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Intermediate wheatgrass (IWG) is a cool-season perennial grass developed as a dual-purpose grain and forage crop. One barrier to adopting this crop is a lack of information on the effects of herbicides on IWG for grain production. An experiment was conducted to evaluate herbicide effects on IWG grain yield, crop injury, and weed control over 2 yr (2019-2021) at sites in Wisconsin, Minnesota, New York, and North Dakota, USA. This evaluation included Group 4 broadleaf herbicides registered in wheat: 2,4-D amine, clopyralid, MCPA, and a mixture of clopyralid + MCPA. Each herbicide or mixture was applied at 1X and 2X the labeled wheat application rate to newly planted and established (1 to 5 yr old) IWG stands in the fall or spring. Applications were made during IWG tillering or jointing stages in the fall or during the jointing stage in the spring. Across site years, application timing, herbicide, and application rate showed no effect on IWG grain yield or plant injury. Broadleaf weed control ranged from 71 to 92% across herbicide treatments relative to the nontreated check at the WI site while weed control at the MN site was variable among treatments. At the NY site, herbicides were equally effective for broadleaf weed suppression, whereas weed pressure was very low at the ND site and treatments did not affect weed cover. The results show that newly planted and established stands of IWG are tolerant to the synthetic auxin herbicides 2,4-D amine, clopyralid, and MCPA when applied during tillering or jointing in the fall or during jointing in the spring. Synthetic auxins represent a potentially useful tool for weed control in IWG cropping systems, especially for problematic broadleaf weed species.
Background: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Emerging Infections Program conducts active laboratory- and population-based surveillance for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) and extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E). To better understand the U.S. epidemiology of these organisms among children, we determined the incidence of pediatric CRE and ESBL-E cases and described their clinical characteristics. Methods: Surveillance was conducted among children <18 years of age for CRE from 2016–2020 in 10 sites, and for ESBL-E from 2019–2020 in 6 sites. Among catchment-area residents, an incident CRE case was defined as the first isolation of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae complex, Klebsiella aerogenes, K. oxytoca, or K. pneumoniae in a 30-day period resistant to ≥1 carbapenem from a normally sterile site or urine. An incident ESBL-E case was defined as the first isolation of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, or K. oxytoca in a 30-day period resistant to any third-generation cephalosporin and non-resistant to all carbapenems from a normally sterile site or urine. Case records were reviewed. Results: Among 159 CRE cases, 131 (82.9%) were isolated from urine and 19 (12.0%) from blood; median age was 5 years (IQR 1–10) and 94 (59.1%) were female. Combined CRE incidence rate per 100,000 population by year ranged from 0.47 to 0.87. Among 207 ESBL-E cases, 160 (94.7%) were isolated from urine and 6 (3.6%) from blood; median age was 6 years (IQR 2–15) and 165 (79.7%) were female. Annual ESBL incidence rate per 100,000 population was 26.5 in 2019 and 19.63 in 2020. Incidence rates of CRE and ESBL-E were >2-fold higher in infants (children <1 year) than other age groups. Among those with data available, CRE cases were more likely than ESBL-E cases to have underlying conditions (99/158 [62.7%] versus 59/169 [34.9%], P<0.0001), prior healthcare exposures (74/158 [46.8%] versus 38/169 [22.5%], P<0.0001), and be hospitalized for any reason around time of their culture collection (75/158 [47.5%] versus 38/169 [22.5%], P<0.0001); median duration of admission was 18 days [IQR 3–103] for CRE versus 10 days [IQR 4–43] for ESBL-E. Urinary tract infection was the most frequent infection for CRE (89/158 [56.3%]) and ESBL-E (125/169 [74.0%]) cases. Conclusion: CRE infections occurred less frequently than ESBL-infections in U.S. children but were more often associated with healthcare risk factors and hospitalization. Infants had highest incidence of CRE and ESBL-E. Continued surveillance, infection prevention and control efforts, and antibiotic stewardship outside and within pediatric care are needed
We present the first systematic inventory of surge-type glaciers for the whole of Greenland compiled from published datasets and multitemporal satellite images and digital elevation models. The inventory allows us to define the spatial and climatic distribution of surge-type glaciers and to analyse the timing of surges from 1985 to 2019. We identified 274 surge-type glaciers, an increase of 37% compared to previous work. Mapping surge-type glacier distribution by temperature and precipitation variables derived from ERA5-Land reanalysis data shows that the west and east clusters occur in well-defined climatic envelopes. Analysis of the timing of surge active phases during the periods ~1985 to 2000 (T1) and ~2000 to 2019 (T2) suggests that overall surge activity is similar in T1 and T2, but there appears to be a reduction in surging in the west cluster in T2. Our climate analysis shows a coincident increase in mean annual and mean winter air temperature between T1 and T2. We suggest that as glaciers thin under current warming, some surge-type glaciers in the west cluster may be being prevented from surging due to (1) their inability to build-up sufficient mass and (2) a switch from a polythermal to a largely cold-based thermal regime.
