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Oil-jet lubrication and cooling of high-speed gears is frequently employed in aeronautical systems, such as novel high-bypass civil aero engines based on the geared turbofan technology. Using such oil-jet system, practitioners aim to achieve high cooling rates on the flanks of the highly thermally loaded gears with minimum oil usage. Thus, for an optimal design, detailed knowledge about the flow processes is desired. These involve the oil exiting the nozzle, the oil impacting on the gear teeth, the oil spreading on the flanks, the subsequent oil fling-off, as well as the effect of the design parameters on the oil flow. Better understanding of these processes will improve the nozzle design phase, e.g. regarding the nozzle positioning and orientation, as well as the nozzle sizing and operation.
Most related studies focus on the impingement depth to characterize the two-phase flow. However, the level of information of this scalar value is rather low for a complete description of the highly dynamic three-dimensional flow. Motivated by the advancements in numerical methods and the computational resources available nowadays, the investigation of the oil-jet gear interaction by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has come into focus lately.
In this work, a numerical setup based on the volume-of-fluid method is presented and employed to investigate the two-phase flow phenomena occurring in the vicinity of the gear teeth. The setup consists of a single oil-jet impinging on a single rotating spur gear. By introducing new metrics for characterizing the flow phenomena, extensive use of the possibilities of modern CFD is made, allowing a detailed transient and spatially resolved flow analysis. Thus, not only the impingement depth, but also the temporal and spatial evolution of wetted areas on the gear flanks, as well as the evolution of the oil volume in contact with the gear flanks are extracted from the simulation data and compared in a CFD study.
The study consists of 21 different simulation cases, whereby the effect of varying the jet velocity, the jet inclination angle, the jet diameter, and the gear speed are examined. Consistent results compared to a simplified analytical approach for the impinging depth are obtained and the results for the newly introduced metrics are presented.
Our research group demonstrated that vitamin A restriction affected meat quality of Angus cross and Simmental steers. Therefore, the aim of this study is to highlight the genotype variations in response to dietary vitamin A levels. Commercial Angus and Simmental steers (n = 32 per breed; initial BW = 337.2 ± 5.9 kg; ~8 months of age) were fed a low-vitamin A (LVA) (1017 IU/kg DM) backgrounding diet for 95 days to reduce hepatic vitamin A stores. During finishing, steers were randomly assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of genotype × dietary vitamin A concentration. The LVA treatment was a finishing diet with no supplemental vitamin A (723 IU vitamin A/kg DM); the control (CON) was the LVA diet plus supplementation with 2200 IU vitamin A/kg DM. Blood samples were collected at three time points throughout the study to analyze serum retinol concentration. At the completion of finishing, steers were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. Meat characteristics assessed were intramuscular fat concentration, color, Warner-Bratzler shear force, cook loss and pH. Camera image analysis was used for determination of marbling, 12th rib back fat and longissimus muscle area (LMA). The LVA steers had lower (P < 0.001) serum retinol concentration than CON steers. The LVA treatment resulted in greater (P = 0.03) average daily gain than the CON treatment, 1.52 and 1.44 ± 0.03 kg/day, respectively; however, there was no effect of treatment on final BW, DM intake or feed efficiency. Cooking loss and yield grade were greater and LMA was smaller in LVA steers (P < 0.05). There was an interaction between breed and treatment for marbling score (P = 0.01) and percentage of carcasses grading United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Prime (P = 0.02). For Angus steers, LVA treatment resulted in a 16% greater marbling score than CON (683 and 570 ± 40, respectively) and 27% of LVA Angus steers graded USDA Prime compared with 0% for CON. Conversely, there was no difference in marbling score or USDA Quality Grades between LVA and CON for Simmental steers. In conclusion, feeding a LVA diet during finishing increased marbling in Angus but not in Simmental steers. Reducing the vitamin A level of finishing diets fed to cattle with a high propensity to marble, such as Angus, has the potential to increase economically important traits such as marbling and quality grade without negatively impacting gain : feed or yield grade.
