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We analyse the importance of legitimacy on public policy support by comparing how drivers of public policy attitudes evolve across the policy process consisting of the input (the processes forgoing acquisition of power and the procedures permeating political decisionmaking), throughput (the inclusion of and interactions between actors in a governance system) and output (the substantive consequences of those decisions) stages. Using unique panel data through three phases of the implementation of a congestion tax in the Swedish city of Gothenburg, we find that legitimacy is indeed important in explaining policy support. Moreover, we find a lingering effect where support in one phase depends on legitimacy both in the present and in previous phases. Hence, our study takes us one step further on the road to understand the complicated dynamic mechanisms behind the interactions between policymaking, policy support, and the legitimacy and approval of politicians and political processes.
T91 ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steel is an expected structural material candidate for Gen IV liquid lead-bismuth cooled nuclear reactors. However, molten lead-bismuth eutectic alloy (mLBE) often causes liquid-metal embrittlement (LME) of F/M steels. Although prior austenite grain boundaries and martensite block boundaries were reported to be preferential sites for LME, the mechanism of LME in a T91/LBE couple is yet to be comprehensively understood. In this paper, the effect of mLBE on T91 steel was investigated using micropillar compression tests. mLBE corrosion was found to cause a significant decrease in yield stress. The micropillar made from mLBE-corroded specimen was significantly sheared along high angle boundaries. In addition, EDS analysis demonstrated the presence of Pb/Bi at these high angle boundaries.
From the existing literature data have been collected on the stellar rate of mass loss for 189 stars with known or derived values of the effective temperature Teff and luminosity L. It appears that Ṁ depends only on Teff and L for the O- through M-type stars brighter that about 3 × 103 L⊙. This is shown in Figure 1, where we have plotted for each star the value of - log(-Ṁ) with Ṁ expressed in solar masses per year. An interpolation formula has been derived for the Ṁ(Teff, L) dependence. If we define X = log Teff-4, and Y = log(L/L⊙-5, then
The luminous O-type star BD +60°2522 is embedded in the extended H II region S 162. Part of S 162 is NGC 7635, the striking spherically symmetric bubble nebula surrounding BD +60°2522. This star itself is unique in that it is the only known O star apparently associated with warm dust.
The upper limt of stellar luminosity in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is a line running approximately from (log Teff; log (L/L⊙) = (4.5; 6.3) via (4.0; 5.74) to (3.5; 5.7) (Humphreys and Davidson, 1979; Humpreys, 1983).
This paper reports the first successful synthesis and the structural characterization of nanocrystalline and stacking-disordered β-cristobalite AlPO4 that is chemically stabilized down to room temperature and free of crystalline impurity phases. Several batches of the title compound were synthesized and thoroughly characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping in SEM, solid-state 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopy including the TRAPDOR method, differential thermal analysis (DTA), gas-sorption methods, optical emission spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and ion chromatography. Parameters that are critical for the synthesis were identified and optimized. The synthesis procedure yields reproducible results and is well documented. A high-quality XRD pattern of the title compound is presented, which was collected with monochromatic copper radiation at room temperature in a wide 2θ range of 5°–100°.
Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection can cause serious diseases and complications in the HIV-positive population. Due to successful vaccination programmes measles, mumps and congenital rubella syndrome has become neglected in Germany. However, recent outbreaks of measles have occurred from import-associated cases. In this cross-sectional study the serostatus for MMR and VZV in 2013 HIV-positive adults from three different university outpatient clinics in Bonn (n = 544), Cologne (n = 995) and Munich (n = 474) was analysed. Sera were tested for MMR- and VZV-specific immunglobulin G antibodies using commercial immunoassays. Seronegativity was found in 3% for measles, 26% for mumps, 11% for rubella and 2% for VZV. Regarding MMR, 35% of patients lacked seropositivity against at least one infectious agent. In multivariable analysis younger age was strongly associated with seronegativity against all four viruses, measles, mumps, rubella (P < 0·001, P < 0·001 and P = 0·001, respectively) and VZV (P = 0·001). In conclusion, there is high need for MMR and VZV vaccination in people living with HIV in Germany born in 1970 or later. Thus, systematic MMR and VZV antibody screening and vaccination should be implemented in the HIV-positive population to prevent serious disease and complications of vaccine-preventable diseases.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
We report the discovery of carbonates in the Planetary Nebulae NGC 6302 and NGC 6537 (Kemper et al. 2002). In the ISO LWS spectra far-infrared features have been identified with calcite and dolomite by comparison with laboratory spectra of these minerals. This is the first time that carbonates have been identified outside the solar system. In a follow-up study (Kemper et al., in prep.) a detailed analysis of the mineral composition of the dust in NGC 6302 is presented.
