To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy is a technique for simultaneous imaging of the structure and dynamics of specimens in a liquid environment. The conventional sample geometry consists of a liquid layer tightly sandwiched between two Si3N4 windows with a nominal spacing on the order of 0.5 μm. We describe a variation of the conventional approach, wherein the Si3N4 windows are separated by a 10-μm-thick spacer, thus providing room for gas flow inside the liquid specimen enclosure. Adjusting the pressure and flow speed of humid air inside this environmental liquid cell (ELC) creates a stable liquid layer of controllable thickness on the bottom window, thus facilitating high-resolution observations of low mass-thickness contrast objects at low electron doses. We demonstrate controllable liquid thicknesses in the range 160 ± 34 to 340 ± 71 nm resulting in corresponding edge resolutions of 0.8 ± 0.06 to 1.7 ± 0.8 nm as measured for immersed gold nanoparticles. Liquid layer thickness 40 ± 8 nm allowed imaging of low-contrast polystyrene particles. Hydration effects in the ELC have been studied using poly-N-isopropylacrylamide nanogels with a silica core. Therefore, ELC can be a suitable tool for in situ investigations of liquid specimens.
Psychotic experiences may emerge in more severe cases of common mental disorders (CMD). Previous work identified that 30% of patients treated by mental health services in primary healthcare, specifically the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) programme in England, reported psychotic experiences, began treatment with more severe CMD and were less likely to reach recovery.
To replicate our previous assessment of psychotic experiences in the IAPT programme using a more sensitive threshold and determine its impact on the prevalence of psychotic experience and likelihood of recovery. Additionally, to compare recovery rates between patients with and without psychotic experiences at the end of therapy.
The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE-P15) with a cut-off of 1.30 was used to determine the prevalence of psychotic experiences. Recovery rates were determined using measures collected in the IAPT programme for depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7). Multi-group growth models estimated improvement trajectories.
In total, 2042 patients with CMD completed the CAPE-P15. The mean age was 39.8. The prevalence of psychotic experiences was 18% higher when using a lower threshold. The recovery rate for patients with psychotic experiences was lower (36%) than for those without (64%). Despite sharing similar improvement trajectories, the higher initial severity of CMD among patients with psychotic experiences impeded likelihood of recovery.
As psychotic experiences may be a marker of severity in CMD, the benefits of identifying these in IAPT populations may also apply to patients with milder experiences. Further investigation of the consequential demands on service provision and how this would affect clinical practice is recommended.
Predictors of new-onset bipolar disorder (BD) or psychotic disorder (PD) have been proposed on the basis of retrospective or prospective studies of ‘at-risk’ cohorts. Few studies have compared concurrently or longitudinally factors associated with the onset of BD or PDs in youth presenting to early intervention services. We aimed to identify clinical predictors of the onset of full-threshold (FT) BD or PD in this population.
Multi-state Markov modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline characteristics and the likelihood of the onset of FT BD or PD in youth (aged 12–30) presenting to mental health services.
Of 2330 individuals assessed longitudinally, 4.3% (n = 100) met criteria for new-onset FT BD and 2.2% (n = 51) met criteria for a new-onset FT PD. The emergence of FT BD was associated with older age, lower social and occupational functioning, mania-like experiences (MLE), suicide attempts, reduced incidence of physical illness, childhood-onset depression, and childhood-onset anxiety. The emergence of a PD was associated with older age, male sex, psychosis-like experiences (PLE), suicide attempts, stimulant use, and childhood-onset depression.
Identifying risk factors for the onset of either BD or PDs in young people presenting to early intervention services is assisted not only by the increased focus on MLE and PLE, but also by recognising the predictive significance of poorer social function, childhood-onset anxiety and mood disorders, and suicide attempts prior to the time of entry to services. Secondary prevention may be enhanced by greater attention to those risk factors that are modifiable or shared by both illness trajectories.