The aim of this study was to examine the long-term efficacy and safety of a monotherapy with quetiapine or sodium valproate (VPA) in patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder.
This open-label trial was conducted at three German centers. A sample of 38 remitted or partly remitted bipolar patients with rapid cycling (quetiapine n = 22; VPA n = 16) were treated with quetiapine or VPA (flexible-dose design) up to 12 months. Analyses were based on the ITT-LOCF principle.
41 % of the patients with quetiapine and 50 % with VPA completed the trial. According to the Clinical Global Impression Scale responder rates tended to be higher for quetiapine than for VPA: i.e. 43 % vs. 25 % (depression), 48 % vs. 36 % (mania), and 43 % vs. 19 % (improvement in both mania and depression). There were no differences found between the treatment groups evaluating the HRSD, MADRS and YMRS. In contrast, Life Chart Method data showed that patients being treated with quetiapine had significantly less depressive days than patients on VPA whilst they did not differ in the number of days with manic symptoms. The incidence of adverse events, especially of orthostatic dysregulation and sedation was higher in the quetiapine group.
Quetiapine may be more effective than VPA regarding depressive symptoms and as effective as VPA in the treatment of manic symptoms in the long-term treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. The side effect profile of quetiapine tends to be less favorable than the one of VPA.
This prospective, longitudinal study compared the frequency and pattern of mood changes between outpatients receiving usual care for bipolar disorder who were either taking or not taking antidepressants. One hundred and eighty-two patients with bipolar disorder self-reported mood and psychiatric medications for 4 months using a computerized system (ChronoRecord) and returned 22,626 days of data. One hundred and four patients took antidepressants, 78 did not. Of the antidepressants taken, 95% were selective serotonin or norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or second-generation antidepressants. Of the patients taking an antidepressant, 91.3% were concurrently taking a mood stabilizer. The use of antidepressants did not influence the daily rate of switching from depression to mania or the rate of rapid cycling, independent of diagnosis of bipolar I or II. The primary difference in mood pattern was the time spent normal or depressed. Patients taking antidepressants frequently remained in a subsyndromal depression. In this naturalistic study using self-reported data, patients with bipolar disorder who were taking antidepressants—overwhelmingly not tricyclics and with a concurrent mood stabilizer—did not experience an increase in the rate of switches to mania or rapid cycling compared to those not taking antidepressants. Antidepressants had little impact on the mood patterns of bipolar patients taking mood stabilizers.
To evaluate quetiapine XR as adjunct to ongoing antidepressant therapy in patients with MDD showing inadequate response to antidepressant treatment.
Data were analysed from two 6-week, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled studies (D1448C00006; D1448C00007), prospectively designed to be pooled. Outpatients received adjunctive quetiapine XR 150mg/day (n=309), 300mg/day (n=307), placebo (n=303). Primary endpoint: change at Week 6 in MADRS total score. Other assessments included: MADRS individual item scores, HAM-A total scores, MADRS response and remission; AE reporting.
Quetiapine XR 150mg/day and 300mg/day (p< 0.001) reduced MADRS total scores versus placebo at Week 6 (-14.5, -14.8, -12.0) and Week 1 (-7.8, -7.3, -5.1). Subgroup analyses showed the therapeutic effect of quetiapine XR was neither limited to nor driven by factors such as gender or antidepressant class (SSRI/SNRI). Quetiapine XR demonstrated consistent improvements in individual MADRS items: 150mg/day and 300mg/day significantly improved 4/10 and 7/10 items at Week 6 versus placebo. At Week 6, MADRS response (≥50% decrease in total score) was 53.7% (p=0.063), 58.3% (p< 0.01) versus 46.2%; MADRS remission (total score ≤8) was 35.6% (p< 0.01), 36.5% (p< 0.001) versus 24.1% for quetiapine XR 150mg/day and 300mg/day and placebo, respectively. Quetiapine XR 150mg/day and 300mg/day improved HAM-A total scores versus placebo at Week 1 (-4.8 [p< 0.001], -4.2 [p< 0.01], -3.0) and Week 6 (-8.9 [p< 0.01], -9.1 [p< 0.001], -7.3). AEs (≥10%) were dry mouth, somnolence, sedation, dizziness, fatigue, constipation and headache with quetiapine XR.
