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Although it is crucial to improve the treatment status of people with severe mental illness (SMI), it is still unknown whether and how socioeconomic development influences their treatment status.
To explore the change in treatment status in people with SMI from 1994 to 2015 in rural China and to examine the factors influencing treatment status in those with SMI.
Two mental health surveys using identical methods and ICD-10 were conducted in 1994 and 2015 (population ≥15 years old, n = 152 776) in the same six townships of Xinjin County, Chengdu, China.
Compared with 1994, individuals with SMI in 2015 had significantly higher rates of poor family economic status, fewer family caregivers, longer duration of illness, later age at first onset and poor mental status. Participants in 2015 had significantly higher rates of never being treated, taking antipsychotic drugs and ever being admitted to hospital, and lower rates of using traditional Chinese medicine or being treated by traditional/spiritual healers. The factors strongly associated with never being treated included worse mental status (symptoms/social functioning), older age, having no family caregivers and poor family economic status.
Socioeconomic development influences the treatment status of people with SMI in contemporary rural China. Relative poverty, having no family caregivers and older age are important factors associated with a worse treatment status. Culture-specific, community-based interventions and targeted poverty-alleviation programmes should be developed to improve the early identification, treatment and recovery of individuals with SMI in rural China.
Previous studies have inferred a strong genetic component in schizophrenia. However, the genetic variants involved in the susceptibility to schizophrenia remain unclear.
To detect potential gene pathways and networks associated with schizophrenia, and to explore the relationship between common and rare variants in these pathways and abnormal white matter integrity in schizophrenia.
The analysis included 100 first-episode treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 140 healthy controls. A network-based analysis was carried out on the data collected from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Phase I (PGC-I). Based on our genome-wide association study and whole-exome sequencing data-sets, we performed a gene-set analysis to detect associations between the combining effects of common and rare genetic variants and abnormal white matter integrity in schizophrenia.
Patients had significantly reduced functional anisotropy in the left and right anterior cingulate cortex, left and right precuneus and extra-nuclear (t = 4.61–5.10, PFDR < 0.01), compared with controls. Generated from co-expression network analysis of the PGC-1 summary statistics of schizophrenia, a subnetwork of 207 genes associated with schizophrenia was identified (P < 0.01), and 176 genes were co-expressed in four gene modules. Functional enrichment analysis for genes in each module revealed that the yellow module was enriched with highly co-expressed, innate immune response genes. Furthermore, rare variants of enriched genes in the yellow module were associated with reduced functional anisotropy in the left anterior cingulate cortex (P = 0.006; Padjusted = 0.024) in patients only.
The pathogenesis of schizophrenia may be substantially influenced by genes involved in the immune system, via both pathway and network.
SCN5A encodes sodium-channel α-subunit Nav1.5. The mutations of SCN5A can lead to hereditary cardiac arrhythmias such as the long-QT syndrome type 3 and Brugada syndrome. Here we sought to identify novel mutations in a family with arrhythmia.
Genomic DNA was isolated from blood of the proband, who was diagnosed with atrial flutter. Illumina Hiseq 2000 whole-exome sequencing was performed and an arrhythmia-related gene-filtering strategy was used to analyse the pathogenic genes. Sanger sequencing was applied to verify the mutation co-segregated in the family.
Results and conclusions
A novel missense mutation in SCN5A (C335R) was identified, and this mutation co-segregated within the affected family members. This missense mutation was predicted to result in amplitude reduction in peak Na+ current, further leading to channel protein dysfunction. Our study expands the spectrum of SCN5A mutations and contributes to genetic counselling of families with arrhythmia.