It can be considered as very satisfactory and a sign of good health that, as early as 1961, and since then, the question of the role of our Commission was discussed and in particular the overlapping activities with those of COSPAR and of other IAU Commissions were put into focus. It is the opinion of some members of our Commission that an analysis of whether a partial merging of Commission 44 with COSPAR Working Group 3 should be considered. Such an organizational scheme might offer the advantage of a greater flexibility and of a closer cooperation between IAU and COSPAR in space astronomy with the guarantee that duplication is prevented. Similar schemes do exist in other ICSU organizations.
In view of the limitation on length set by the cost of producing the IAU Reports, the present report can only be a selection of the most important advances during the past three years and not a complete review of the field.
Attempting to pick out a few points of interest, since the last report improvements have been made in recording solar X-ray spectra and in high spatial resolution imaging; the OSO satellite programme continues to produce valuable data. The eclipse experiments planned for March 1970 will, if successful, provide a considerable amount of new information. The solar iron abundance is still a subject of interest in view of the revision of oscillator strengths used in the photospheric analyses. Further interplanetary observations have shown that the general nature of the solar wind at the Earth does not depend on the phase of the solar activity cycle, and have revealed large increases in the abundance of helium in the solar wind following solar flares.
The DQ Her-type magnetic cataclysmic variable AE Aqr contains the most rapidly spinning white dwarf ( P = 33 s) in a close binary and can be considered as the “millisecond pulsar” equivalent of white dwarfs. It shows flare-like UV emission on timescales of an hour during which strong QPO activity is seen, as well as flare-like radio synchrotron emission on similar timescales up to frequencies of at least 250 GHz. It is one of the most efficient converters of accretion power to MeV electrons of all X-ray binaries, LMXB, and cataclysmic variables. TeV emission was also reported by two independent groups with a periodic and burst-like behavior similar to that seen in optical. The detection of a period derivative near 10−13 s/s in optical implies that the white dwarf is spinning down at a rate of ~6 × 1033 ergs s−1 which is at least an order of magnitude larger than the quiescent accretion luminosity and a few times larger than the typical UV flare luminosities. This spindown energy is not seen as disk luminosity, and the conditions appear to be favorable for the release of relativistic particles in a pulsar-type mechanism to explain the radio synchrotron emission in magnetic reconnection events, and the acceleration of particles to TeV energies in double layers if conditions are favorable.
Subject headings: acceleration of particles — binaries: close — stars: flare — stars: individual (AE Aquarii) — white dwarfs
Spectral studies of super- and hypergiants show that the (outward directed) turbulent acceleration approaches the value of the gravitational acceleration for the most luminous stars, which makes their atmospheres unstable.
Solar activity, as manifested by its many equatorial as well as high-latitude components of short-term variability is regulated by the Sun’s dynamo. This constitutes an intricate interplay between the solar toroidal and poloidal magnetic field components. The dynamo originates in the tachocline, which is a thin layer situated about 200,000 km beneath the solar surface. The dynamo is a non-linear system with deterministic chaotic elements, hence in principle unpredictable. Yet there are regularities in the past behaviour, such as the Grand Maxima (example: the recent high maximum of the 2nd half of the 20th century) the Grand Minima (e.g. the Maunder Minimum between 1650 and 1710) and the Regular Oscillations such as those between 1730 and 1923. Their occurrences are described by a phase diagram in which a specific point can be identified: the Transition Point. This diagram plays an essential role in determining the future solar activity. Guided by its quasi-regularities and by recent measurements of the solar magnetic fields we find that the Sun is presently undergoing a transition between the past Grand Maximum and a forthcoming period of Regular Oscillations. We forecast that this latter period will start in a few years and will continue for at least one Gleissberg cycle and that the next solar maximum (expected for 2014) will be low (Rmax ~ 68).
We discuss the heliospheric drivers of Sun-climate interaction and find that the low-latitude magnetic regions contribute most to tropospheric temperatures but that also the influence of the - so far always neglected - polar activity is significant. Subtraction of these components from the observed temperatures of the past 400 years shows a residual series of relative peaks and dips in the temperature. These tops and lows last for periods of the order of the Gleissberg cycle. One of these is the recent period of global warming, which, from this point of view, is not an exceptional period.
We briefly summarize the main contents of the papers presented by the contributors to the present Joint Discussion. Partly the remarks refer to the spacecraft payload, partly they aim at improving the ground observing facilities.