In patients with MDD and an inadequate response to antidepressant therapy adjunctive quetiapine XR is effective and generally well tolerated.
The objective is to describe the prevalence and nature of painful symptoms among depressive outpatients and how are they related with depressive symptoms and somatic non painful symptoms at baseline.
The FINDER study, conducted in 12 European countries in depressed outpatients in routine primary and specialist care settings provides a unique opportunity to answer these questions.
Painful symptoms were evaluated among 3468 patients enrolled by 437 investigators, using the 28-item Somatic Symptom Inventory (SSI-28) and 6 Visual Analogue Scales (1 item on overall pain and 5 items on pain characteristics: headaches, back pain, shoulder pain, interferences with daily activities and pain while awake). There was a strong correlation between the VAS overall pain score and the pain sub score of the SSI-28. The threshold score of 30 mm on the overall pain severity in combination with selected comorbidities was used to divide patients in three pain cohorts: (1) those with no/mild pain; (2) those with moderate/severe œmedically explained pain and (3) those with moderate/severe medically unexplained pain.
Results showed that 1447 (43.7%) patients had no/mild pain, 550 (16,6%) had moderate/severe medically explained pain, and 1311 (39,6%) had moderate/severe medically unexplained pain. Of the different locations of pain symptoms (from the SSI-28), headaches were the most common, followed by muscle soreness and lower back pain. The mean depression score (HADS-D) was higher in patients with pain-related symptoms.
We studied the correlations between the measures of pain and depression. These results and their implications will be discussed.
In schizophrenia treatment-compliance is a strong predictor of outcome, it depends on a longer lasting therapeutic alliance. SMS (Short Message Service) sent via mobile phones is an adequate tool to establish therapeutic contingency as was shown in a study on bulimia. This programme compliments outpatient treatment and is based on an exchange of SMS-messages between patient and therapist. On a weekly basis, patients supply information on subjective well-being, sleep, social contacts, and attitude towards medication. The patient's status is then rated as improved, deteriorated, or unchanged compared to the previous week and an adequate feedback message is sent. The study aimed at assessing feasibility and acceptance of this intervention in schizophrenia patients.
Thirty-six patients during inpatient-treatment for diagnoses of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder were screened and found eligible for participation. Those who agreed to participation were assessed with the SCID for DSM-IV and received instructions towards the use of the programme, which started after discharge and was designed to last for 4 months in addition to outpatient-treatment as usual.
Eight patients agreed to participation (7 male, 1 female, mean age 29 years), six of whom dropped out during the first three weeks, and only one patient completed the study.
In the presented study, patients suffering from schizophrenia showed a low acceptance rate of additional SMS support complimenting their regular outpatient-treatment. As opposed to our hypothesis and contrary to experiences with bulimia patients integrating an SMS intervention into the treatment of schizophrenia does not seem feasible.
Previous findings suggested that electrodermal hyporeactivity has a high sensitivity (up to 97%) and high raw specificity (up to 98%) for suicide.
To evaluate prevalence, sensitivity and specificity of electrodermal hyporeactivity for suicide and suicide attempt, with and without death intent and with violent method or not, in adult patients with a primary diagnosis of depression.
At each study site at least 100 patients with a primary diagnosis of depression, also in remission, will be recruited. Depressive symptomatology will be evaluated through the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale. Previous suicide attempts will be registered and the death intent of the worst attempt will be rated according to the first eight items of the Beck Suicide Intent Scale. The risk of suicide will be assessed according to rules and traditions at the centre. The EDOR Test (ElectroDermal Orienting Reactivity) will be performed. Two fingers are put on gold electrodes. Through headphones a moderately strong tone is presented now and then during the test. Sensors located within the electrodes are able to register the electrodermal response to those tones, measuring the skin conductance (i.e. electrodermal activity from sweat gland activity). Each patient will be followed up for one year for actions of intentional self-harm that require medical care and for suicide. The death intent will also be rated.