Since the beginning of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically influenced almost every aspect of human life. Activities requiring human gatherings have either been postponed, cancelled, or held completely virtually. To supplement lack of in-person contact, people have increasingly turned to virtual settings on-line, advantages of which include increased inclusivity and accessibility and reduction of carbon footprint. However, emerging online technologies cannot fully replace, in-person scientific events. In-person meetings are not susceptible to poor internet connectivity problems, and they provide novel opportunities for socialization, creating new collaborations, and sharing ideas. To continue such activities, a hybrid model for scientific events could be a solution offering both in-person and virtual components. While participants can freely choose the mode of their participation, virtual meetings would most benefit those who cannot attend in-person due to the limitations. In-person portions of meetings should be organized with full consideration of prevention and safety strategies including risk assessment and mitigation, venue and environmental sanitation, participant protection and disease prevention, and promoting the hybrid model. This new way of interaction between scholars can be considered as a part of a resilience system which was neglected previously and should become a part of routine practice in scientific community.
The corporate responsibility to respect human rights was formally introduced in 2011 with the unanimous endorsement of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UNGPs) by the UN Human Rights Council. It is grounded in social expectations and forms part of the companies' “social license to operate.” This paper argues that this responsibility is progressively turning into a legal duty for lead companies to respect human rights in those types of value chains which are characterized by a high level of control by a lead company over its business partners. Our argument rests on two recent legal developments. Firstly, the article analyzes the judicialization of the corporate responsibility to respect in the case law on parent company liability in various jurisdictions, which, we argue, is highly likely to have some implications in relation to certain types of value chains so as to trigger the liability of lead companies for the human rights harms arising out of the activities of entities over which they exercise sufficient control. Secondly, the article delves into the legislative developments which increasingly require lead companies to exercise due diligence so as to prevent and address adverse human rights impacts in their own activities and global value chains.
Temporal and spatial patterns in flowering phenology were assessed for eight tropical African tree species. Specifically, the frequency and seasonality of flowering at seven sites in central Africa were determined using field data, graphical analysis and circular statistics. Additionally, spatial variation in the timing of flowering across species range was investigated using herbarium data, analysing the relative influence of latitude, longitude and timing of the dry season with a Bayesian circular generalized linear model. Annual flowering was found for 20 out of the 25 populations studied. For 21 populations located at the north of the climatic hinge flowering was occurring during the dry season. The analysis of herbarium collections revealed a significant shift in the timing of flowering with latitude for E. suaveolens, and with the timing of the dry season for M. excelsa (and to a lesser extent L. alata), with the coexistence of two flowering peaks near the equator where the distribution of monthly rainfall is bimodal. For the other species, none of latitude, longitude or timing of the dry season had an effect on the timing of flowering. Our study highlights the need to identify the drivers of the flowering phenology of economically important African tree species.
L’acupuncture est une technique de plus en plus utilisée dans la prise en charge des patients consommateurs de substances. Notre étude permet d’évaluer les bienfaits subjectifs de l’acupuncture chez ces patients en utilisant les échelles visuelles analogiques (EVA) avant et après les séances.
Ces évaluations ont été proposées à l’ensemble des patients venus faire une séance d’acupuncture (auriculothérapie ou corps entier) durant les mois de juillet 2012 et mai 2013. Ils ont côté sur une échelle entre 0 et 10 leur fatigue, bien-être, stress/anxiété, détente, douleur physique avant et après les séances.
Cent quatre vingt-quatre fiches anonymes avant/après ont été analysées. Cinquante sujets ont participé. Au niveau déclaratif : 24,5 % d’abstinents, 22,2 % en sevrage, 40,2 % consomment régulièrement une ou plusieurs substances (42 % alcool, 58 % de tabac, 20 % de crack, 38 % de cannabis). Les bienfaits ressentis sont multiples dans les jours qui suivent une séance : 64 % ont un meilleur sommeil, 48 % moins anxieux, 54 % disent avoir moins envie de consommer, 16 % remarquent une meilleure gestion de leurs émotions. L’ensemble des patients ont rapporté une diminution de leurs anxiété/stress (p = 0,0001), sensation de fatigue (p = 0,001) et douleur physique (p = 0,0001). Ils signalent également une amélioration de leur détente (p = 0,001) et de leur bien-être (p = 0,001). Nous avons également observé que les effets de l’acupuncture semblent être supérieurs chez les patients consommateurs par rapport aux patients qui déclarent être abstinents et que les bienfaits étaient supérieurs avec l’acupuncture corps entier versus auriculothérapie.