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of chronic kidney disease. We aimed to investigate the effect of the low-protein diets (LPD) supplemented with ketoacids (LPD+KA) in KKAy mice, an early type 2 DN model. KKAy mice were treated with normal protein diet (NPD), LPD or LPD+KA from 12 to 24 weeks of age. A period of 12-week treatment with LPD significantly reduced albuminuria as compared with that observed after NPD treatment. Treatment with LPD+KA further reduced albuminuria as compared with that observed with LPD treatment alone. Moreover, LPD treatment reduced mesangial expansion, thickness of glomerular basement membrane and the severity of the podocyte foot process effacement in KKAy mice; these effects were more pronounced in KKAy mice treated with LPD+KA. Both LPD and LPD+KA treatments slightly reduced total body weight, but had no significant effect on kidney weight and blood glucose concentrations when compared with NPD-treated KKAy mice. LPD treatment slightly attenuated oxidative stress in kidneys as compared with that observed in NPD-treated KKAy mice; however, LPD+KA treatment remarkably ameliorated oxidative stress in diabetic kidneys as shown by decreased malondialdehyde concentrations, protein carbonylation, nitrotyrosine expression and increased superoxide dismutase expression. Nutritional therapy using LPD+KA confers additional renal benefits as compared with those of LPD treatment alone in early type 2 DN through inhibition of oxidative stress.
Red skin disease seriously limits the production and quality of Panax ginseng (ginseng) in the Changbai Mountains of Northeast China, which is the main origin of ginseng. To cultivate ginseng, the albic and humus horizons of albic luvisols are artificially mixed to produce ginseng bed soils. To clarify the relationship between red skin disease and soil characteristics, red skin disease indices were calculated from six plots located on a ginseng farm. Ginseng roots were analysed for aluminium (Al) content. Soils from the ginseng beds were sampled at three depths for the evaluation of physico-chemical parameters. Al fractionation from the soil solid fraction was analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Ginseng plants exhibiting larger red skin areas accumulated higher concentrations of Al in the epidermis and in the fibrous roots. Ginseng bed soils in the six plots were acidic with pHH2O values ranging from 4.0 to 5.0. Plots exhibiting higher red skin disease indices also had higher bulk densities, moisture contents and nitrate concentrations. They also contained higher concentrations of exchangeable Al, NaOH-extracted Al and ammonium oxalate-oxalic-extracted Al in the bed soils. The Al saturation and molar ratio of base cations to Al were above 20% and below 10, respectively, in the two plots with the highest disease indices. Compact soils with higher moisture, nitrate concentrations and active Al species may increase the incidence of ginseng red skin disease.
Several divergent sympatry mtDNA lineages have been described in redlip mullet Liza haematocheilus, and this high inter-lineage divergence raises questions about the taxonomic status of L. haematocheilus lineages in the north-western Pacific. In this study, the amplified fragment length polymorphism technique was employed to examine genetic structure of L. haematocheilus and estimate the level of independence of the different mtDNA lineages in the north-western Pacific. A total of 186 bands were amplified from 91 individuals among 8 populations by 4 primer combinations and the percentage of polymorphic bands was 91.74%. The Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean tree based on Nei genetic distance revealed two clusters (North Clade and South Clade). Molecular variance analysis and pairwise FST supported the separation of north and south populations of L. haematocheilus in the north-western Pacific. The incongruence between nuclear groups and mitochondrial lineages suggests the three distinct lineages do not represent cryptic species and the presence of divergent mitochondrial lineages in the same sample is a result of secondary contact after an extended period of isolation. The Pleistocene isolation and biological characteristics of species may be responsible for the genetic differentiation of L. haematocheilus.
We report here investigations on the superstructure modulation induced by the ordering of carbon vacancies in the nonstoichiometric zirconium carbide of ZrC0.61, which was prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) of the mechanochemically synthesized ZrCx nanopowders. The sintered ZrC0.61 is found to exhibit an interesting microstructure of interlaced laminated sheets. In contrast to the previous long duration post annealing for realization of the ordered carbon vacancies in the rocksalt-structured transition metal carbide, the ordered carbon vacancies are directly obtained during the SPS process, and no post-annealing period is necessary. With the help of transmission electron microscopy, the superstructural nanodomains with the average size of ∼30 nm are identified.
