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Additive manufacture (AM) enables a greatly increased design freedom owing to its ability to manufacture otherwise difficult or impossible geometries. However, design creativity can often present itself as a barrier to realising the advantages that AM could offer. In this study the use of AM, bioresorbable materials and lattice design is considered as a method of satisfying contradicting design requirements during fracture healing. Often, immediately after a fracture high stiffness fixation is required; contradictingly during the remodelling phase high stiffness can inhibit bone healing. This study proposes the use of a bioresorbable body centred cubic (BCC) or face centred cubic (FCC) lattice structure to meet the need for tailored variation in implant stiffness over time. To reduce computational expense of lattice modelling a method is outlined, including the use of homogenisation. Results show homogenised representations perform within 5.2% and 1.4% for BCC and FCC unit cells respectively, with a 95% reduction in computational expense. Using resorption rates from the literature, time-dependent change in unit cell geometry was also modelled, showing the way in which a decrease in stiffness over time could be achieved.
The study investigates sex differences in the prevalence of undernutrition in sub-Saharan Africa. Undernutrition was defined by Z-scores using the CDC-2000 growth charts. Some 128 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) were analysed, totalling 700,114 children under-five. The results revealed a higher susceptibility of boys to undernutrition. Male-to-female ratios of prevalence averaged 1.18 for stunting (height-for-age Z-score <−2.0); 1.01 for wasting (weight-for-height Z-score <−2.0); 1.05 for underweight (weight-for-age Z-score <−2.0); and 1.29 for concurrent wasting and stunting (weight-for-height and height-for-age Z-scores <−2.0). Sex ratios of prevalence varied with age for stunting and concurrent wasting and stunting, with higher values for children age 0–23 months and lower values for children age 24–59 months. Sex ratios of prevalence tended to increase with declining level of mortality for stunting, underweight and concurrent wasting and stunting, but remained stable for wasting. Comparisons were made with other anthropometric reference sets (NCHS-1977 and WHO-2006), and the results were found to differ somewhat from those obtained with CDC-2000. Possible rationales for these patterns are discussed.
In Joan C. Williams's White Working Class: Overcoming Class Cluelessness in America and Nancy Isenberg's White Trash: The 400-Year Untold History of Class in America, the reader will find a nation riven by abiding class prejudice. Both have written explicitly with the goal of forcing readers to confront the deep, ugly, and ultimately destructive effects of elite snobbery towards working-class or impoverished white people. They both believe that educated readers tend to minimize or ignore how much class matters and has mattered in American history and to deny their own class biases; these books are meant to make that denial harder to sustain.
To assess differences in cognition functions and gross brain structure in children seven years after an episode of severe acute malnutrition (SAM), compared with other Malawian children.
Prospective longitudinal cohort assessing school grade achieved and results of five computer-based (CANTAB) tests, covering three cognitive domains. A subset underwent brain MRI scans which were reviewed using a standardized checklist of gross abnormalities and compared with a reference population of Malawian children.
Children discharged from SAM treatment in 2006 and 2007 (n 320; median age 9·3 years) were compared with controls: siblings closest in age to the SAM survivors and age/sex-matched community children.
SAM survivors were significantly more likely to be in a lower grade at school than controls (adjusted OR = 0·4; 95 % CI 0·3, 0·6; P < 0·0001) and had consistently poorer scores in all CANTAB cognitive tests. Adjusting for HIV and socio-economic status diminished statistically significant differences. There were no significant differences in odds of brain abnormalities and sinusitis between SAM survivors (n 49) and reference children (OR = 1·11; 95 % CI 0·61, 2·03; P = 0·73).
Despite apparent preservation in gross brain structure, persistent impaired school achievement is likely to be detrimental to individual attainment and economic well-being. Understanding the multifactorial causes of lower school achievement is therefore needed to design interventions for SAM survivors to thrive in adulthood. The cognitive and potential economic implications of SAM need further emphasis to better advocate for SAM prevention and early treatment.
To assess the acceptability and adherence to daily doses of lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) among children and micronutrient powder (MNP) among children and pregnant and lactating women.
Household interviews and sachet counting were conducted to measure acceptability and adherence, 15 and 30 d after product distribution. Qualitative information on product acceptability was collected using focus group discussions.
