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We concur with the authors’ overall approach and suggest that their analysis should be taken even further. First, the same points apply to areas beyond perceptual decision making. Second, the same points apply beyond issues of optimality versus suboptimality.
To evaluate whole-genome sequencing (WGS) as a molecular typing tool for MRSA outbreak investigation.
Investigation of MRSA colonization/infection in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) over 3 years (2014–2017).
Single-center level IV NICU.
NICU infants and healthcare workers (HCWs).
Infants were screened for MRSA using a swab of the anterior nares, axilla, and groin, initially by targeted (ring) screening, and later by universal weekly screening. Clinical cultures were collected as indicated. HCWs were screened once using swabs of the anterior nares. MRSA isolates were typed using WGS with core-genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) analysis and by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Colonized and infected infants and HCWs were decolonized. Control strategies included reinforcement of hand hygiene, use of contact precautions, cohorting, enhanced environmental cleaning, and remodeling of the NICU.
We identified 64 MRSA-positive infants: 53 (83%) by screening and 11 (17%) by clinical cultures. Of 85 screened HCWs, 5 (6%) were MRSA positive. WGS of MRSA isolates identified 2 large clusters (WGS groups 1 and 2), 1 small cluster (WGS group 3), and 8 unrelated isolates. PFGE failed to distinguish WGS group 2 and 3 isolates. WGS groups 1 and 2 were codistributed over time. HCW MRSA isolates were primarily in WGS group 1. New infant MRSA cases declined after implementation of the control interventions.
We identified 2 contemporaneous MRSA outbreaks alongside sporadic cases in a NICU. WGS was used to determine strain relatedness at a higher resolution than PFGE and was useful in guiding efforts to control MRSA transmission.
We present and analyze spectra of the Type IIn supernova 1994W obtained between 18 and 202 days after explosion. During the first 100 days the line profiles are composed of three major components: (i) narrow P Cygni lines with absorption minima at −700 km s−1; (ii) broad emission lines with blue velocity at zero intensity ~ 4000 km s−1; (iii) broad, smooth, extended wings most apparent in Hα. These components are identified with the expanding circumstellar (CS) envelope , shocked cool gas in the forward postshock region, and multiple Thomson scattering in the CS envelope, respectively. The absence of broad P Cygni lines from the supernova (SN) is the result of the formation of an optically thick, cool, dense shell at the interface of the ejecta and the CS envelope. Models of the SN deceleration and Thomson scattering wings are used to recover the Thomson optical depth of the CS envelope, τT ≥ 2.5 during first month, its density (n ~ 109 cm-3) and radial extent, ~ (4 — 5) × 1015 cm. The plateau-like SN light curve, which we reproduce by a hydrodynamical model, is powered by a combination of internal energy leakage after the explosion of an extended presupernova (~ 1015 cm) and subsequent luminosity from circumstellar interaction. We recover the pre-explosion kinematics of the CS envelope and find it to be close to homologous expansion with outmost velocity ≈ 1100 km s-1 and a kinematic age of ~ 1.5 yr. The high mass (≈ 0.4 M⊙) and kinetic energy (≈ 2 × 1048 erg) of the CS envelope combined with small age strongly suggest that the CS envelope was explosively ejected only a few years before the SN explosion.
We present new and archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of circumnuclear star-forming rings in barred spiral galaxies. We find that nuclear rings in barred galaxies are composed of large numbers of super star clusters similar to those found recently in other types of starburst systems. In NGC 1097 and NGC 6951, the young clusters have absolute magnitudes of up to Mv = −14 or −15, depending on highly uncertain extinction corrections, and effective radii of 2–3 pc. The images (especially that of NGC 6951) also show intricate spiral dust lane structure interior to the rings.