The asymmetrical hysteresis loops of the longitudinal field annealed Co58Fe5Ni10Si11B16 amorphous ribbons were studied. Longitudinal magnetic training was deliberately performed on the annealed samples with exchange bias behavior. It was found that the shifted loops can be technically controlled by training the ribbons to modulate the abnormal magnetic features. The scanning probe microscope results reveal that the AC longitudinal magnetic training can decrease the vertical magnetic signal on the sample surface to a great extent. This skillful magnetic training method provides an approach to tailor the exchange bias behavior in the Co-based amorphous ribbons for potential applications.
In this work, local AFM oxidation technique in a controlled humidity environment has been used to create small features in strained SiGe alloys. When directly oxidizing SiGe alloys, minimum line widths of 20nm were achieved by adjusting parameters such as the bias voltage on the microscope tip and the tip writing speed. It was found that when bias voltage increases, and/or when the tip writing speed decreases, the oxidation height of silicon-germanium increases. In contrast to conventional thermal oxidation, the oxide height on SiGe alloys is slightly less than that on Si. Finally, this method was used to successfully cut conducting SiGe quantum well lines with high resolution.
SiGe quantum devices were demonstrated by AFM oxidation and selective wet etching with features size down to 50 nm. To passivate the devices and eliminate the interface states between Si/SiO2, low temperature regrowth of epitaxial silicon over strained SiGe has been tested. The silicon regrowth on Si0.8Ge0.2 was done by rapid thermal chemical vapor deposition (RTCVD) at 700 °C using a hydrogen pre-cleaning process at 800 °C and 10 torr. SIMS analysis and photoluminescence (PL) of strained SiGe capped with epitaxial regrown silicon show a clean interface. Nano-gaps between doped SiGe filled and overgrown with epitaxial silicon show an electrical insulating property at 4.2 K.
Solid phase crystallization (SPC) of a-Si: H at 600°C was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy in a cantilever structure, where the underlying SiO2 was removed prior to the crystallization. The absence of the underlying oxide leads to both a higher grain size and a lower intragranular defect density. The grain size increases from 0.6 μm in regions with the underlying oxide to 3.0 μm without the underlying oxide, and the intragranular defect density decreases one order of magnitude from ∼ 1011 cm-2 to ∼ 1010 cm-2. The improvements in material quality without the lower a-Si/SiO2 interface are thought to be due to a lower nucleation rate and a lower tensile stress with an easier silicon atomic rearrangement at the lower silicon interface.
The estimation of dietary intake in population-based studies is often assessed by the FFQ. The objective of our study is to evaluate the validity of an FFQ used to assess dietary fatty acid intake among middle-aged Chinese adults in Southern China.
The method of triads was applied to obtain the validity coefficients (VC) of the FFQ for specific fatty acids. A subsample was randomly selected from an earlier cross-sectional study. The FFQ and 3d dietary records were used for dietary assessment, and the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes was determined as the biomarker.
The Spearman correlation coefficients between the FFQ and 3d dietary records were moderate to good (r = 0·28–0·66). The VC of the FFQ estimated by the method of triads were 0·72, 0·61, 0·65, 0·75 and 0·67 for MUFA, total n-6 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid, EPA and DHA, respectively. The VC could not be calculated for SFA, PUFA and total n-3 fatty acids because of negative correlations among the three measurements. But, the correlations between the FFQ and the dietary records were moderate for these fatty acids.
Our FFQ applied in Southern Chinese adults was valid to estimate their dietary fatty acid intake and was thus suitable for use in a large cohort study.
