony) has emerged as a potentially important mechanism of developmental psychopathology and may play a role in the transmission of internalizing symptoms. In this two-wave longitudinal study, we examined whether and how mother–infant physiological synchrony (of respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA) moderated the association between maternal postnatal depressive symptoms and children’s internalizing problems in a rural, low-SES community sample (N = 166 dyads). At 6 months, mother–infant RSA synchrony and infant negative affect were assessed during free play. Mother reported their depressive symptoms at 6 months and children’s internalizing problems at 24 months. Multilevel structural equation models indicated that mother–infant dyads demonstrated significant and positive RSA synchrony on average and RSA synchrony significantly moderated the association between maternal depressive symptoms and children’s internalizing problems even after controlling for infant negative affect. Greater maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher child internalizing problems when RSA synchrony was lower but not when it was higher. This finding suggests that mother–infant RSA synchrony may operate as a resilience factor for the intergenerational transmission of internalizing symptoms in community samples.
This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and prognosis of patients with alcoholic Marchiafava–Bignami disease (MBD), a rare neurological disorder commonly associated with chronic alcoholism, in Chongqing, China.
We conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical data from 21 alcoholic MBD patients treated at the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing University between 2012 and 2022.
The study included 21 patients with alcoholic MBD who had a mean age of 59 ± 9.86 years and an average drinking history of 35.48 ± 8.65 years. Acute onset was observed in 14 (66.7%) patients. The primary clinical signs observed were psychiatric disorders (66.7%), altered consciousness (61.9%), cognitive disorders (61.9%), and seizures (42.9%). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed long T1 and long T2 signal changes in the corpus callosum, with lesions predominantly found in the genu (76.2%) and splenium (71.4%) of the corpus callosum. The poor prognosis group demonstrated an increased incidence of altered consciousness (100% vs 50%, P = 0.044), pyramidal signs (80% vs 18.8%, P = 0.011), and pneumonia (100% vs 31.3%, P = 0.007). Patients with a longer drinking history (45.0 ± 10.0 years vs 32.69 ± 5.99 years, p = 0.008) and a lower thiamine dose (p = 0.035) had a poorer prognosis at 1 year.
This study identified altered consciousness, pyramidal signs, and pneumonia as predictors of a poor prognosis in patients with alcoholic MBD. A longer duration of alcohol consumption and inadequate thiamine supplementation were associated with a poorer prognosis.
In Beijing, the capital of China, routine measles mass vaccination has been in place for decades with high coverage; and since the 2000s, catch-up vaccination programmes have been implemented for migrant workers coming to the city. However, measles epidemics in Beijing persisted. Here, we explored the contributing factors of persistent measles transmission in Beijing using an epidemic model in conjunction with a particle filter. Model inputs included data on birth, death, migration, and vaccination. We formulated a series of hypotheses covering the impact of migrant influx, early waning of maternal immunity, and increased mixing among infants; we compared the plausibility of the hypotheses based on model fit to age-grouped, weekly measles incidence data from January 2005 to December 2014, and out-of-fit prediction during 2015–2019. Our best models showed close agreement with the data, and the out-of-fit prediction generally captured the trend of measles incidence from 2015 to 2019. We found that large influx of migrants with considerably higher susceptibility likely contributed to the persistent measles transmission in Beijing. Our findings suggest that stronger catch-up vaccination programmes for migrants may help eliminate measles transmission in Beijing.
Attenuation and even freeze-out (amplitude growth stagnation) of the perturbation amplitude growth of a shocked SF$_6$–air interface are first realized in shock-tube experiments through reflected rarefaction waves, which produce reverse baroclinic vorticity offsetting the vorticity deposited by the shock. A theoretical model is constructed to predict the perturbation growth after the impact of rarefaction waves, and seven possibilities of amplitude growth are analysed. Experimentally, a planar air–helium interface is used to produce reflected rarefaction waves. Through changing the perturbation wavelength and the time interval of two impacts, five experiments with specific initial conditions are carried out, and three different possibilities of perturbation growth attenuation are realized.
A delayed reaction-diffusion system with free boundaries is investigated in this paper to understand how the bacteria spread spatially to larger area from the initial infected habitat. Under the assumptions that the nonlinearities are of monostable type and the initial values satisfy some compatible condition, we show that the free boundary problem is well-posed and discuss the long-time behaviour of solution (including spreading and vanishing) in terms of the spatial-temporal risk index. Furthermore, to determine the spreading speed of free boundaries when spreading occurs, we first study the distribution of roots of a transcendental equation containing a polynomial of degree four and then establish the existence and uniqueness of monotone solution to a delay-induced nonlocal semi-wave problem by employing the approximation method, lower-upper solutions technique and Schauder fixed point theorem. It is shown that time delays slow down the spreading of bacteria.
