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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To examine rural-urban disparities in prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in veterans receiving care at the VA and to determine the extent to which demographic factors and obesity levels contribute to identified disparities. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A retrospective serial cross-sectional analysis was employed. A stratified weighted random sample of veterans who received care at a VA facility was selected each year for 2007 through 2012. Rural Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes were based on resident zip code. Diabetes was defined by two or more primary or secondary ICD-9 codes for diabetes (250.xx) within a 12 month period. Data were analyzed using complex survey-specific procedures. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Diabetes prevalence 2007-2012 was lowest in urban (20.5%-21.0%), followed by highly rural (21.1%-22.1%) and rural (22.3%-23.0%) areas with the prevalence being significantly higher on the insular islands (31.0%-32.4%). In 2012, 41% of urban, 43% of rural and highly rural and 30% of insular island veterans were obese. Relative to urban areas, the odds ratio for prevalent diabetes was 1.10 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.12) for rural veterans, 1.19 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.23) for insular island veterans, and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.02) for highly rural veterans. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Prevalence of diagnosed diabetes is high in veterans residing in rural, highly rural and urban areas, but markedly higher on the insular islands. Understanding the burden of disease and factors driving disparities provides information required to develop targeted interventions.
Some researchers have suggested that young children choose to say mainly words containing sounds they can produce and avoid words with sounds they find difficult to produce. This proposed pattern of ‘selection’ supports a hypothesis of dominance of phonological factors in words children choose to say. Based on longitudinal spontaneous data samples during their first 50 word period, word-based tokens produced by two English and two French monolingual children were analyzed. Token frequencies in spontaneously produced word targets (SW-T) were compared to children's actual productions (SW-A) of those target words to understand relationships between targets children choose to say and their patterns in actual productions, (i.e., to evaluate the presence of ‘selection’). Place of articulation (i.e., labial, coronal and dorsal) in initial word position within CV, CVC, and CVCV word forms was compared. Analysis of spontaneous output in daily interactions in children learning two languages with differing phonological systems enables a more general evaluation of issues related to the interface of phonological and lexical aspects during the earliest period of language acquisition.
Standardised developmental screening tools are important for the evaluation and management of developmental disorders in children with CHD; however, psychometric properties and clinical utility of screening tools, such as the Ages & Stages Questionnaires, Third Edition (ASQ-3), have not been examined in the CHD population. We hypothesised that the ASQ-3 would be clinically useful for this population.
ASQ-3 developmental classifications for 163 children with CHD at 6, 12, 24, and/or 36 months of age were compared with those obtained from concurrent developmental testing with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition.
When ASQ-3 screening failure was defined as ⩾1 SD below the normative mean, specificity (⩾81.9%) and negative predictive value (⩾81.0%) were high across ASQ-3 areas. Sensitivity was high for gross motor skills (79.6%), increased with age for communication (35.7–100%), and generally decreased with age for problem solving (73.1–50.0%). When ASQ-3 screening failure was defined as ⩾2 SD below the normative mean, specificity (⩾93.6%) and positive predictive value (⩾74.5%) were generally high across ASQ-3 areas, but sensitivity was low (31.1%) to fair (62.8%). The ASQ-3 showed improved accuracy in predicting delays over clinical risk factors alone.
The ASQ-3 appears to be a clinically useful tool for screening development in children with CHD, although its utility varied on the basis of developmental area and time point. Clinicians are encouraged to refer children scoring ⩾1 SD below the normative mean on any ASQ-3 area for formal developmental evaluation.
The goal of this study was to investigate non-adjacent consonant sequence patterns in target words during the first-word period in infants learning American English. In the spontaneous speech of eighteen participants, target words with a Consonant–Vowel–Consonant (C1VC2) shape were analyzed. Target words were grouped into nine types, categorized by place of articulation (labial, coronal, dorsal) of initial and final consonants (e.g. mom, labial–labial; mat, labial–coronal; dog, coronal–dorsal). The results indicated that some consonant sequences occurred much more frequently than others in early target words. The two most frequent types were coronal–coronal (e.g. dad) and labial–coronal (e.g. mat). The least frequent type was dorsal–dorsal (e.g. cake). These patterns are consistent with phonotactic characteristics of English and infants' production capacities reported in previous studies. This study demonstrates that infants' expressive vocabularies reflect both ambient language characteristics and their own production capacities, at least for consonant sequences in C1VC2 word forms.
