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North African knapweed (Centaurea diluta Aiton) is an annual weed that is widespread in southern Spain and is of increasing concern in dryland cropping systems. Despite its expanding range in Spain, there is limited information on the emergence timing and pattern of this species, knowledge of which is critical for developing more timely and effective management strategies. Therefore, there is a need to develop simple and reliable models to predict the timing and emergence of this annual weed under dryland conditions. A multi-location field experiment was established across Spain in 2016 to 2017 to assess the emergence of C. diluta. At each of 11 locations, seeds were sown in the fall, and emergence was recorded. Overall emergence averaged 39% in the first year across all sites and 11% in the second year. In both years, the main emergence flush occurred at the beginning of the growing season. A three-parameter Weibull function best described seedling emergence of C. diluta. Emergence models were developed based on thermal time (TT) and hydrothermal time (HTT) and showed high predictability, as evidenced by root mean-square error prediction values of 10.8 and 10.7, respectively. Three cardinal points were established for TT and HHT at 0.5, 10, and 35 C for base, optimal, and ceiling temperatures, respectively, while base water potential was estimated at −0.5 MPa.
Patients with dual pathology have worse clinical evolution and worse therapeutic response. Drugs modify the functioning of certain neurocerebral transmission systems, producing cognitive, emotional and behavioral changes. Vortioxetine (Brintellix®) is used as a treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) and it is considered a new multimodal antidepressant. Preclinical data suggest that the effects on numerous serotonin receptors result in regional increases in noradrenaline and dopamine as well as glutamatergic transmission.
This analysis assessed the efficacy of vortioxetine (Brintellix®) in patients with affective disorders and abuse drugs (dual pathology).
Efficacy was assessed with a study of patients who were recruited in a qualitative and observational study. They were treated with vortioxetine (Brintellix®). Outcome measures included changes from baseline to endpoint in Hamilton Depresion Rating Scale (HDRS). They were also interviewed weekly about craving and substance use. Urine test controls were done to corroborate results.
A total of 11 vortioxetine-treated patients improved their depressive and anxiety symptomatology. Seven of them (64%) were males and four of them (36%) were women. Cocaine was the main drug of abuse (n = 9, 82%). The doses were between 5 and 20 mg/day. After the clinical evaluation and 12 weeks of treatment, they achieved to reduce significantly the drug use and verbalized a decrease in craving. Two patients dropped out of the study.
Vortioxetine (Brintellix®) was shown as efficacious in reducing depressive and anxiety symptoms in patients with dual pathology.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Depending on the real parameter λ > 0, we derive existence and non-existence results. The proof of our existence result relies on sharp Calderón–Zygmund type regularity results for the fractional Poisson equation with low integrability data. We also obtain existence results for related problems involving different nonlocal diffusion terms.
The implications of cannabis use in the onset of early psychosis and the severity of psychotic symptoms have resulted in a proliferation of studies on this issue. However, few have examined the effects of cannabis use on the cognitive symptoms of psychosis (i.e., neurocognitive functioning) in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to assess the neurocognitive functioning of cannabis users (CU) and nonusers (NU) with FEP.
Of the 110 studies identified through the systematic review of 6 databases, 7 met the inclusion criteria, resulting in 14 independent samples and 78 effect sizes. The total sample included 304 CU with FEP and 369 NU with FEP. The moderator variables were age at first use, duration of use, percentage of males, and age.
Effect sizes were not significantly different from zero in any neurocognitive domain when users and NU were compared. Part of the variability in effect sizes was explained by the inclusion of the following moderator variables: (1) frequency of cannabis use (β = 0.013, F = 7.56, p = 0.017); (2) first-generation antipsychotics (β = 0.019, F = 34.46, p ≤ 0.001); and (3) country where the study was carried out (β = 0.266, t = 2.06, p = 0.043).
This meta-analysis indicates that cannabis use is not generally associated with neurocognitive functioning in patients with FEP. However, it highlights the deleterious effect of low doses of cannabis in some patients. It also stresses the importance of the type of antipsychotic prescription and cannabis dose as moderator variables in the neurocognitive functioning of CU with FEP.
