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The relationship of a diet low in fibre with mortality has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) attributable to a diet low in fibre globally from 1990 to 2019.
All data were from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019, in which the mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) and years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated with Bayesian geospatial regression using data at global, regional and country level acquired from an extensively systematic review.
All data sourced from the GBD Study 2019.
All age groups for both sexes.
The age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) declined in most GBD regions; however, in Southern sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 4·07 (95 % uncertainty interval (UI) (2·08, 6·34)) to 4·60 (95 % UI (2·59, 6·90)), and in Central sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 7·46 (95 % UI (3·64, 11·90)) to 9·34 (95 % UI (4·69, 15·25)). Uptrends were observed in the age-standardised YLD rates attributable to a diet low in fibre in a number of GBD regions. The burden caused by diabetes mellitus increased in Central Asia, Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe.
The burdens of disease attributable to a diet low in fibre in Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Central sub-Saharan Africa and the age-standardised YLD rates in a number of GBD regions increased from 1990 to 2019. Therefore, greater efforts are needed to reduce the disease burden caused by a diet low in fibre.
Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is characterized by delayed P300 latency and reduced grey matter (GM) volume, respectively. The relationship between the features in aMCI is unclear. This study was to investigate the relationship between the altered P300 latency and the GM volume in aMCI.
Thirty-four aMCI and 34 well-matched normal controls (NC) were studied using electroencephalogram during a visual oddball task and scanned with MRI. Both tests were finished in the same day.
As compared with the NC group, the aMCI group exhibited delayed P300 latency in parietal cortex and reduced GM volumes in bilateral temporal pole and left hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus. A remarkable negative correlation was found between delayed P300 latency and reduced left hippocampal volume only in the aMCI group. Interestingly, the mediating analysis found P300 latency significantly mediated the association between right supramarginal gyrus volume and information processing speed indicated by Stroop Color and Word Test A scores.
The association between delayed P300 latency and reduced left hippocampal volume in aMCI subjects suggests that reduced left hippocampal volume may be the potential structural basis of delayed P300 latency.
Age effects may be important for improving models for the prediction of conversion to psychosis for individuals in the clinical high risk (CHR) state. This study aimed to explore whether adolescent CHR individuals (ages 9–17 years) differ significantly from adult CHR individuals (ages 18–45 years) in terms of conversion rates and predictors.
Consecutive CHR individuals (N = 517) were assessed for demographic and clinical characteristics and followed up for 3 years. Individuals with CHR were classified as adolescent (n = 244) or adult (n = 273) groups. Age-specific prediction models of psychosis were generated separately using Cox regression.
Similar conversion rates were found between age groups; 52 out of 216 (24.1%) adolescent CHR individuals and 55 out of 219 (25.1%) CHR adults converted to psychosis. The conversion outcome was best predicted by negative symptoms compared to other clinical variables in CHR adolescents (χ2 = 7.410, p = 0.006). In contrast, positive symptoms better predicted conversion in CHR adults (χ2 = 6.585, p = 0.01).
Adolescent and adult CHR individuals may require a different approach to early identification and prediction. These results can inform the development of more precise prediction models based on age-specific approaches.
Cyclospora cayetanensis, a coccidian parasite that causes protracted and relapsing gastroenteritis, has a short recorded history. At least 54 countries have documented C. cayetanensis infections and 13 of them have recorded cyclosporiasis outbreaks. Cyclospora cayetanensis infections are commonly reported in developing countries with low-socioeconomic levels or in endemic areas, although large outbreaks have also been documented in developed countries. The overall C. cayetanensis prevalence in humans worldwide is 3.55%. Among susceptible populations, the highest prevalence has been documented in immunocompetent individuals with diarrhea. Infections are markedly seasonal, occurring in the rainy season or summer. Cyclospora cayetanensis or Cyclospora-like organisms have also been detected in food, water, soil and some other animals. Detection methods based on oocyst morphology, staining and molecular testing have been developed. Treatment with trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (TMP–SMX) effectively cures C. cayetanensis infection, whereas ciprofloxacin is less effective than TMP–SMX, but is suitable for patients who cannot tolerate co-trimoxazole. Here, we review the biological characteristics, clinical features, epidemiology, detection methods and treatment of C. cayetanensis in humans, and assess some risk factors for infection with this pathogen.