To understand the interactions between production patterns common to children regardless of language environment and the early appearance of production effects based on perceptual learning from the ambient language requires the study of languages with diverse phonological properties. Few studies have evaluated early phonological acquisition patterns of children in non-Indo-European language environments. In the current study, across- and within-syllable consonant–vowel co-occurrence patterns in babbling were analyzed for a 6-month period for seven Ecuadorean Quichua learning children who were between 9 and 17 months of age at study onset. Their babbling utterances were compared to the babbling of six English-learning children between 9 and 22 months of age. Child patterns for both languages were compared with Quichua and English ambient language patterns. Babbling output was highly similar for the child groups: Quichua and English children's babbling demonstrated similar predicted within-syllable (coronal-front vowel, labial-central vowel, dorsal-back vowel) patterns, and across-syllable manner variegation patterns for consonants. These patterns were observed at significantly greater rates in the child groups than in the respective adult language input patterns, suggesting production system influences common to children across languages rather than ambient language perceptual learning effects during these children's babbling period.
This study compared segmental distribution patterns for consonants and vowels in English infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS). A previous study of Korean indicated that segmental patterns of IDS differed from ADS patterns (Lee, Davis & MacNeilage, 2008). The aim of the current study was to determine whether such differences in Korean are universal or language-specific. Results indicate that consonant distribution patterns of English IDS were significantly different from English ADS. Speakers who used IDS produced fewer fricatives, affricates, nasals and liquids, but more stops and glides, than speakers who used ADS. In terms of vowels, IDS speakers produced more high-back vowels /u Ʊ/ and /ɔI/ diphthongs than ADS speakers. These results indicate both general trends and language-specific segmental distribution patterns in IDS. When compared to previous findings on ADS and IDS in Korean, these results for English give support to a more general assertion that segmental distribution patterns in IDS seem to be mediated by linguistic and cultural factors across languages.
Spanish phonological development was examined in six sequential bilingual children at the point of contact with English and eight months later. We explored effects of the English vowel and consonant inventory on Spanish. Children showed a significant increase in consonant cluster accuracy and in vowel errors. These emerging sequential bilingual children showed effects of English on their first language, Spanish. Cross-linguistic transfer did not affect all properties of the phonology equally. Negative transfer may occur in specific areas where the second language is more complex, requiring reorganization of the existing system, as in the transition from the Spanish five-vowel to the English eleven-vowel system.
Segmental distributions of Korean infant-directed speech (IDS) and adult-directed speech (ADS) were compared. Significant differences were found in both consonant and vowel patterns. Korean-speaking mothers using IDS displayed more frequent labial consonantal place and less frequent coronal and glottal place and fricative manner. They showed more use of mid and low central vowels in IDS as well as more use of language-specific Korean phonemes. Mothers produced significantly more fortis and geminate and less lenis consonant phonemes in IDS than in ADS. Findings suggest that Korean mothers speaking to infants in the IDS speech style use sounds that more closely match infant production propensities as well as highlighting perceptually salient properties. IDS may serve to facilitate infant learning of ambient language phonological regularities.
Arbib's gestural-origins theory does not tell us why or how a subsequent switch to vocal language occurred, and shows no systematic concern with the signalling affordances or constraints of either medium. Our frame/content theory, in contrast, offers both a vocal origin in the invention of kinship terms in a baby-talk context and an explanation for the structure of the currently favored medium.
Words denoting “mother” in baby talk and in languages usually include nasal sounds, supporting Falk's suggestion that infant nasalized demand vocalizations might have motivated a first word. The linguistic contrast between maternal terms and paternal terms, which favor oral consonants, and the simple phonetic patterns of parental terms in both baby talk and languages also suggest parental terms could have been first words.
Hurford presents a much-needed lowly origins scenario for the evolution of conceptual precursors to lexical items. But more is still needed on action, regarding both the message level of lexical concepts and the medium. We summarize our complementary action-based lowly origins (frame/content) scenario for the vocal auditory medium of language, which, like Hurford's scenario, is anchored in a phylogenetically old neurological dichotomy.