Six transgenic maize lines with the fully modified gene GFM Cry1A were obtained and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of their T5 generation plants indicated that foreign genes could be stably inherited. Three hybrids (Simi25Bt, Tongdan24Bt and Jidan209Bt) were created using the transgenic lines and combined with regular maize inbred lines. The results of resistance identification of the transgenic inbred lines and hybrids showed that the difference of resistance among transgenic lines was very significant; there also existed a difference among individuals of the same line and among the three hybrids. Compared with the control inbred line (CK), the average of four transgenic inbred lines in the number of tunnels per stalk, larval tunnel length per plant and length of surviving larvae were decreased by 70%, 80% and 70%, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) testing showed that the average of Bt Cry1A protein expression level for six transgenic inbred lines was 0.16% total protein and the highest expression level was 0.19%. At maturity, compared with the control variety (CK), the larval tunnel length per plant of the three hybrids (Simi25Bt, Tongdan24Bt and Jidan209Bt) was decreased by 39.97%, 36.20% and 53.83%, respectively, which was a decrease of 43.36% on average. The investigation of agronomic characters showed that there was no significant difference between the improved hybrids and the control in plant height, ear length, row number per ear, kernel number per row and 100-kernels weight. It is thought that the GFM Cry1A gene can be applied to improve resistance to corn-borer, and maize inbred lines with the Bt gene can be directly applied to conventional maize breeding.
Sn whiskers can form at room temperature on the agglomerated flakes produced by mechanical alloying (MA) of Ti, Sn, and C powders, whether the flakes are stored in air or water. The Sn whiskers forming in air are tens of micrometers to several centimeters in length and 0.5 to ∼10 μm in diameter. Whereas a large amount of Sn polyhedra forms on the flakes that are stored in water, a small amount of Sn whiskers forms on the polyhedra. The driving force for Sn whisker formation is the compressive stress induced by mechanical alloying (MA) and oxidation. The mechanism about the spontaneous growth of metal whiskers is discussed.
To increase our understanding of the relationships of trunk fat mass (FMtrunk) and four anthropometric indices in Chinese males, 1090 males aged 20–40 years were randomly recruited from the city of Changsha, China. Waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) were measured using standardized equipment, and three other anthropometric indices of BMI, waist:hip ratio (WHR) and conicity index (CoI) were calculated using weight, height, HC and WC. FMtrunk (in kg) was measured using a Hologic QDR 4500 W dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner. There was an increasing trend of FMtrunk, %FMtrunk (percentage of FMtrunk) and BMI, WC, WHR, CoI in successively older age groups (e.g. the mean FMtrunk values were 4·63 (sd 2·58), 5·39 (sd 2·74), 5·93 (sd 2·82), 6·57 (sd 2·94) in four 5-year age groups, respectively). FMtrunk and %FMtrunk were significantly correlated with four anthropometric indices with the Pearson's correlation coefficients ranging from 0·25 to 0·86. Principal component analysis was performed to form three principal components that interpreted over 99·5% of the total variation of four related anthropometric indices in all age groups, with over 65% of the total variation accounted by principal component 1. Multiple regression analyses showed that three principal components explained a greater variance (R2 70·0–80·1%) in FMtrunk than did BMI or WC alone (R2 57·8–74·1%). The present results suggest that there is an increasing trend of FMtrunk and four anthropometric indices in successively older age groups; that age has important effects on the relationships of FMtrunk and studied anthropometric indices; and that the accuracy of predicting FMtrunk using four anthropometric indices is higher than using BMI or WC alone.
Dense lossy AlN–SiC composites doped with Y2O3 were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Both the microstructure and the dielectric properties are different from those of hot-pressed samples. Microstructure analysis reveals little solid solution (AlN)x(SiC)1-x is formed. Scanning evanescent microwave microscopy images show that the materials by SPS exhibit large contrast in dielectric permittivity, whereas the hot-pressed materials show very mild fluctuation in dielectric permittivity over the samples. The results indicate that AlN–SiC composites fabricated by SPS can be treated approximately as a mechanical mixture of AlN and SiC when estimating complex permittivity of the composite in the microwave range. The complex permittivity of the composites with different SiC contents can be phenomenologically predicted by effective medium approximation.