Increasing findings suggest that different components of the stimulus-response pathway (perceptual, motor or cognitive) may account for slowed performance in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). It has also been reported that depressive symptoms (DS) exacerbate slowness in MS. However, no prior studies have explored the independent and joint impact of MS and DS on each of these components in a comprehensive manner. The objective of this work was to identify perceptual, motor, and cognitive components contributing to slowness in MS patients with and without DS. The study includes 33 Relapsing-Remitting MS patients with DS, 33 without DS, and 26 healthy controls. Five information processing components were isolated by means of ANCOVA analyses applied to five Reaction Time tasks. Perceptual, motor, and visual search components were slowed down in MS, as revealed by ANCOVA comparisons between patients without DS, and controls. Moreover, the compounding effect of MS and DS exacerbated deficits in the motor component, and slowed down the decisional component, as revealed by ANCOVA comparisons between patients with and without DS. DS seem to exacerbate slowness caused by MS in specific processing components. Identifying the effects of having MS and of having both MS and DS may have relevant implications when targeting cognitive and mood interventions.
There is a need for developing tools aimed at assessing fitness in children, due to its relationship with health. This study is aimed at testing the reliability and the validity of a questionnaire designed for assessing self-perceived health-related fitness in Spanish children. The questionnaire was created based on the model of physical self-concept developed by Fox and Corbin (1989) who conceived four sub-domains: Sport competence, attractive body, strength and physical condition. A total of 283 children (mean age: 10.80 ± 0.69 years; 45.6% girls) answered the questionnaire twice, in order to determine its test-retest reliability. The results obtained in the International Fitness Scale (IFIS) and on a fitness battery were used to determine its validity evidence based on relations to other variables. Exploratory and factorial analyses were performed to check its validity evidence based on internal structure. The obtained results indicated that the questionnaire showed an accurate validity evidence based on internal structure and a very good test-retest reliability, Intraclass correlation coefficient: .88; 95% CI [.84, .90]. The questionnaire established moderate correlations with the IFIS questionnaire (ρ = –.51 to –.68) and the fitness level showed by the children (ρ = –.53). These findings indicate that the questionnaire can be a useful research tool for assessing self-perceived health-related fitness in children.
Impulsivity and cognitive distortions are hallmarks of gambling disorder (GD) but it remains unclear how they contribute to clinical phenotypes. This study aimed to (1) compare impulsive traits and gambling-related distortions in strategic versus non-strategic gamblers and online versus offline gamblers; (2) examine the longitudinal association between impulsivity/cognitive distortions and treatment retention and relapse.
Participants seeking treatment for GD (n = 245) were assessed for gambling modality (clinical interview), impulsive traits (Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance and Sensation Seeking [UPPS] scale) and cognitive distortions (Gambling Related Cognitions Scale) at treatment onset, and for retention and relapse (as indicated by the clinical team) at the end of treatment. Treatment consisted of 12-week standardized cognitive behavioral therapy, conducted in a public specialized clinic within a general public hospital.
Strategic gamblers had higher lack of perseverance and gambling-related expectancies and illusion of control than non-strategic gamblers, and online gamblers had generally higher distortions but similar impulsivity to offline gamblers. Lack of perseverance predicted treatment dropout, whereas negative urgency and distortions of inability to stop gambling and interpretative bias predicted number of relapses during treatment.
Individuals with online and strategic GD phenotypes have heightened gambling related biases associated with premature treatment cessation and relapse. Findings suggest that these GD phenotypes may need tailored treatment approaches to reduce specific distortions and impulsive facets.
As the Inca Empire was predominantly agrarian, the integration of local farming communities into a corporate agricultural system constituted a great challenge for the imperial political economy. The authors thus analyse an unusual circular structure in the Altos de Arica region of northern Chile, which resembles an important building—called ‘sunturhuasi’—in the capital, Cusco. They explore this structure using three-dimensional modelling, identifying its probable use in astronomical observations and hence its clear connection with the Inca agricultural calendar, ultimately suggesting that it was central to an imperial built environment related to the political economy of maize production.