Cancer is among the leading causes of death in the world, with about 10 million deaths, one in every six deaths, related to cancer in 2020. In Taiwan, cancer insurance is the most popular commercial health product. However, the loss ratio of cancer products increases with policy year and exceeds 100% in many insurance companies. In addition, almost all cancer benefits are significantly limited in order to avoid financial insolvency. In this study, we evaluate the risk of cancer insurance from the perspective of morbidity compression. We use the data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. Also, we apply the standardized mortality ratio and the Lee-Carter model to estimate the trend of cancer-related values. We find that cancer incidence rates gradually increase with time, which indicates that the assumption of morbidity compression is violated. On the other hand, the mortality rates of cancer patients decrease significantly annually. Thus, length of life with cancer increases, and so does the cancer insurance premium. We suggest that cancer insurance covers only the first five years of medical expenditure after the insured is diagnosed with cancer.
Environment-induced epigenetics are involved in diapause regulation, but the molecular mechanism that epigenetically couples nutrient metabolism to diapause regulation remains unclear. In this study, we paid special attention to the significant differences in the level of N6-adenosine methylation (m6A) of dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase (DHAPAT) and phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP) genes in the lipid metabolism pathway of the bivoltine silkworm (Bombyx mori) strain Qiufeng developed from eggs incubated at a normal temperature (QFHT, diapause egg producer) compared to those from eggs incubated at a low temperature (QFLT, non-diapause egg producer). We knocked down DHAPAT in the pupal stage of the QFLT group, resulting in the non-diapause destined eggs becoming diapausing eggs. In the PAP knockdown group, the colour of the non-diapause destined eggs changed from light yellow to pink 3 days after oviposition, but they hatched as normal. Moreover, we validated that YTHDF3 binds to m6A-modified DHAPAT and PAP mRNAs to promote their stability and translation. These results suggest that RNA m6A methylation participates in the diapause regulation of silkworm by changing the expression levels of DHAPAT and PAP and reveal that m6A epigenetic modification can be combined with a lipid metabolism signal pathway to participate in the regulation of insect diapause traits, which provides a clearer image for exploring the physiological basis of insect diapause.
Weeds contribute to biodiversity and a wide range of ecosystem functions. It is crucial to map different weed species and analyze their physiological activities. Remote sensing techniques for plant identification, especially hyperspectral imaging, are being developed using spectral response patterns to vegetation for detection and species identification. A library of hyperspectral images of 40 urban weed species in northeast China was established in this study. A terrestrial hyperspectral camera was used to acquire 435 hyperspectral images. The hyperspectral information for each weed species was extracted and analyzed. The spectral characteristics and vegetation indices of different weeds revealed the differences between weed species in the cities of northeast China and indirectly characterized the growth and physiological activity levels of different species, but could not effectively distinguish different species. Five methods—first derivative spectrum (FDS), second derivative spectrum (SDS), standard normal variate (SNV), moving averages (MA), and Savitzky-Golay (SG) smoothing—were used to pretreat the spectral curves to maximize the retention of spectral characteristics while removing the influence of noise. We investigated the application of a convolutional neural network (CNN) with terrestrial hyperspectral remote sensing to identify urban weeds in northeast China. A CNN classification model was established to distinguish weeds from the hyperspectral images and demonstrated a test accuracy of 95.32% to 98.15%. The accuracy of the original spectrum was 97.45%; SNV had the best accuracy (98.15%) and SG was the least accurate (95.32%). This provides a baseline for understanding the hyperspectral characteristics of urban weed species and monitoring their growth. It also contributes to the development of a hyperspectral imaging database with global applicability.
Routine blood examination is an easy way to examine infectious diseases. This study is aimed to develop a model to diagnose serious bacterial infections (SBI) in ICU neonates based on routine blood parameters. This was a cross-sectional study, and data were extracted from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC-III). SBI was defined as suffering from one of the following: pyelonephritis, bacteraemia, bacterial meningitis, sepsis, pneumonia, cellulitis, and osteomyelitis. Variables with statistical significance in the univariate logistic regression analysis and log systemic immune–inflammatory index (SII) were used to develop the model. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated to assess the performance of the model. A total of 1,880 participants were finally included for analysis. Weight, haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, white blood cell, monocyte, premature delivery, and log SII were selected to develop the model. The developed model showed a good performance to diagnose SBI for ICU neonates, with an AUC of 0.812 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.737–0.888). A nomogram was developed to make this model visualise. In conclusion, our model based on routine blood parameters performed well in the diagnosis of neonatal SBI, which may be helpful for clinicians to improve treatment recommendations.