Dans notre population, les séances d’acupunctures semblent améliorer les ressentis des patients dans plusieurs domaines. L’étude se poursuit afin de mieux étudier non seulement les biais liés à la relaxation et aux croyances magico-religieuses mais aussi en étudiant différents paramètres objectifs comme la diminution de la consommation.
L’acupuncture est de plus en plus utilisée en addictologie [1,2]. Au CHU de Martinique, les patients présentant des addictions aux substances en bénéficient depuis une quinzaine d’années. Notre étude permet d’évaluer les bienfaits subjectifs de l’acupuncture chez ces patients en utilisant les Échelles Visuelles Analogiques avant et après les séances.
Ces évaluations ont été proposées à l’ensemble des patients venus faire des séances d’acupuncture durant le mois de juillet 2012. Les patients ont côté sur une échelle entre 0 et 10 leurs fatigue, bien-être, stress/anxiété, détente, douleur physique avant et après les séances.
Cent six fiches anonymes avant/après ont été analysées. Trente-cinq patients déclarent être abstinents, 53 déclarent être consommateurs réguliers d’une ou plusieurs substances (42 % alcool, 58 % tabac, 20 % crack, 38 % cannabis) et 18 sont données manquantes. L’ensemble des patients ont rapporté une diminution de leurs anxiété/stress (p = 0,0001), sensation de fatigue (p = 0,001) et douleur physique (p = 0,0001). Ils signalent également une amélioration de leur détente (p = 0,001) et de leur bien-être (p = 0,001).
Dans notre population, les séances d’acupuncture semblent améliorer les ressentis des patients dans plusieurs domaines. Il sera intéressant de poursuivre cette étude en étudiant non seulement les biais liés à la relaxation et aux croyances magico-religieuses mais aussi en étudiant différents paramètres objectifs comme la diminution de la consommation et le cardio feedback.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a serious risk factor for co-occurring psychiatric disorders and negative psychosocial consequences in adulthood. Given this background, there is great need for an effective treatment of adult ADHD patients.
Therefore, our research group has conducted a first controlled randomized multicenter study on the evaluation of disorder-tailored DBT-based group program in adult ADHD compared to a psychophar-macological treatment.
Between 2007 and 2010, in a four-arm-design 433 patients were randomized to a manualized dialectical behavioural therapy (DBT) based group program plus methylphenidate or placebo or clinical management plus methylphenidate or placebo with weekly sessions in the first twelve weeks and monthly sessions thereafter. Therapists are graduated psychologists or physicians. Treatment integrity is established by independent supervision. Primary endpoint (ADHD symptoms measured by the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale) is rated by interviewers blind to the treatment allocation (Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN54096201). The trial is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Research and Education (01GV0606) and is part of the German network for the treatment of ADHD in children and adults (ADHD-NET). In the lecture the first data of our interim analysis are presented (baseline data, results of treatment compliance and adherence).
The German version of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) has proven to show very high model fit in confirmative factor analyses with the established factors inattention/memory problems, hyperactivity/restlessness, impulsivity/emotional lability, and problems with self-concept in both large healthy control and ADHD patient samples. This study now presents data on the psychometric properties of the German CAARS-self-report (CAARS-S) and observer-report (CAARS-O) questionnaires.
CAARS-S/O and questions on sociodemographic variables were filled out by 466 patients with ADHD, 847 healthy control subjects that already participated in two prior studies, and a total of 896 observer data sets were available. Cronbach's-alpha was calculated to obtain internal reliability coefficients. Pearson correlations were performed to assess test-retest reliability, and concurrent, criterion, and discriminant validity. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC-analyses) were used to establish sensitivity and specificity for all subscales.