There is a long history of exploitation of the South American river turtle Podocnemis expansa. Conservation efforts for this species started in the 1960s but best practices were not established, and population trends and the number of nesting females protected remained unknown. In 2014 we formed a working group to discuss conservation strategies and to compile population data across the species’ range. We analysed the spatial pattern of its abundance in relation to human and natural factors using multiple regression analyses. We found that > 85 conservation programmes are protecting 147,000 nesting females, primarily in Brazil. The top six sites harbour > 100,000 females and should be prioritized for conservation action. Abundance declines with latitude and we found no evidence of human pressure on current turtle abundance patterns. It is presently not possible to estimate the global population trend because the species is not monitored continuously across the Amazon basin. The number of females is increasing at some localities and decreasing at others. However, the current size of the protected population is well below the historical population size estimated from past levels of human consumption, which demonstrates the need for concerted global conservation action. The data and management recommendations compiled here provide the basis for a regional monitoring programme among South American countries.
The paper shows the connections between some importance indices for the components in an engineering coherent system and the performance of the system obtained when a redundancy mechanism is applied to a specific component. A copula approach is used to model the dependency among the components. This approach includes the popular case of independent components. Under some assumptions, it is proved that if component i is more important than component j, then the system obtained by applying a redundancy procedure to the ith component is better, under different stochastic criteria, than that obtained with the jth component. These results can be applied to several redundancy mechanisms. A new importance index is defined to study active redundancies. Some illustrative examples are provided.
A 6–18 GHz high-power amplifier (HPA) design in GaN on SiC technology is presented. This power amplifier consists of a two-stage corporate amplifier with two and four transistors, respectively. It has been fabricated on UMS using their 0.25 µm gate length process, GH25. A study of the suitable attachment method and measurement on wafer and on jig are detailed. This HPA exhibits an averaged output power of 39.2 dBm with a mean gain of 11 dB in saturation and a 24.5% maximum power added efficiency in pulse mode operation with a duty cycle of 10% with a 25 µs pulse width.
We prove that if
-triple and not a Cartan factor of rank two, then
satisfies the Mazur–Ulam property, that is, every surjective isometry from the unit sphere of
onto the unit sphere of another real Banach space
extends to a surjective real linear isometry from
Familiarity, emotionality, motor activity, memorability, and vividness of visual imagery ratings, on 7-point scales, were collected for 536 Spanish action-related sentences, including a corpus of 439 phrases originally normed in Swedish, German, and Croatian (Arar & Molander, 1996; Molander & Arar, 1998; Molander, Arar, Mavrinac, & Janig, 1999) and 97 new sentences describing actions usually performed using different body postures and face or hand movements. These norms constitute the only available set of ratings for action sentences in Spanish including those dimensions to date, and they allow for the design of studies aimed at empirically exploring the relationship between action, language, and cognition with well-controlled materials in Spanish-speaking samples of participants.
The goal of this study was to find out the training received in Urgent and Emergency Medicine (UEM) by the Primary Health Care (PHC) physicians of Asturias (Spain), as well as their perception of their own theoretical knowledge and practical skills in a series of procedures employed in life-threatening emergencies (LTEs), and also to analyze the differences according to the geographical area of their work.
This was a cross-sectional survey of PHC physicians using an ad hoc survey of a sample of 213 physicians in Asturias regarding their self-perception of theoretical knowledge and practical skills in techniques used in LTEs by areas of work (rural, suburban, and urban). The interview was conducted by mail from April through May 2017. The data processing has used absolute and relative frequencies, as well as central tendency parameters and dispersion parameters. The estimates for the entire population have been made using confidence intervals for the mean of 95%. In the comparison of parameters, the differences between parameters with a probability of error less than five percent (P<.05) have been considered significant. For the comparison of means between the different techniques in the different areas of work, ANOVA was used.
With respect to the training of physicians, in general, for managing emergencies, both at the regional level and by areas of work (rural, suburban, and urban), none of the sets analyzed attained five points. By areas of work, it was the suburban region where there was a greater average general level of knowledge. There were significant differences in the average theoretical knowledge and the average practical skills in the procedures studied according to the different areas of work. The greater number of significant differences was between the urban and suburban regions and within the urban area.
It’s necessary to ensure an adequate homogeneity of the levels of theoretical knowledge and practical skills of PHC physicians in order to guarantee the equity of provision of health care in emergencies in different geographical areas.
Cernuda MartínezJA, Castro DelgadoR, Ferrero FernándezE, Arcos GonzálezP. Self-Perception of Theoretical Knowledge and Practical Skills by Primary Health Care Physicians in Life-Threatening Emergencies. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(5):508–518.
