To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Background: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a triad of impaired gait, cognition and urinary control in the setting of normal pressure ventriculomegaly. Various options for shunt implantation exist, but there is limited ability to predict outcome. Methods: This study is a retrospective chart review of 82 shunted patients for iNPH between 2007 and 2018. Factors examined included age, sex, lumbar puncture results, use of laparoscopic approach, type of shunt used, Charlson Comorbidity Index and imaging (callosal angle and DESH). Patient outcome was assessed via modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results: 52 patients were male and 30 were female. Average age at surgery was 71.4 years. 58/62 (94%) improved following lumbar puncture. 41% of patients had VP shunt, and 59% of patients had LP shunt. 30/79 (38%) had laparoscopic placement of the distal catheter. 23/75 (31%) and 30/81 (36%) had a complication and required reoperation, respectively. Callosal angle showed statistically significant increase post-shunting (76 to 94 degrees, p<0.005). Presence of DESH did not change post-shunting. Average Charlson Comorbidity Index was 4.4. The mRS decreased from 3.84 to 2.66 post-operatively (p<0.005). Conclusions: In our centre, iNPH patients had clinicoradiologic improvement following shunting. We will perform regressional statistics to elucidate the factors influencing outcomes.
We observed pediatric S. aureus hospitalizations decreased 36% from 26.3 to 16.8 infections per 1,000 admissions from 2009 to 2016, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) decreasing by 52% and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus decreasing by 17%, among 39 pediatric hospitals. Similar decreases were observed for days of therapy of anti-MRSA antibiotics.
Assess Hurricane Sandy’s impact on primary care providers’ services in the Rockaways.
In-person surveys were conducted in 2014. A list of 46 health care sites in the area of interest was compiled and each site was called to offer participation in our survey. Respondents included physicians and practice administrators who remained familiar with Sandy-related operational challenges.
Of the 40 sites that opted in, most had been in their current location for more than 10 years (73%) and were a small practice (1 or 2 physicians) before Hurricane Sandy (75%). All but 2 (95%) had to temporarily close or relocate. All sites experienced electrical problems that impacted landline, fax, and Internet. Less than one-quarter (n = 9) reported having a plan for continuity of services before Hurricane Sandy, and 43% reported having a plan poststorm. The majority (80%) did not report coordinating with other primary care stakeholders or receiving support from government agencies during the Sandy response.
Hurricane Sandy significantly disrupted access to primary care in the Rockaways. Severe impact to site operations and infrastructure forced many practices to relocate. Greater emergency response and recovery planning is needed, including with government agencies, to minimize disruptions of access to primary care during disaster recovery. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:492–495)
Curcumin derived from turmeric is well documented for its anti-carcinogenic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Recent studies show that curcumin also possesses neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing properties that may help delay or prevent neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Currently, clinical diagnosis of AD is onerous, and it is primarily based on the exclusion of other causes of dementia. In addition, phase III clinical trials of potential treatments have mostly failed, leaving disease-modifying interventions elusive. AD can be characterised neuropathologically by the deposition of extracellular β amyloid (Aβ) plaques and intracellular accumulation of tau-containing neurofibrillary tangles. Disruptions in Aβ metabolism/clearance contribute to AD pathogenesis. In vitro studies have shown that Aβ metabolism is altered by curcumin, and animal studies report that curcumin may influence brain function and the development of dementia, because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as its ability to influence Aβ metabolism. However, clinical studies of curcumin have revealed limited effects to date, most likely because of curcumin’s relatively low solubility and bioavailability, and because of selection of cohorts with diagnosed AD, in whom there is already major neuropathology. However, the fresh approach of targeting early AD pathology (by treating healthy, pre-clinical and mild cognitive impairment-stage cohorts) combined with new curcumin formulations that increase bioavailability is renewing optimism concerning curcumin-based therapy. The aim of this paper is to review the current evidence supporting an association between curcumin and modulation of AD pathology, including in vitro and in vivo studies. We also review the use of curcumin in emerging retinal imaging technology, as a fluorochrome for AD diagnostics.
Obesity is a growing problem in India, the dietary determinants of which have been studied using an ‘individual food/nutrient’ approach. Examining dietary patterns may provide more coherent findings, but few studies in developing countries have adopted this approach. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns in an Indian population and assess their relationship with anthropometric risk factors.