It is expected that the EDOR test detects a previously unknown neuropsychological dysfunction that is independent of the depressive state and can predict suicidality with a high sensitivity and specificity.
Efforts focused on prevention and early intervention may have a significant impact on public health by avoiding onset of mental illness and limiting severity of onset. The European project ProYouth investigates the potential of an Internet-based program in the prevention and early intervention of eating disorders where we know that only a minority of affected individuals seek professional help and additionally we often see a substantial delay between symptom onset and the uptake of treatment.
The functions of the ProYouth online platform are a) to raise awareness and to educate about eating disorders, b) to provide individualized feedback on eating disorder related attitudes, behaviours, and symptoms, c) to provide peer support and professional support online, and d) to refer individuals to regular professional healthcare if online support is not sufficient. These functions should allow for an early detection of eating disorder related impairment, early intervention via the Internet as well as timely access to regular care if necessary.
Via various dissemination channels (e.g., Internet, print media, social media, workshops), more than 100.000 young people have been informed about the ProYouth initiative in six European countries, more than 15.000 have used the online screening tools and more than 6.000 have registered to get full access to the information and support modules of the platform.
Findings confirm poor mental health literacy, shame, and stigmatization of eating disorders as barriers in the helpseeking process and point to the potential of the ProYouth platform in overcoming such barriers.
Two common approaches to identify subgroups of patients with bipolar disorder are clustering methodology (mixture analysis) based on the age of onset, and a birth cohort analysis. This study investigates if a birth cohort effect will influence the results of clustering on the age of onset, using a large, international database.
The database includes 4037 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, previously collected at 36 collection sites in 23 countries. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to adjust the data for country median age, and in some models, birth cohort. Model-based clustering (mixture analysis) was then performed on the age of onset data using the residuals. Clinical variables in subgroups were compared.
There was a strong birth cohort effect. Without adjusting for the birth cohort, three subgroups were found by clustering. After adjusting for the birth cohort or when considering only those born after 1959, two subgroups were found. With results of either two or three subgroups, the youngest subgroup was more likely to have a family history of mood disorders and a first episode with depressed polarity. However, without adjusting for birth cohort (three subgroups), family history and polarity of the first episode could not be distinguished between the middle and oldest subgroups.
These results using international data confirm prior findings using single country data, that there are subgroups of bipolar I disorder based on the age of onset, and that there is a birth cohort effect. Including the birth cohort adjustment altered the number and characteristics of subgroups detected when clustering by age of onset. Further investigation is needed to determine if combining both approaches will identify subgroups that are more useful for research.
Neuroprotective effects of lithium have been well documented in tissue cultures and animal models. The evidence for lithium related neuroprotection in human subjects is limited and inconsistent, likely due to methodological heterogeneity.
To investigate the effects of lithium on brain chemistry and structure, we recruited bipolar patients selected for substantial illness burden and varied the exposure to lithium by using strict inclusion criteria.
We obtained 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging data from 27 bipolar patients with at least 2 years of ongoing lithium treatment (Li group), 16 subjects with < 3 months lifetime exposure to lithium >2 years ago (non-Li group) and 21 healthy controls. Patient groups had to have at least 10 years of illness and 5 episodes.
The non-Li group had significantly lower hippocampal volumes (t = 4.68,corrected p < 0.05) and prefrontal cortex N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) levels (t = −2.91,corrected p < 0.05) than controls, who showed comparable hippocampal volumes and NAA levels to the Li treated subjects. Duration of illness was negatively associated with NAA levels only in the non-Li, but not the Li group.
Among patients selected for substantial illness burden, only those with no or minimal lifetime Li exposure had significantly lower prefrontal NAA levels and hippocampal volumes than controls. Patients with at least 2 years of ongoing Li treatment showed no such changes, despite substantial burden of illness. These findings provide indirect support for neuroprotective effects of lithium and negative effects of illness burden on brain chemistry and structure in patients with bipolar disorders.