The objective of the paper is to determine the stable mechanical equilibrium states of an oblate capsule subjected to a simple shear flow, by positioning its revolution axis initially off the shear plane. We consider an oblate capsule with a strain-hardening membrane and investigate the influence of the initial orientation, capsule aspect ratio
, viscosity ratio
between the internal and external fluids and the capillary number
which compares the viscous to the elastic forces. A numerical model coupling the finite element and boundary integral methods is used to solve the three-dimensional fluid–structure interaction problem. For any initial orientation, the capsule converges towards the same mechanical equilibrium state, which is only a function of the capillary number and viscosity ratio. For
, only four regimes are stable when
: tumbling and swinging in the low and medium
), regimes for which the capsule revolution axis is contained within the shear plane; then wobbling during which the capsule experiences precession around the vorticity axis; and finally rolling along the vorticity axis at high capillary numbers. When
is increased, the tumbling-to-swinging transition occurs for higher
; the wobbling regime takes place at lower
values and within a narrower
, the swinging regime completely disappears, which indicates that the stable equilibrium states are mainly the tumbling and rolling regimes at higher viscosity ratios. We finally show that the
phase diagram is qualitatively similar for higher aspect ratio. Only the
-range over which wobbling is stable increases with
, restricting the stability ranges of in- and out-of-plane motions, although this phenomenon is mainly visible for viscosity ratios larger than 1.
Emission features from ionized carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide were measured in the 1900- to 4300-Å spectral region. The Lyman-α 1216-Å line of atomic hydrogen and the 1304-, 1356-, and 2972-Å lines of atomic oxygen were observed.
Introduction: A cost-minimization analysis (CMA) was performed comparing IVIg and PLEX in the management of patients with exacerbation of myasthenia gravis (MG). Methods: This study combines Ontario-based health costing data with clinical data from a randomized clinical trial where patients with moderate/severe MG received either IVIg or PLEX. The CMA was undertaken under the perspective of a public health care insurer and under the perspective of a tertiary hospital payer. Results: The IVIg group (n=32) was comparable with the PLEX group (n=38) regarding demographics, disease characteristics and severity. PLEX was less costly than IVIg among patients with body mass index (BMI) ≤15.7 Kg/m2, under the perspective of a public health care insurer (CAN$6,271.18 versus CAN$8,309.72, p<0.0001). However, PLEX was more costly than IVIg under the perspective of the hospital payer when the costs of blood products were excluded (CAN$4,815.36 versus CAN$1,486.12, p<0.0001). Conclusions: PLEX may be a short-term cost-minimizing therapy when compared with IVIg for treatment of MG exacerbation among patients with BMI ≤15.7 Kg/m2, under the perspective of a public health care insurer. However, when the costs of blood products are absorbed by a third party, the hospital administration may see IVIg as a more attractive therapeutic alternative.
Although the cadmium chloride treatment is an essential process for high efficiency thin film cadmium telluride photovoltaic devices, the precise mechanisms involved that improve the cadmium telluride layer are not well understood. In this investigation we apply advanced micro-structural characterization techniques to study the effect of varying the time of the cadmium chloride annealing treatment on the micro-structure of cadmium telluride solar cells deposited by close spaced sublimation (CSS) and relate this to cell performance. A range of techniques has been used to observe the morphological changes to the micro-structure as well as the chemical and crystallographic changes as a function of treatment parameters. Electrical tests that link the device performance with the micro-structural properties of the cells have also been undertaken. Techniques used include Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for sub-grain analysis and XPS for composition-depth profiling. The study provides a new insight in to the mechanisms involved in the initiation and the subsequent complete re-crystallization of the cadmium telluride layer.
The objective of this study is to investigate the motion of an ellipsoidal capsule in a simple shear flow when its revolution axis is initially placed off the shear plane. We consider prolate capsules with an aspect ratio of two or three enclosed by a membrane, which is either strain-hardening or strain-softening. We seek the equilibrium motion of the capsule as we increase the capillary number
, which measures the ratio between the viscous and elastic forces. The three-dimensional fluid–structure interaction problem is solved numerically by coupling a boundary integral method (for the internal and external flows) with a finite element method (for the wall deformation). For any initial inclination with the flow vorticity axis, a given capsule converges towards a unique equilibrium configuration which depends on
. At low capillary number, the stable equilibrium motion is the rolling regime: the capsule aligns its long axis with the vorticity axis, while the membrane tank-treads. As
increases, the capsule takes a complex wobbling motion at equilibrium, precessing around the vorticity axis. As
is further increased, the capsule long axis oscillates about the shear plane, while the membrane rotates around a capsule cross-section that also oscillates over time (oscillating–swinging regime). The amplitude of the oscillations about the shear plane decreases as
increases and the capsule finally takes a swinging motion in the shear plane. It is found that the transitions from rolling to wobbling and from wobbling to oscillating–swinging depend on the mean energy stored in the membrane.