FFQ data from the cross-sectional sib-pair Indian Migration Study (IMS; n 7067) were used to identify dietary patterns using principal component analysis. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to examine associations with obesity and central obesity.
The IMS was conducted at four factory locations across India: Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore.
The participants were rural-to-urban migrant and urban non-migrant factory workers, their rural and urban resident siblings, and their co-resident spouses.
Three dietary patterns were identified: ‘cereals–savoury foods’ (cooked grains, rice/rice-based dishes, snacks, condiments, soups, nuts), ‘fruit–veg–sweets–snacks’ (Western cereals, vegetables, fruit, fruit juices, cooked milk products, snacks, sugars, sweets) and ‘animal-food’ (red meat, poultry, fish/seafood, eggs). In adjusted analysis, positive graded associations were found between the ‘animal-food’ pattern and both anthropometric risk factors. Moderate intake of the ‘cereals–savoury foods’ pattern was associated with reduced odds of obesity and central obesity.
Distinct dietary patterns were identified in a large Indian sample, which were different from those identified in previous literature. A clear ‘plant food-based/animal food-based pattern’ dichotomy emerged, with the latter being associated with higher odds of anthropometric risk factors. Longitudinal studies are needed to further clarify this relationship in India.
The emergence of invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) in combat casualties led to development of a combat trauma-specific IFI case definition and classification. Prospective data were collected from 1133 US military personnel injured in Afghanistan (June 2009–August 2011). The IFI rates ranged from 0·2% to 11·7% among ward and intensive care unit admissions, respectively (6·8% overall). Seventy-seven IFI cases were classified as proven/probable (n = 54) and possible/unclassifiable (n = 23) and compared in a case-case analysis. There was no difference in clinical characteristics between the proven/probable and possible/unclassifiable cases. Possible IFI cases had shorter time to diagnosis (P = 0·02) and initiation of antifungal therapy (P = 0·05) and fewer operative visits (P = 0·002) compared to proven/probable cases, but clinical outcomes were similar between the groups. Although the trauma-related IFI classification scheme did not provide prognostic information, it is an effective tool for clinical and epidemiological surveillance and research.
“Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS)” mission on-board GSAT-2 Indian spacecraft was launched on 08 May 2003 by GSLV-D2 and deployed in geostationery orbit to study the X-ray emission from solar flares with high spectral and temporal resolution. The SOXS consists of two independent payloads viz. SOXS Low Energy Detector (SLD) payload, and SOXS High Energy Detector (SHD) payload. The SLD consists of two solid state detectors Si PIN and CZT, which cover the energy range from 4-60 keV, while the SHD has NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) sandwiched phoswich detector that covers energy range from 20 keV to 10 MeV. We present very briefly the science objectives and instrumentation of SLD payload. After the successful In-orbit Tests (IOT), the first light was fed into SLD payload on 08 June 2003 when the solar flare was already in progress. We briefly present the first results from the SLD payload.
The junction temperature of AlGaN/GaN ultraviolet (UV) Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) emitting at 295 nm is measured by using the temperature coefficients of the diode forward voltage and emission peak energy. The high-energy slope of the spectrum is explored to measure the carrier temperature. A linear relation between junction temperature and current is found. Analysis of the experimental methods reveals that the diode-forward voltage is the most accurate method (± 3 °C). A theoretical model for the dependence of the diode junction voltage (Vj) on junction temperature (T) is developed that takes into account the temperature dependence of the energy gap. A thermal resistance of 87.6 K/W is obtained with the AlGaN/GaN LED sample mounted with thermal paste on a heat sink.