Neuroticism has societal, mental and physical health relevance, with an etiology involving genetic predisposition, psychological influence, and their interaction.
To understand whether the association between polygenic risk score for neuroticism (PRS-N) and neuroticism is moderated by affective well-being.
Data were derived from TwinssCan, a general population twin cohort (age range=15-35 years, 478 monozygotic twins). Self-report questionnaires were used to measure well-being and neuroticism. PRS-N was trained from the Genetics of Personality Consortium (GPC) and United Kingdom Biobank (UKB). Multilevel mixed-effects models were used to test baseline and changes in well-being and neuroticism.
Baseline wellbeing and neuroticism were associated (β=-1.35, p<0.001). PRSs-N were associated with baseline neuroticism (lowest p-value: 0.008 in GPC, 0.01 in UKB). In interaction models (PRS x wellbeing), GPC PRS-N (β=0.38, p=0.04) and UKB PRS-N (β=0.81, p<0.001) had significant interactions.
PRSs-N were associated with changes in neuroticism (lowest p-value: 0.03 in GPC, 0.3 in UKB). Furthermore, changes in wellbeing and neuroticism were associated (β =-0.66, p<0.001). In interaction models (PRS x change in wellbeing), only UKB PRS-N had a significant interaction (β=0.80, p<0.001).
Interaction between polygenic risk, wellbeing and neuroticism, were observed regarding baselines measures and change over time. Depending on the analysis step, the direction of the effect changed.
Prior evidence suggests that men and women might be differentially susceptible to distinct types of childhood adversity (CA), but research on gender-specific associations between CA subtypes and psychiatric symptoms is limited.
To test the gender-specific associations of CA subtypes and psychiatric symptoms in the general population.
Data from 791 twins and siblings from the TwinssCan project were used. Psychopathology and CA exposure were assessed using the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), respectively. The associations between the total CTQ scores and SCL-90 scores (i.e. total SCL-90, psychoticism, paranoid ideation, anxiety, depression, somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and phobic anxiety) were tested in men and women separately. The associations between the five CA subtypes (i.e. physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect) and total SCL-90 were tested in a mutually adjusted model. As exploratory analyses, the associations between all CA subtypes and the nine SCL-90 subdomain scores were similarly tested. The regression coefficients between men and women were compared using Chow’s test. All models were adjusted for age and family structure.