Coefficient alphas ranged from .74 to .95, and test-retest reliability from .85 to .92 for the CAARS-S, and from .65 to .85 for the CAARS-O. All CAARS subscales, except problems with self-concept correlated significantly with the Barrett Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), but not with the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). Criterion validity was established with ADHD subtype and diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria. Sensitivity and specificity were high for all four subscales.
The reported results confirm our previous study and show that the German CAARS-S/O do indeed represent a reliable and cross-culturally valid measure of current ADHD symptoms in adults.
Neurocognitive impairments robustly predict functional outcome. However, heterogeneity in neurocognition is common within diagnostic groups, and data-driven analyses reveal homogeneous neurocognitive subgroups cutting across diagnostic boundaries.
To determine whether data-driven neurocognitive subgroups of young people with emerging mental disorders are associated with 3-year functional course.
Model-based cluster analysis was applied to neurocognitive test scores across nine domains from 629 young people accessing mental health clinics. Cluster groups were compared on demographic, clinical and substance-use measures. Mixed-effects models explored associations between cluster-group membership and socio-occupational functioning (using the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale) over 3 years, adjusted for gender, premorbid IQ, level of education, depressive, positive, negative and manic symptoms, and diagnosis of a primary psychotic disorder.
Cluster analysis of neurocognitive test scores derived three subgroups described as ‘normal range’ (n = 243, 38.6%), ‘intermediate impairment’ (n = 252, 40.1%), and ‘global impairment’ (n = 134, 21.3%). The major mental disorder categories (depressive, anxiety, bipolar, psychotic and other) were represented in each neurocognitive subgroup. The global impairment subgroup had lower functioning for 3 years of follow-up; however, neither the global impairment (B = 0.26, 95% CI −0.67 to 1.20; P = 0.581) or intermediate impairment (B = 0.46, 95% CI −0.26 to 1.19; P = 0.211) subgroups differed from the normal range subgroup in their rate of change in functioning over time.
Neurocognitive impairment may follow a continuum of severity across the major syndrome-based mental disorders, with data-driven neurocognitive subgroups predictive of functional course. Of note, the global impairment subgroup had longstanding functional impairment despite continuing engagement with clinical services.
The impact of cream processing on milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) was assessed in an industrial setting for the first time. Three creams and their derived MFGM fractions from different stages of the pasteurization procedure at a butter dairy were investigated and compared to a native control as well as a commercial MFGM fraction. The extent of cross-linking of serum proteins to MFGM proteins increased progressively with each consecutive pasteurization step. Unresolved high molecular weight aggregates were found to consist of both indigenous MFGM proteins and β-lactoglobulin as well as αs1- and β-casein. With regards to fat globule stability and in terms of resistance towards coalescence and flocculation after cream washing, single-pasteurized cream exhibited reduced sensitivity to cream washing compared to non- and double-pasteurized creams. Inactivation of the agglutination mechanism and the increased presence of non-MFGM proteins may determine this balance between stable and non-stable fat globules.
If we consider perceptions as arising from predictive processes, we must consider the manner in which the underlying expectations are formed and how they are applied to the sensory data. We provide examples of cases where expectations give rise to unexpected and unlikely perceptions of the world. These examples may help define bounds for the notion that perceptual hypotheses are direct derivatives of experience and are used to furnish sensible interpretations of sensory data.
The Human Brain Project (HBP), an EU Flagship Initiative, is currently building an infrastructure that will allow integration of large amounts of heterogeneous neuroscience data. The ultimate goal of the project is to develop a unified multi-level understanding of the brain and its diseases, and beyond this to emulate the computational capabilities of the brain. Reference atlases of the brain are one of the key components in this infrastructure. Based on a new generation of three-dimensional (3D) reference atlases, new solutions for analyzing and integrating brain data are being developed. HBP will build services for spatial query and analysis of brain data comparable to current online services for geospatial data. The services will provide interactive access to a wide range of data types that have information about anatomical location tied to them. The 3D volumetric nature of the brain, however, introduces a new level of complexity that requires a range of tools for making use of and interacting with the atlases. With such new tools, neuroscience research groups will be able to connect their data to atlas space, share their data through online data systems, and search and find other relevant data through the same systems. This new approach partly replaces earlier attempts to organize research data based only on a set of semantic terminologies describing the brain and its subdivisions.