Nanocomposite fibers involve the concept of integrally dispersing nanosized particles of the second phase inorganic material into fiber forming polymers such as nylon or polyester. The material goal involves obtaining bi-phasic fibers with high mechanical stiffness and strength, electrical conductivity and/or enhanced other features such as thermal stability. Thus far, the main difficulties toward achieving nanocomposite fibers are: (1) the inability of obtaining large quantities of nanoparticles in a pure, un-agglomerated state and (2) obtaining a uniform, intimate dispersion of single entity nanoparticles in a fiber polymer matrix. These problems have been approached in the context of studying the properties of experimentally prepared nano-silica reinforced fibers and attempts to prepare carbon nanotube, CNT, containing fiber material. Modulus and tenacity tests on experimentally prepared nanosilica filled PET (polyethyleneterephthalate) fibers showed the silica nanoparticles reduced the modulus and tenacity (tensile strength) of the filled PET fiber materials. DSC and shrinkage studies on nano-silica/PET fiber show that polymer crystallinity is influenced by the presence of the silica nano-particles. Heats of melting are found to increase as the filler loading increases. In further shrinkage studies, the “shrinkage modulus” of these nanosilica/PET fibers was found to increase by the addition of silica nanoparticles. Attempts to prepare nylon reinforced CNTs (multi-wall) from a commercially available CNT/nylon resin “concentrate” failed due to the poor melt dispersion processing of the blended polymer. Only very weak CNT reinforced nylon fibers could be prepared.
An inert gas condensation technique has been used to prepare nanometer-sized particles of metallic iron by evaporation and agglomeration in a flowing inert gas stream. The resulting Fe nanoparticles were protected from complete oxidation either by the formation of a thin Fe-oxide surface passivation layer or by immersion in an oil bath. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements indicated that the nanoparticles were typically between 10 and 20 nm in size, that the thickness of the Fe-oxide surface passivation layer was between 3 and 4 nm, and that the oil immersed samples exhibited a significant smaller volume fraction of Fe-oxides than did the surface passivated samples. Room temperature magnetization measurements were also carried out and the coercivity and saturation magnetization of the surface passivated and oil immersed samples determined. Although the coercivities and saturation magnetization values of both samples were very similar, the Fe/Fe-oxide samples exhibited a single component hysteresis loop while the Fe/oil samples exhibited a two component loop.
In this study we report on the results of the investigation of lead iodide material properties. The effectiveness of a zone refining purification method on the material purity is determined by ICP-MS and ICP-OES and correlated to the electrical and physical material properties. We show that this zone refining method is very efficient in removing impurities from lead iodide, and we also determine the segregation coefficient for some of these impurities. Triple axis x-ray diffraction (TAD) analysis has been used to determine the crystalline perfection of the lead iodide after applying various cutting, etching and fabrication methods. The soft lead iodide crystal was found to be damaged when cleaved by a razor blade, but by using a diamond wheel saw, followed by etching, the crystallinity of the material was much improved, as observed by TAD. Low temperature photoluminescence also indicates an improvement in the material properties of the purified lead iodide. Electrical properties of lead iodide such as carrier mobility, were calculated based on carrier - phonon scattering. The results for the electrical properties were in good agreement with the experimental data.
Portland cement concrete (PCC) structures deteriorate with age and need to be maintained or replaced. Early detection of deterioration in PCC (e.g., alkali-silica reaction, freeze/thaw damage, or chloride presence) can lead to significant reductions in maintenance costs. However, it is often too late to perform low-cost preventative maintenance by the time deterioration becomes evident. By developing techniques that would enable civil engineers to evaluate PCC structures and detect deterioration at early stages (without causing further damage), optimization of life-cycle costs of the constructed facility and minimization of disturbance to the facility users can be achieved.
Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods are potentially one of the most useful techniques ever developed for assessing constructed facilities. They are noninvasive and can be performed rapidly. Portland cement concrete can be nondestructively evaluated by electrically characterizing its complex dielectric constant. The real part of the dielectric constant depicts the velocity of electromagnetic waves in PCC. The imaginary part, termed the “loss factor,” describes the conductivity of PCC and the attenuation of electromagnetic waves.
Dielectric properties of PCC have been investigated in a laboratory setting using a parallel plate capacitor operating in the frequency range of 0.1 to 40.1MIHz. This capacitor set-up consists of two horizontal-parallel plates with an adjustable separation for insertion of a dielectric specimen (PCC). While useful in research, this approach is not practical for field implementation. A new capacitor probe has been developed which consists of two plates, located within the same horizontal plane, for placement upon the specimen to be tested. Preliminary results show that this technique is feasible and results are promising; further testing and evaluation is currently underway.