It has been shown that patients with schizophrenia are super-sensitive towards dopamine-releasing agents such as amphetamine. Here, we studied the effects of amphetamine sensitization on amphetamine-induced dopamine release in healthy subjects.
To measure d-amphetamine-induced dopamine release as measured with the D2,3 agonist radioligand [11C]-(+)-PHNO-PET via change in non-displacable binding potential (BPND) and behavioral measures of d-amphetamine effects with drug effects questionnaire (DEQ) and subjective states questionnaire (SSQ).
To study d-amphetamine-induced sensitization in healthy subjects on a behavioral and neurochemical level with [11C]-(+)-PHNO-PET in order to gain more knowledge on sensitization-induced changes in the dopaminergic system.
Twelve stimulant-naïve healthy male subjects underwent three 90-min [11C]-(+)-PHNO-PET-scans and four oral administrations of d-amphetamine. After a naïve baseline scan, subjects underwent a PET scan with previous ingestion of 0.4 mg/kg bodyweight of d-amphetamine 90–120 minutes before scanning. Subsequently, subjects were sensitized to d-amphetamine with the same dose on two separate days. Thereafter, they underwent another PET scan with previous d-amphetamine ingestion. DEQ and SSQ were administered before, 60 min, 90–120 min, and 210 min after amphetamine ingestion.
We found significant sensitization effects on a behavioral level and on a neurochemical level after four administrations of amphetamine. Items of the SSQ, which showed significant sensitization effects were “outgoing”, “energetic”, “lively”, “alert” and “focused”.
We were able to induce significant behavioral and neurochemical sensitization in healthy humans, which were measured with [11C]-(+)-PHNO-PET for the first time. This sensitization model will be useful for studying the neurobiology of schizophrenia.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
A prevalence study was conducted on German sheep flocks including goats if they cohabitated with sheep. In addition, a novel approach was applied to identify an infection at the herd-level before lambing season with preputial swabs, suspecting venereal transmission and ensuing colonisation of preputial mucosa with Coxiella (C.) burnetii. Blood samples and genital swabs were collected from breeding males and females after the mating season and were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) respectively. In total, 3367 animals were sampled across 71 flocks. The true herd-level prevalence adjusted for misclassification probabilities of the applied diagnostic tests using the Rogan-Gladen estimator for the prevalence estimate and a formula by Lang and Reiczigel (2014) for the confidence limits, ranged between 31.3% and 33% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 17.3–45.5) detected by the ELISA and/or qPCR. Overall 26–36.6% (95% CI 13–56.8) were detected by ELISA, 13.9% (95% CI 4.5–23.2) by the qPCR and 7.9–11.2% (95% CI 0.08–22.3) by both tests simultaneously. The range of results is due to data obtained from literature with different specifications for test quality for ELISA. Among eight farms with females shedding C. burnetii, three farms (37.5%) could also be identified by preputial swabs from breeding sires. This indicates less reliability of preputial swabs if used as a single diagnostic tool to detect C. burnetii infection at the herd-level.
There is evidence for the cost-effectiveness of health visitor (HV) training to assess postnatal depression (PND) and deliver psychological approaches to women at risk of depression. Whether this approach is cost-effective for lower-risk women is unknown. There is a need to know the cost of HV-delivered universal provision, and how much it might cost to improve health-related quality of life for postnatal women. A sub-study of a cluster-randomised controlled trial in the former Trent region (England) previously investigated the effectiveness of PoNDER HV training in mothers at lower risk of PND. We conducted a parallel cost-effectiveness analysis at 6-months postnatal for all mothers with lower-risk status attributed to an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score <12 at 6-weeks postnatal.
Intervention HVs were trained in assessment and cognitive behavioural or person-centred psychological support techniques to prevent depression. Outcomes examined: quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gains over the period between 6 weeks and 6 months derived from SF-6D (from SF-36); risk-of-depression at 6 months (dichotomising 6-month EPDS scores into lower risk (<12) and at-risk (⩾12).