The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotics to prevent or control colibacillosis in broilers. Studies found eligible were conducted controlled trials in broilers that evaluated an antibiotic intervention, with at least one of the following outcomes: mortality, feed conversion ratio (FCR), condemnations at slaughter, or total antibiotic use. Four electronic databases plus the gray literature were searched. Abstracts were screened for eligibility and data were extracted from eligible trials. Risk of bias was evaluated.
Seven trials reported eligible outcomes in a format that allowed data extraction; all reported results for FCR and one also reported mortality. Due to the heterogeneity in the interventions and outcomes evaluated, it was not feasible to conduct meta-analysis.
Qualitatively, for FCR, comparisons between an antibiotic and an alternative product did not show a significant benefit for either. Some of the comparisons between an antibiotic and a no-treatment placebo showed a numerical benefit to antibiotics, but with wide confidence intervals. The risk-of-bias assessment revealed concerns with reporting of key trial features.
The results of this review do not provide compelling evidence for or against the efficacy of antibiotics for the control of colibacillosis.
A systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) were conducted to address the question, ‘What is the efficacy of litter management strategies to reduce morbidity, mortality, condemnation at slaughter, or total antibiotic use in broilers?’ Eligible studies were clinical trials published in English evaluating the efficacy of litter management in broilers on morbidity, condemnations at slaughter, mortality, or total antibiotic use. Multiple databases and two conference proceedings were searched for relevant literature. After relevance screening and data extraction, there were 50 trials evaluating litter type, 22 trials evaluating litter additives, 10 trials comparing fresh to re-used litter, and six trials evaluating floor type. NMAs were conducted for mortality (61 trials) and for the presence or absence of footpad lesions (15 trials). There were no differences in mortality among the litter types, floor types, or additives. For footpad lesions, peat moss appeared beneficial compared to straw, based on a small number of comparisons. In a pairwise meta-analysis, there was no association between fresh versus used litter on the risk of mortality, although there was considerable heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 66%). There was poor reporting of key design features in many studies, and analyses rarely accounted for non-independence of observations within flocks.
To implement effective stewardship in food animal production, it is essential that producers and veterinarians are aware of preventive interventions to reduce illness in livestock. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses (SR/MA) provide transparent, replicable, and quality-assessed overviews. At present, it is unknown how many SR/MA evaluate preventive antibiotic use or management practices aimed at reducing disease risk in animal agriculture. Further, the quality of existing reviews is unknown. Our aim was to identify reviews investigating these topics and to provide an assessment of their quality. Thirty-eight relevant reviews were identified. Quality assessment was based on the AMSTAR 2 framework for the critical appraisal of systematic reviews. The quality of most of the reviews captured was classified as critically low (84.2%, n = 32/38), and only a small percentage of the evaluated reviews did not contain critical weaknesses (7.9%, n = 3/38). Particularly, a small number of reviews reported the development of an a priori protocol (15.8%, n = 6/38), and few reviews stated that key review steps were conducted in duplicate (study selection/screening: 26.3%, n = 10/38; data extraction: 15.8%, n = 6/38). The development of high-quality reviews summarizing evidence on approaches to antibiotic reduction is essential, and thus greater adherence to quality conduct guidelines for synthesis research is crucial.
This editorial summarizes the key observations from a special issue of Animal Health Research Reviews comprising 14 articles related to the efficacy of antimicrobial and non-antimicrobial approaches to reduce disease in beef, dairy cattle, swine, and broiler chickens. The articles used evidence-based methods, including scoping reviews, systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and network meta-analyses. Despite finding evidence of efficacy for some of the interventions examined, across the body of research, there was a lack of replication and inconsistency in outcomes among the included trials, and concerns related to completeness of reporting and trial design and execution. There is an urgent need for more and better data to inform antimicrobial stewardship practices in animal agriculture.