Few of the previous studies of clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR) have explored whether outcomes other than conversion, such as poor functioning or treatment responses, are better predicted when using risk calculators. To answer this question, we compared the predictive accuracy between the outcome of conversion and poor functioning by using the NAPLS-2 risk calculator.
Three hundred CHR individuals were identified using the Chinese version of the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms. Of these, 228 (76.0%) completed neurocognitive assessments at baseline and 199 (66.3%) had at least a 1-year follow-up assessment. The latter group was used in the NAPLS-2 risk calculator.
We divided the sample into two broad categories based on different outcome definitions, conversion (n = 46) v. non-conversion (n = 153) or recovery (n = 138) v. poor functioning (n = 61). Interestingly, the NAPLS-2 risk calculator showed moderate discrimination of subsequent conversion to psychosis in this sample with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.631 (p = 0.007). However, for discriminating poor functioning, the AUC of the model increased to 0.754 (p < 0.001).
Our results suggest that the current risk calculator was a better fit for predicting a poor functional outcome and treatment response than it was in the prediction of conversion to psychosis.
Underground Nuclear Astrophysics in China (JUNA) will take the advantage of the ultra-low background in Jinping underground lab. High current accelerator with an ECR source and detectors were commissioned. JUNA plans to study directly a number of nuclear reactions important to hydrostatic stellar evolution at their relevant stellar energies. At the first period, JUNA aims at the direct measurements of 25Mg(p,γ)26 Al, 19F(p,α) 16 O, 13C(α, n) 16O and 12C(α,γ) 16O near the Gamow window. The current progress of JUNA will be given.
Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UVLEDs) with phosphor materials have considerable advantages over traditional illumination devices. Doping with rare earth ions can modify the optical spectrum of phosphor materials, but rare earths are very expensive. Thus, replacing rare earths with a common material would provide a great potential for the wide application in the future. In this study, we discovered that a novel type of semiconductor nanometre powder, namely manganese cobalt nickel copper oxide (MCNC), is able to emit blue-green wavelength spectrum when exited by 365-400nmUVLED. In addition, MCNC shows less attenuation of luminescence efficiency than other UVLED phosphor materials doped with rare earths with temperature increase. It is thus concluded that MCNC is a promising low-cost material to replace rare earths to adjust the optical spectrum wavelength of UVLED. This is the first time that nano-scale MCNC is reported to possess the property to change the optical spectrum wavelength of UVLED. This provides a new mechanical and nanometer phosphor material without rare earth doping to shift the wavelength spectrum.
Findings from observational studies on the associations between vitamin E intake and stroke risk remain controversial, and the dose–response relationship between vitamin E intake and risk of stroke remains to be determined. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies aiming to clarify the relationships between vitamin E intake and risk of stroke. Relevant studies were identified by searching online databases through to June 2018. We computed summary relative risks (RR) with corresponding 95 % CI. Among 3156 articles retrieved from online databases and relevant bibliographies, nine studies involving 3284 events and 220 371 participants were included in the final analyses. High dietary vitamin E intake was inversely associated with the risk of overall stroke (RR=0·83, 95 % CI 0·73, 0·94), and with the risk of stroke for individuals who were followed-up for <10 (RR=0·84, 95 % CI 0·72, 0·91). There was a non-linear association between dietary vitamin E intake and stroke risk (P=0·0249). Omission of any single study did not alter the summary result. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that there is a significant inverse relationship between dietary vitamin E intake and stroke risk. This meta-analysis provides evidence that a higher dietary vitamin E intake is associated with a lower stroke risk.