Total CTQ was significantly associated with total SCL-90 in men (B = 0.013, SE = 0.003, P < .001) and women (B = 0.011, SE = 0.002, P < .001). The associations with the nine symptom domains were also significant in both genders (P < .001). No significant gender differences in the regression coefficients of total CTQ were detected. The analyses of CA subtypes showed a significant association between emotional abuse and total SCL-90 in women (B = 0.173, SE = 0.030, P < .001) and men (B = 0.080, SE = 0.035, P = .023), but the association was significantly stronger in women (ꭓ2(1) = 4.10, P = .043). The association of sexual abuse and total SCL-90 was only significant in women (B = 0.217, SE = 0.053, P < .001). The associations of emotional neglect (B = 0.061, SE = 0.027, P = .026) and physical neglect (B = 0.167, SE = 0.043, P < .001) with total SCL-90 were only significant in men. The explorative analyses of SCL-90 subdomains revealed significant associations of emotional abuse with all nine symptom domains and of sexual abuse with seven symptom domains in women. Significant associations of physical neglect with six symptom domains and of emotional neglect with depression were also detected in men. No other significant associations between CT subtypes and total SCL-90 or symptom domain scores were observed in men and women.
CA exposure was associated with diverse psychopathology similarly in both genders. However, women are more sensitive to abuse, but men are more sensitive to neglect. Gender-specific influences of CA subtypes on psychopathology should be considered in future studies.
The Coca-Cola bottle is among the most famous product packaging in the world. Consumers everywhere instantly recognize the distinctive curvy bottle and understand what it represents. It has been celebrated as a design classic and featured prominently by artists ranging from Norman Rockwell to Andy Warhol. The bottle is not only a cultural icon but also a triumph of branding, its goodwill built up over time by the Coca-Cola Company’s heavy investments in advertising and other forms of marketing.
The rapid formation of glacial lakes is one of the most conspicuous landscape changes caused by atmospheric warming in glacierised regions. However, relatively little is known about the history and current state of glacial lakes in the High Arctic. This study aims to address this issue by providing the first inventory of glacial lakes in Svalbard, focusing in particular on the post-Little Ice Age evolution of glacial lakes and their typology. To do so, we used aerial photographs and satellite imagery together with archival topographic data from 1936 to 2020. The inventory comprises the development of 566 glacial lakes (146 km2) that were still in direct contact with glaciers during the period 2008–2012. The results show a consistent increase in the total area of glacial lakes from the 1930s to 2020 and suggest an apparent link between climatic and geological factors, and the formation of specific lake dam types: moraine, ice, or bedrock. We also detected 134 glacial lake drainage events that have occurred since the 1930s. This study shows that Svalbard has one of the highest rates of glacial lake development in the world, which is an indicator of the overall dynamics of landscape change in the archipelago in response to climate change.
We conducted an online survey of weed scientists in the United States and Canada to (1) identify research topics perceived to be important for advancing weed science in the next 5 to 10 years and (2) gain insight into potential gaps in current expertise and funding sources needed to address those priorities. Respondents were asked to prioritize nine broad research areas, as well as 5 to 10 subcategories within each of the broad areas. We received 475 responses, with the majority affiliated with academic institutions (55%) and working in cash crop (agronomic or horticultural) study systems (69%). Results from this survey provide valuable discussion points for policy makers, funding agencies, and academic institutions when allocating resources for weed science research. Notably, our survey reveals a strong prioritization of Cultural and Preventative Weed Management (CPWM) as well as the emerging area of Precision Weed Management and Robotics (PWMR). Although Herbicides remain a high-priority research area, continuing challenges necessitating integrated, nonchemical tactics (e.g., herbicide resistance) and emerging opportunities (e.g., robotics) are reflected in our survey results. Despite previous calls for greater understanding and application of weed biology and ecology in weed research, as well as recent calls for greater integration of social science perspectives to address weed management challenges, these areas were ranked considerably lower than those focused more directly on weed management. Our survey also identified a potential mismatch between research priorities and expertise in several areas, including CPWM, PWMR, and Weed Genomics, suggesting that these topics should be prime targets for expanded training and collaboration. Finally, our survey suggests an increasing reliance on private sector funding for research, raising concerns about our discipline’s capacity to address important research priority areas that lack clear private sector incentives for investment.