In lower-risk women, 1474 intervention (63 clusters) and 767 control participants (37 clusters) had valid 6-week and 6-month EPDS scores. Costs and outcomes data were available for 1459 participants. 6-month adjusted costs were £82 lower in intervention than control groups, with 0.002 additional QALY gained. The probability of cost-effectiveness at £20 000 was very high (99%).
PoNDER HV training was highly cost-effective in preventing symptoms of PND in a population of lower-risk women and cost-reducing over 6 months.
Through this study we aimed to assess the educational level and employment status of adults with CHD in Germany.
Data were acquired from an online survey carried out in 2015 by the German National Register for Congenital Heart Defects. A total of 1458 adults with CHD participated in the survey (response rate: 37.6%). For 1198 participants, detailed medical information, such as main cardiac diagnosis and information from medical reports, was available.
Of the participants surveyed (n=1198), 54.5% (n=653) were female, and the mean age was 30 years. The majority of respondents (59.4%) stated that they had high education levels and that they were currently employed (51.1%). Patients with simple CHD had significantly higher levels of education (p<0.001) and were more likely to be employed (p=0.01) than were patients with complex CHD.
More than half of the participants had high education levels and the majority were employed. The association between CHD and its severity and individuals’ educational attainment should be investigated more closely in future studies.
Exercise during pregnancy has beneficial effects on maternal and offspring’s health in humans and mice. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This comparative study aimed to determine the long-term effects of an exercise program on metabolism, weight gain, body composition and changes in hormones [insulin, leptin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)]. Pregnant women (n=34) and mouse dams (n=44) were subjected to an exercise program compared with matched controls (period I). Follow-up in the offspring was performed over 6 months in humans, corresponding to postnatal day (P) 21 in mice (period II). Half of the mouse offspring was challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks between P70 and P112 (period III). In period I, exercise during pregnancy led to 6% lower fat content, 40% lower leptin levels and an increase of 50% BDNF levels in humans compared with controls, which was not observed in mice. After period II in humans and mice, offspring body weight did not differ from that of the controls. Further differences were observed in period III. Offspring of exercising mouse dams had significantly lower fat mass and leptin levels compared with controls. In addition, at P112, BDNF levels in offspring were significantly higher from exercising mothers while this effect was completely blunted by HFD feeding. In this study, we found comparable effects on maternal and offspring’s weight gain in humans and mice but different effects in insulin, leptin and BDNF. The long-term potential protective effects of exercise on biomarkers should be examined in human studies.
The results of extensive experimental testing of an aero-engine air-oil separator are presented and discussed. The study focuses on the pressure loss of the system. Oil enters the device in the form of dispersed droplets. Subsequently, separation occurs by centrifuging larger droplets towards the outer walls and by film formation at the inner surface of a rotating porous material, namely an open-cell metal foam. The work described here is part of a study led jointly by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and the University of Nottingham (UNott) within a recent EU project.
The goal of the research is to increase the separation efficiency to mitigate oil consumption and emissions, while keeping the pressure loss as low as possible. The aim is to determine the influencing factors on pressure loss and separation efficiency. With this knowledge, a correlation can eventually be derived. Experiments were conducted for three different separator configurations, one without a metal foam and two with metal foams of different pore sizes. For each configuration, a variety of engine-like conditions of air mass flow rate, rotational speed and droplet size was investigated. The experimental results were used to validate and improve the numerical modelling.
Results for the pressure drop and its dependencies on air mass flow rate and the rotational speed were analysed. It is shown that the swirling flow and the dissipation of angular momentum are the most important contributors to the pressure drop, besides the losses due to friction and dissipation caused by the flow passing the metal foam. It was found that the ratio of the rotor speed and the tangential velocity of the fluid is an important parameter to describe the influence of rotation on the pressure loss. Contrary to expectations, the pressure loss is not necessarily increased with a metal foam installed.