Chitooligosaccharides (COS) are multi-functional foods and nutrients and environmentally friendly biological abiotic-resistance inducing agents for plants. In the current study, the effects and possible mechanisms of COS on improving the cold resistance of rice (II YOU 1259) seedlings were investigated. Compared with the control, a COS pre-soaking treatment enhanced photosynthesis, reduced oxidation damage and led to accumulation of more osmotic regulation substances under chilling treatment. In addition, a novel Deg/HtrA family serine endopeptidase (DegQ) gene, related to COS enhanced rice cold resistance, was identified. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that transcription of DegQ and psbA (D1 protein encoding gene) were up-regulated in a time-dependent manner by COS treatment under cold stress. With increasing expression of the D1 protein, chlorophyll b content was enhanced correspondingly. The current results suggest that COS could enhance cold stress tolerance of rice by repairing the photodamaged photosystem II, altering osmotic regulation and reducing oxidation damage.
The accurate measurement of trace element concentrations in natural sulphides by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been limited by the lack of matrix-matched calibration standards. The synthesis of a standard, IMER-1, by incorporating four minor and 34 trace elements into a chalcogenide glass matrix Ge28Sb12S60 is reported here. Chemical analysis by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), LA-ICP-MS, solution ICP-MS, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) confirmed the excellent homogeneity of major elements (1-σ relative standard deviation (RSD) <1% for S, Sb and Ge) and acceptable homogeneity of most trace elements (1-σ RSD <10%). The standard was validated by analysing trace-elements concentrations in three geological pyrite specimens using IMER-1 as the calibration standard and comparing the results to previously reported values also determined by LA-ICP-MS but using a different calibration standard. STDGL2b-2. The results suggest that IMER-1 may be an appropriate calibration standard for LA-ICP-MS analysis of trace elements in natural sulphides.
Melt-SHS (self-propagating high-temperature synthesis), based on the SHS process and oxide reaction method, was used for preparation of TiB2/Al composites. The mass ratio of two reactants, Ti powder/TiO2, in initial powder mixture was varied from 0:1 to 1:0. The results showed that the 5 wt% TiB2/Al composites could be successfully produced by a reaction of aluminum powder, TiO2, and B2O3 in Al melt at 950 °C, while the reaction rate was slow. The addition of titanium powder helps to reduce the content of Al2O3 and destroy the coating structure of Al2O3 covered TiB2 particles, which leads to the acceleration of reaction process and improvement of particle concentration. A significant improvement was that TiB2 particles were dispersively distributed when the mass ratio of Ti powder/TiO2 was 2:3. As a result, the 5 wt% TiB2/Al composites fabricated by melt-SHS process with modified reactants ratio showed excellent tensile properties with the ultimate tensile strength as high as 114.24 MPa. Besides, the composite also showed superior ductility.
The container liner shipping industry has stepped into an era of international strategic alliances. Important to these liner alliances is the sharing and allocation of container slots between its member carriers. This paper optimises planning of container ship capacity sharing and co-allocation under a co-charting agreement. First, we explain the concept of this business agreement and its implications on maritime operations. Then, we identify key influencing factors that may affect the decisions of cooperative slot co-allocation. The slot co-allocation problem is modelled as an Integer Programming problem and solved using data from two routes between the United States and Asia. The model determines the optimal slot co-allocation strategies between shipping alliance carriers along allied shipping routes. Computational results indicate that the proposed method is effective in obtaining optimal, cooperative slot sharing strategies that can maximise the total system revenue.
The layered oxide LiVO2 recently has received more attention due to its interesting structural and magnetic behaviors involving the two-dimensional magnetic frustration in these systems. We synthesized a series of F-doped LiVO2 samples, and reported the F-doping effect on the structure and transition temperature Tt. The samples LiVO2-xFx (x=0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), magnetic susceptibility and specific heat measurement. The structural analysis shows that with increasing x, the ratio of lattice parameter c/a increasing, i.e. in the a-b plane the lattice is compressed while in the c-axis direction the lattice expands. The DSC measurements show that a first-order phase transition happens at around 500 K, and the thermal hysteresis around phase transition temperature Tt increases with increasing x. Substitution of O with F ions results in a change of two dimensional characteristics and the distortion of the VO6 block in structure, which significantly influence the magnetic ordering transition temperature Tt.