This study aims at identifying the release mechanisms of helium in uranium dioxide. Two sets of polycrystalline UO2 sintered samples presenting different microstructures were implanted with 3He ions at concentrations in the region of 0.1 at.%. Changes in helium concentrations were monitored using two Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) techniques based on the 3He(d,α)1H reaction. 3He release is measured in-situ during sample annealing at temperatures ranging between 700°C and 1000°C. Accurate helium depth profiles are generated after each annealing stage. Results that provide data for further understanding helium release mechanisms are discussed. It is found that helium diffusion appears to be enhanced above 900°C in the vicinity of grain boundaries possibly as a result of the presence of defects.
Chlorine is present as an impurity in the UO2 nuclear fuel. 35Cl is activated into 36Cl by thermal neutron capture. In case of interim storage or deep geological disposal of the spent fuel, this isotope is known to be able to contribute significantly to the instant release fraction because of its mobile behavior and its long half life (around 300000 years). It is therefore important to understand its migration behavior within the fuel rod. During reactor operation, chlorine diffusion can be due to thermally activated processes or can be favoured by irradiation defects induced by fission fragments or alpha decay. In order to decouple both phenomena, we performed two distinct experiments to study the effects of thermal annealing on the behaviour of chlorine on one hand and the effects of the irradiation with fission products on the other hand. During in reactor processes, part of the 36Cl may be displaced from its original position, due to recoil or to collisions with fission products. In order to study the behavior of the displaced chlorine, 37Cl has been implanted into sintered depleted UO2 pellets (mean grain size around 18 μm). The spatial distribution of the implanted and pristine chlorine has been analyzed by SIMS before and after treatment. Thermal annealing of 37Cl implanted UO2 pellets (implantation fluence of 1013 ions.cm−2) show that it is mobile from temperatures as low as 1273 K (Ea=4.3 eV). The irradiation with fission products (Iodine, E=63.5 MeV) performed at 300 and 510 K, shows that the diffusion of chlorine is enhanced and that a thermally activated contribution is preserved (Ea=0.1 eV). The diffusion coefficients measured at 1473 K and under fission product irradiation at 510 K are similar (D = 3.10-14 cm2.s−1). Considering in first approximation that the diffusion length L can be expressed as a function of the diffusion coefficient D and time t by : L=(Dt)1/2, the diffusion distance after 3 years is L=17 μm. It results that there is a great probability for the chlorine contained in the UO2 grains to have reached the grain boundaries after 3 years, in the core of the fuel rod as well as at its periphery. Moreover, diffusion and concentration of chlorine at grain boundaries has been evidenced using SIMS mapping. Our results indicate therefore, that, during reactor operation and after, the majority of 36Cl is likely to have moved to grain boundaries, rim and gap. This fraction might then significantly contribute to the rapid or instant release of chlorine. This could have important consequences for safety assessment.
Les voies de transfert du fer et du cuivre sont étudiées chez Lymnaea truncatula par histochimie, histopathologie et dosages quantitatifs sur les masses molles globales de ces animaux. Le fer pénètre par les régions péritentaculaires et le tube digestif ; il est excrété par les "cellules à cytoplasme dense" des acini de la glande digestive et par les ovocytes de la glande génitale. Les régions péritentaculaires sont seules responsables de la pénétration du cuivre ; ce dernier est véhiculé par les amibocytes et excrété au niveau des granules formés par les "cellules digestives" de la glande digestive.
The narrow and direct bandgap of indium antimonide is frequently used to good advantage in detection of light in the infra-red region; however, to date little use has been made of the high mobilities associated with this material. Although its high intrinsic carrier concentration generally necessitates operation at cooled temperatures, higher speeds and the advantage of integrating other devices on-chip with the infrared detectors encourages the development of an active device technology on this semiconductor. Considering its small bandgap, the problems associated with good p-n junctions may favor the MISFET in this application. Surprisingly, little has been done toward this goal, though structures such as chargecoupled- devices , focal array detectors , and a few insulated gate FETs [3,4] have been fabricated. In this paper we present the results of our recent work toward the development of a fabrication technology for InSb MISFETs. Specifically, we have conducted a study of etchants, metal contacts, and dielectrics for application to mesa-structure, insulated gate field transistors.
The deposition of InAs on GaAs results, above a 1.75 monolayer coverage, in the formation of dots on a residual 2D wetting layer. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements show that these dots are in the quantum size range (height 3 nm, half-base 12 nm). Transmission electron microcopy (AFM) observations show that they are coherently strained and the corresponding strain contrast is simulated using the dynamical electron diffraction contrast theory. The dot strain fields used for the TEM contrast simulations are either deduced from continuous elastic models or determined by valence force field (VFF) atomistic calculations. That experimental TEM images and simulated images should match shows that the methods of determination of the dot strain fields are valid.