Over the past 2 decades, several categorizations have been proposed for the abnormalities of the aortic root. These schemes have mostly been devoid of input from specialists of congenital cardiac disease. The aim of this review is to provide a classification, from the perspective of these specialists, based on an understanding of normal and abnormal morphogenesis and anatomy, with emphasis placed on the features of clinical and surgical relevance. We contend that the description of the congenitally malformed aortic root is simplified when approached in a fashion that recognizes the normal root to be made up of 3 leaflets, supported by their own sinuses, with the sinuses themselves separated by the interleaflet triangles. The malformed root, usually found in the setting of 3 sinuses, can also be found with 2 sinuses, and very rarely with 4 sinuses. This permits description of trisinuate, bisinuate, and quadrisinuate variants, respectively. This feature then provides the basis for classification of the anatomical and functional number of leaflets present. By offering standardized terms and definitions, we submit that our classification will be suitable for those working in all cardiac specialties, whether pediatric or adult. It is of equal value in the settings of acquired or congenital cardiac disease. Our recommendations will serve to amend and/or add to the existing International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code, along with the Eleventh iteration of the International Classification of Diseases provided by the World Health Organization.
The fearful ape hypothesis proposes that heightened fearfulness in humans is adaptive. However, despite its attractive anthropocentric narrative, the evidence presented for greater fearfulness in humans versus other apes is not sufficient to support this claim. Conceptualization, context, and comparison are strongly lacking in Grossmann's proposal, but are key to understanding variation in the fear response among individuals and species.
Preclinical evidence has identified the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) as a novel regulator of metabolic control. Ulotaront is a TAAR1 and 5-HT1A agonist currently in Phase 3 clinical trials for the treatment of schizophrenia. Here we summarize preclinical results assessing the effects of ulotaront on weight and metabolic parameters.
Effects of ulotaront administration were evaluated on oral glucose tolerance (oGTT), gastric emptying, and in rodent models of weight gain (high-fat diet [HFD]-, corticosterone-, and olanzapine-induced).
Following 15-day oral administration of ulotaront, rats on HFD showed dose-dependent reduction in body weight, food intake, and liver triglyceride content compared to controls. In addition, a more rapid reversal of olanzapine-induced weight gain and food intake was observed in rats switched to ulotaront (vs. vehicle). Consistent with weight-lowering effects in rats, chronic ulotaront treatment normalized corticosterone-induced weight gain in mice. Assessment of oGTT showed a dose-dependent reduction of glucose excursion in response to acute ulotaront administration in naive and diabetic db/db mice. Ulotaront administration also delayed gastric emptying in mice—a likely mechanism driving reductions in glucose excursions during the oGTT. Whole-brain c-fos imaging of ulotaront-treated mice revealed increased neuronal activity in several brain regions associated with regulation of food intake and metabolic signals.
The data indicate that ulotaront not only lacks metabolic liabilities typically associated with antipsychotics but can reduce body weight and improve glucose tolerance in rodent models. The underlying mechanisms may include TAAR1-mediated peripheral effects on glucose homeostasis and/or direct modulation of homeostatic and hedonic neurocircuits regulating energy balance. The beneficial metabolic effects of ulotaront may suggest a substantially improved risk-benefit profile compared to established antipsychotics.
Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc. and Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization, Inc.
We analyzed efficacy of a centralized surveillance infection prevention (CSIP) program in a healthcare system on healthcare-associated infection (HAI) rates amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. HAI rates were variable in CSIP and non-CSIP facilities. Central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), C. difficile infection (CSI), and surgical-site infection (SSI) rates were negatively correlated with COVID-19 intensity in CSIP facilities.
To develop, implement, and evaluate the effectiveness of a unique centralized surveillance infection prevention (CSIP) program.
Observational quality improvement project.
An integrated academic healthcare system.
The CSIP program comprises senior infection preventionists who are responsible for healthcare-associated infection (HAI) surveillance and reporting, allowing local infection preventionists (LIPs) a greater portion of their time to non-surveillance patient safety activities. Four CSIP team members accrued HAI responsibilities at 8 facilities.