Elimination of degenerate epitaxy in the growth of icosahedral boron arsenide (B12As2, abbreviated as IBA) was achieved on m-plane 15R-SiC substrates and 4H-SiC substrates intentionally misoriented by 7 degrees from (0001) towards [1-100]. Synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) revealed that only single orientation IBA was present in the epitaxial layers demonstrating the absence of twin variants which dominantly constitute the effects of degenerate epitaxy. Additionally, low asterism in the IBA diffraction spots compared to those grown on other SiC substrates indicates a superior film quality. Cross-sectional high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) both confirmed the absence of twins in the IBA films and their high quality. The ease of nucleation on the ordered step structures present on these unique substrates overrides symmetry considerations that drive degenerate epitaxy and dominates the nucleation process of the IBA.
In this work, 4H-SiC substrates intentionally misoriented from the (0001) plane toward [1-100] direction are shown to eliminate rotational twinning in icosahedral boron arsenide (B12As2, abbreviated here as IBA) epitaxial films. Previous studies of IBA on other substrates, including (100), (110), (111) Si and (0001) 6H-SiC, produced polycrystalline and twinned epilayers. Comparisons of IBA on on-axis and off-axis c-plane 4H-SiC by synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT), and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirm the single crystalline and much higher quality of the films on the latter substrates. Furthermore, no intermediate layer between the epilayer and substrate was observed for IBA on off-axis 4H-SiC. Steps formed on the off-axis 4H-SiC substrate surface before deposition cause the film to adopt a single orientation, a process that is not seen with substrates with either no misorientation, or those tilted toward the [11-20] direction. This work demonstrates that c-plane 4H-SiC with 7° offcut toward (1-100) is potentially a good substrate choice for the growth of high-quality, untwinned B12As2 epilayers for future device applications.
The defect structure in B12As2 epitaxial layers grown at two different temperatures on (0001) 6H-SiC by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was studied using synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The observed differences in microstructures were correlated with the differences in nucleation at the two growth temperatures. The effect of the difference in microstructure on macroscopic properties of the B12As2 was illustrated using the example of thermal conductivity which was measured using the 3-ω technique. The relationship between the measured thermal conductivity and observed microstructures is discussed.
A systematic study is presented of the heteroepitaxial growth of B12As2 on m-plane 15R-SiC. In contrast to previous studies of B12As2 on other substrates, including (100) Si, (110) Si, (111) Si and (0001) 6H-SiC, single crystalline and untwinned B12As2 was achieved on m-plane 15R-SiC. Observations of IBA on m-plane (1100)15R-SiC by synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirm the good quality of the films on the 15R-SiC substrates. The growth mechanism of IBA on m-plane 15R-SiC is discussed. This work demonstrates that m-plane 15R-SiC is potentially a good substrate choice to grow high quality B12As2 epilayers.
B12As2 epitaxial layers grown on (0001) 6H-SiC and (1120) 6H-SiC substrates have been studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) and investigated with the aid of crystal visualization software. SWBXT showed that B12As2 adopted  growth orientation, parallel to SiC, on c-plane 6H-SiC and adopted  growth orientation, parallel to SiC, on a-plane 6H-SiC. However, SWBXT also revealed the twins in both sets of the B12As2 films, consistent with the SEM observation of the surface morphology. Cross-sectional HRTEM also confirmed the presence of twins in both cases and also revealed the existence of an intermediate layer between the c-plane 6H-SiC and the B12As2 film. By correlating the HRTEM observation and crystal visualization, the atomic configurations across the twin boundaries in both samples as well as those in the intermediate layer in the c-plane sample were proposed.
Larvae of Ibla cumingi from Daya Bay, China were cultured in the laboratory. Larval development includes six naupliar stages and a non-feeding cypris stage following the ground patterns of cirripeds. Larvae reached the cypris stage in nine days at ∼25°C after hatching. Morphological features including the cephalic shield, frontal horns, labrum, abdominal process, antennules, antennae and mandibles in all nauplii were described and illustrated using light microscopy. A full morphological description of cyprid larvae was provided using scanning electron microscopy. Attempts were made to compare the difference between the larval development model of I. cumingi and that of Ibla species.