An individual’s sense of the extent to which her or his body physically interacts with objects in the environment (body–object interaction; BOI) has been empirically shown to modulate lexical and semantic processing of object names. To allow for further exploration of the nature of those effects, BOI ratings for 750 Spanish nouns were obtained from 178 young adult participants. Statistical analyses showed moderate correlations between BOI indicators and some psycholinguistic indexes, such as word imageability and age of acquisition. In addition, an exploration of lexical associative relationships revealed that high-BOI words have a consistent tendency to be associated with words naming parts of the body. The ratings could be useful to researchers who are interested in manipulating or controlling for the effects of BOI in their language-processing studies. The complete norms are available for free downloading at Open Science Framework (https://osf.io/kd5vf/).
Aedes aegypti, historically known as yellow fever (YF) mosquito, transmits a great number of other viruses such as Dengue, West Nile, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro and perhaps Oropouche, among others. Well established in Africa and Asia, Aedes mosquitoes are now increasingly invading large parts of the American continent, and hence the risk of urban YF resurgence in the American cities should because of great concern to public health authorities. Although no new urban cycle of YF was reported in the Americas since the end of an Aedes eradication programme in the late 1950s, the high number of non-vaccinated individuals that visit endemic areas, that is, South American jungles where the sylvatic cycle of YF is transmitted by canopy mosquitoes, and return to Aedes-infested urban areas, increases the risk of resurgence of the urban cycle of YF. We present a method to estimate the risk of urban YF resurgence in dengue-endemic cities. This method consists in (1) to estimate the number of Aedes mosquitoes that explains a given dengue outbreak in a given region; (2) calculate the force of infection caused by the introduction of one infective individual per unit area in the endemic area under study; (3) using the above estimates, calculate the probability of at least one autochthonous YF case per unit area produced by one single viraemic traveller per unit area arriving from a YF endemic or epidemic sylvatic region at the city studied. We demonstrate that, provided the relative vector competence, here defined as the capacity to being infected and disseminate the virus, of Ae. aegypti is greater than 0.7 (with respect to dengue), one infected traveller can introduce urban YF in a dengue endemic area.
Metamaterials offer the possibility to control and manipulate electromagnetic radiation. Spoof surface plasmon metamaterials are the focus of this Element of the Metamaterials Series. The fundamentals of spoof surface plasmons are reviewed, and advances on plasmonic metamaterials based on spoof plasmons are presented. Spoof surface plasmon metamaterials on a wide range of geometries are discussed: from planar platforms to waveguides and localized modes, including cylindrical structures, grooves, wedges, dominos or conformal surface plasmons in ultrathin platforms. The Element closes with a review of recent advances and applications such as Terahertz sensing or integrated devices and circuits.
The aim of this study was to develop and to assess a specific Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) framework to evaluate new drugs in an hospital pharmacy and therapeutics committee (P&TC) setting.
A pilot criteria framework was developed based on the EVIDEM (Evidence and Value: Impact on DEcisionMaking) framework, together with other relevant criteria, and assessed by a group of P&TC's members. The weighting of included criteria was done using a 5-point weighting technique. Two drugs were chosen by evaluation: an orphan-drug for Gaucher disease, and a nonorphan drug for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Evidence matrices were developed, and value contribution of each drug was evaluated by P&TC's members. An agreed final framework was obtained through a discussion between the P&TC's members.
After criteria assessment, the pilot framework included eight quantitative criteria: “disease severity,” “unmet needs,” “comparative efficacy/effectiveness,” “comparative safety/tolerability,” “comparative patient-reported outcomes,” “comparative cost consequences-cost of treatment,” “comparative cost consequences-other medical costs,” and “quality of evidence”; and one contextual criterion: “opportunity costs and affordability.” The most valued criteria were: “comparative safety/tolerability,” “disease severity,” and “comparative efficacy/effectiveness.” When assessing the drugs most valued characteristics of the MCDA were the possibility that all team may contribute to drug assessment by means of scoring the matrices and the discussion to reach a consensus in drug positioning and value decision making.
The reflective MCDA would integrate quantitative and qualitative criteria relevant for a P&TC setting, allowing reflective discussions based on the criteria weighting score.