We evaluated the effectiveness of the CSIP program using 4 measures: recovery of LIP time, efficiency of surveillance activities by LIPs and CSIP staff, surveys characterizing LIP perception of their effectiveness in HAI reduction, and nursing leaders’ perception of LIP effectiveness.
The amount of time spent by LIP teams on HAI surveillance was highly variable, while CSIP time commitment and efficiency was steady. Post-CSIP implementation, 76.9% of LIPs agreed that they spend adequate time on inpatient units, compared to 15.4% pre-CSIP; LIPs also reported more time to allot to non-surveillance activities. Nursing leaders reported greater satisfaction with LIP involvement with HAI reduction practices.
CSIP programs are a little-reported strategy to ease burden on LIPs with reallocation of HAI surveillance. The analyses presented here will aid health systems in anticipating the benefit of CSIP programs.
This study examined relationships between dimensions of social capital (SC) (social trust, network diversity, social reciprocity and civic engagement) and fruit, vegetable, and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption among rural adults. Potential moderators (neighbourhood rurality, food security, gender and race/ethnicity) were explored to develop a more nuanced understanding of the SC–healthy eating relationship.
Data were from a 2019 mailed population-based survey evaluating an eleven-county initiative to address health equity. Participants self-reported health behaviours, access to health-promoting resources and demographics. Logistic regression models were used to analyse relationships between predictors, outcomes and moderators.
Five rural counties, Georgia, USA.
Among participants who lived in the country (as opposed to in town), greater network diversity was associated with consuming ≥ 3 servings of fruit (OR = 1·08; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·17, P = 0·029), yet among participants who lived in town, greater civic engagement was associated with consuming ≥ three servings of fruit (OR = 1·36; 95 % CI 1·11, 1·65, P = 0·003). Both food-secure and food-insecure participants with greater social reciprocity had lower odds of consuming 0 SSB (OR = 0·92; 95 % CI 0·86, 0·98, P = 0·014, OR = 0·92; 95 % CI 0·86, 0·99, P = 0·037, respectively). Men with greater social trust were more likely to consume 0 SSB (OR = 1·09; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·18, P = 0·038), and Whites with greater network diversity were more likely to meet daily vegetable recommendations (OR = 1·10; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·19, P = 0·028).
Findings provide a basis for future qualitative research on potential mechanisms through which SC and related social factors influence healthy eating in rural communities.
Requests by patients for providers of specific demographic backgrounds pose an ongoing challenge for hospitals, policymakers, and ethicists. These requests may stem from a wide variety of motivations; some may be consistent with broader societal values, although many others may reflect prejudices inconsistent with justice, equity, and decency. This paper proposes a taxonomy designed to assist healthcare institutions in addressing such cases in a consistent and equitable manner. The paper then reviews a range of ethical and logistical challenges raised by such requests and proposed guidance to consider when reviewing and responding to them.
To investigate the content of lunchboxes of primary school children and to examine children’s support and preferences for alternative healthy school lunch concepts.
A cross-sectional study among Dutch children from seven primary schools. The content of the lunchboxes was assessed by photographs. Support and preferences for alternative lunch concepts were examined via a self-reported questionnaire. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between children’s support and preferences and sex, educational group and migration background.
Primary school children.
A total of 660 children were included (average 9·9 years old). Most lunchboxes contained sandwiches and a drink. Few lunchboxes contained fruit or vegetables. The alternative school lunch concepts elicited mixed support among children. The lunch concepts ‘Sandwiches prepared by the children themselves’ and a ‘hot lunch buffet’ had the highest mean support, while the concept ‘a healthy lunch brought from home’ was the most preferred concept. Small significant differences were observed depending on sex, educational group and migration background.
Lunchboxes of Dutch children contained sandwiches and a drink but rarely fruit and vegetables. Among different alternatives, children reported the highest support for the preparation of their own sandwiches in class or a hot lunch buffet. Future studies should investigate if these alternative lunch concepts improve the dietary intake of children.