This work uses an external alpha beam to irradiate an uranium oxide/water interface and investigates the release of uranium in aerated deionized water under alpha irradiation. A high energy alpha beam delivered by a cyclotron (CERI-CNRS) goes through the oxide and emerges in the water with a 20 MeV energy. First results are reported here showing that the uranium mass loss rate increases by three orders of magnitude in aerated deionized water under high flux (≥3.3×1010 α.cm−2s−1).
Al-spiking in contacts to Si were studied on a microscopic scale by a detailed cross sectional TEM analysis. Electron spectroscopic imaging and energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis with a I nm high-current electron probe formed by a field emission gun helped to identify the Al-diffusion paths and the reaction mechanisms which lead to contact failure. Combinations of advanced PVD-Ti/TiN barrier layers and cold/hot or high-pressure AlSiCu-fills revealed that the highly rugged TiN barrier sidewalls and thick Ti sidewall layers are the weak points which cause Al-spiking.
SrS:Ce is an important material for full color electroluminescent (EL) flat panel displays. Using a combination of SrS:Ce/ZnS:Mn and appropriate color filters high quality full color displays have been demonstrated . Major issues for commercially viable process integration of SrS:Ce are the combination of high luminance, high growth rate, and process temperatures below 600°C for compatibility with low cost glass substrates. This work describes the process development and optimization of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of SrS:Ce. MOCVD is a promising candidate for deposition of SrS:Ce because it can provide the required growth rates and allows control of crystal structure and stoichiometry. Growth of SrS:Ce was performed in the temperature range from 400°C to 530°C using Sr(tmhd)2, Ce(tmhd)4, and H2S as precursors. The structure of the SrS:Ce was found to be strongly dependent on the H2S flow. A brightness of 15 fL and an efficiency of 0.22 lm/W has been achieved (40 V above threshold voltage, 60 Hz AC). Film analysis included Rutherford backscattering (RBS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and EL measurements. Results on the correlation between process parameters, film structure, grain size and EL performance will be presented.
Cadmium Sulfide/Cadmium Telluride (CdS/CdTe) thin-film solar cells were fabricated by an in-line, close-space-sublimation (CSS) process at Colorado State University. Source temperature control was used to reduce the deposited CdS thickness. Quantum efficiency (QE) showed CdS thicknesses that varied over a range from 250 to 10 nm. Current-Voltage (J-V) measurements showed increased Jsc as CdS was thinned. Thin CdS resulted in reduced voltage (800 mV to 350 mV) and fill factor, which offset gains in current, and caused efficiencies to drop from 12.6% for thick CdS layers to 4.5% for devices with the thinnest CdS. These performance trends are consistent with calculations assuming parallel junctions of CdS/CdTe and SnO2/CdTe. Localized weak-junction formation was characterized by high-resolution laser-beam-induced current (LBIC) mapping. Greater incidence of spatial non-uniformities in photocurrent response accompanied thinning of the CdS layer, with 638-nm spectral response varying spatially by 4.5% for thin CdS devices compared to variations less than 1% for devices with thicker CdS. Non-uniformities of cells with thin CdS are highly sensitive to voltage bias and are likely indicative of parallel p-n and Schottky-type junctions.
He implantation followed by thermal anneal is a well-established technique for creating layers or bands of cavities in silicon. This process is a consequence of the interaction between He and ion-implant-induced vacancies. Applications of such cavity layers include gettering and localized minority carrier lifetime control, and compliant substrates for lattice-mismatched heteroepitaxy. Studies have shown that the presence of interstitial-type defects can lead to the shrinkage of He-cavities due to the interstitial capture by the cavities. However, few of them deal with the interaction of cavities with vacancies. Here we present results on the formation of He-cavities in Si in the presence of atomic hydrogen and vacancies produced by effusion of hydrogen. Following a helium implant, samples were hydrogenated with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) hydrogen plasma. Control samples without any hydrogenation were also used. We studied the influence of hydrogen on void morphology. While hydrogen enhances void size at higher energy implants, the enhancement effect is absent in lower energy implants. The results underscore the role of vacancies in void formation and growth.