Compared with nitrogen and argon, helium is lighter and can better reduce the beam loss caused by angular scattering during beam transmission. The molecular dissociation cross-section in helium is high and stable at low energies, which makes helium the prevalent stripping gas in low-energy accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To study the stripping behavior of 14C ions in helium at low energies, the charge state distributions of carbon ion beams with −1, +1, +2, +3, and +4 charge states were measured at energies of 70–220 keV with a compact 14C-AMS at Guangxi Normal University (GXNU). The experimental data were used to analyze the stripping characteristics of C-He in the energy range of 70–220 keV, and new charge state yields and exchange cross-sections in C-He were obtained at energies of 70–220 keV.
Despite replicated cross-sectional evidence of aberrant levels of peripheral inflammatory markers in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD), there is limited literature on associations between inflammatory tone and response to sequential pharmacotherapies.
To assess associations between plasma levels of pro-inflammatory markers and treatment response to escitalopram and adjunctive aripiprazole in adults with MDD.
In a 16-week open-label clinical trial, 211 participants with MDD were treated with escitalopram 10– 20 mg daily for 8 weeks. Responders continued on escitalopram while non-responders received adjunctive aripiprazole 2–10 mg daily for 8 weeks. Plasma levels of pro-inflammatory markers – C-reactive protein, Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17, Interferon gamma (IFN)-Γ, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α, and Chemokine C–C motif ligand-2 (CCL-2) - measured at baseline, and after 2, 8 and 16 weeks were included in logistic regression analyses to assess associations between inflammatory markers and treatment response.
Pre-treatment levels of IFN-Γ and CCL-2 were significantly higher in escitalopram non-responders compared to responders. Pre-treatment IFN-Γ and CCL-2 levels were significantly associated with a lower of odds of response to escitalopram at 8 weeks. Increases in CCL-2 levels from weeks 8 to 16 in escitalopram non-responders were significantly associated with higher odds of non-response to adjunctive aripiprazole at week 16.
Pre-treatment levels of IFN-Γ and CCL-2 were predictive of response to escitalopram. Increasing levels of these pro-inflammatory markers may predict non-response to adjunctive aripiprazole. These findings require validation in independent clinical populations.
We present the third data release from the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project. The release contains observations of 32 pulsars obtained using the 64-m Parkes “Murriyang” radio telescope. The data span is up to 18 years with a typical cadence of 3 weeks. This data release is formed by combining an updated version of our second data release with ∼ 3 years of more recent data primarily obtained using an ultra-wide-bandwidth receiver system that operates between 704 and 4032 MHz. We provide calibrated pulse profiles, flux-density dynamic spectra, pulse times of arrival, and initial pulsar timing models. We describe methods for processing such wide-bandwidth observations, and compare this data release with our previous release.
HIV-1 molecular surveillance provides a new approach to explore transmission risks and targeted interventions. From January to June 2021, 663 newly reported HIV-1 cases were recruited in Zhaotong City, Yunnan Province, China. The distribution characteristics of HIV-1 subtypes and HIV-1 molecular network were analysed. Of 542 successfully subtyped samples, 12 HIV-1 strains were identified. The main strains were CRF08_BC (47.0%, 255/542), CRF01_AE (17.0%, 92/542), CRF07_BC (17.0%, 92/542), URFs (8.7%, 47/542), and CRF85_BC (6.5%, 35/542). CRF08_BC was commonly detected among Zhaotong natives, illiterates, and non-farmers and was mostly detected in Zhaoyang County. CRF01_AE was frequently detected among married and homosexual individuals and mostly detected in Weixin and Zhenxiong counties. Among the 516 pol sequences, 187 (36.2%) were clustered. Zhaotong natives, individuals aged ≥60 years, and illiterate individuals were more likely to be found in the network. Assortativity analysis showed that individuals were more likely to be genetically associated when stratified by age, education level, occupation, and reporting area. The genetic diversity of HIV-1 reflects the complexity of local HIV epidemics. Molecular network analyses revealed the subpopulations to focus on and the characteristics of the risk networks. The results will help optimise local prevention and control strategies.