LNS was distributed to 123 children aged 6–35 months (LNS-C), and MNP to 112 children aged 36–59 months (MNP-C) and 119 pregnant or lactating women (MNP-W).
At the end of the test 98·4 % of LNS-C, 90·4 % of MNP-C and 75·5 % of MNP-W participants reported that they liked the product (P<0·05). Other measures of acceptability did not differ. Median consumption of sachets was highest in the LNS-C group (P<0·001). ‘Good’ adherence to the daily regimen (consumption of 75–125 % of recommended dose) was 89·1 % in the LNS-C, compared with 57·0 % in the MNP-C and 65·8 % in the MNP-W groups (P<0·001). Qualitative findings supported the quantitative measures and guided selection of local product names, packaging designs, distribution mechanisms, and the design of the information campaign in the subsequent programme scale-up.
Acceptability, consumption and adherence were higher in participants receiving LNS compared with MNP. However, both products were found to be suitable when compared with predefined acceptability criteria. Acceptability studies are feasible and important in emergency nutrition programmes when the use of novel special nutritional products is considered.
There is a recognised need to strengthen capacity in the nutrition in emergencies sector and for greater clarity on the role of emergency nutritionists and the skills they require. Competency frameworks are an important tool for human resource development and have been developed for several other humanitarian sectors. We therefore developed a technical competency framework for practitioners in nutrition in emergencies.
Existing competency frameworks were reviewed and interviews conducted to explore methods used in developing competency frameworks for other sectors. Competencies were identified through interviews with field experts, feedback from course trainees, academic course content and job specifications. Competencies were then categorised and behavioural indicators developed for each. The draft framework was then reviewed by members of the Global Nutrition Cluster and modified in an iterative process.
A wide range of competencies were identified as essential for nutritionists working in emergencies, covering technical skills and general core competencies. The proposed framework contains twenty competency areas with 161 behavioural indicators categorised into three levels, corresponding to the requirements of progressively more senior roles. Many of the competencies are common across development and emergency nutrition.
The proposed technical competency framework should prove to be a valuable tool in creating standards within the sector and promoting effective capacity strengthening and professionalisation. Continued research is needed to validate the framework, optimise methods for assessment, develop approaches to integrate it within the sector and measure its impact on performance.
To understand factors affecting the compliance of malnourished, HIV-positive adults with a nutritional protocol using ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF; Plumpy'nut®).
Qualitative study using key informant interviews, focus group discussions and direct observations.
Ministry of Health HIV/programme supported by Médecins Sans Frontièrs (MSF) in Nyanza Province, Kenya.
Adult patients (n 46) currently or previously affected by HIV-associated wasting and receiving anti-retroviral therapy, their caregivers (n 2) and MoH/MSF medical employees (n 8).
Thirty-four out of forty-six patients were receiving RUTF (8360 kJ/d) at the time of the study and nineteen of them were wasted (BMI < 17 kg/m2). Six of the thirteen wasted out-patients came to the clinic without a caregiver and were unable to carry their monthly provision (12 kg) of RUTF home because of physical frailty. Despite the patients’ enthusiasm about their weight gain and rapid resumption of labour activities, the taste of the product, diet monotony and clinical conditions associated with HIV made it impossible for half of them to consume the daily prescription. Sharing the RUTF with other household members and mixing with other foods were common. Staff training did not include therapeutic dietetic counselling.
The level of reported compliance with the prescribed dose of RUTF was low. An improved approach to treating malnourished HIV-positive adults in limited resource contexts is needed and must consider strategies to support patients without a caregiver, development of therapeutic foods more suited to adult taste, specific dietetic training for health staff and the provision of liquid therapeutic foods for severely ill patients.
To evaluate the acceptability of iron and iron-alloy cooking pots prior to an intervention trial and to investigate factors affecting retention and use.
Pre-trial research was conducted on five types of iron and iron-alloy pots using focus group discussions and a laboratory evaluation of Fe transfer during cooking was undertaken. Usage and retention during the subsequent intervention trial were investigated using focus group discussions and market monitoring.
Three refugee camps in western Tanzania.
Refugee health workers were selected for pre-trial research. Mothers of children aged 6–59 months participated in the investigation of retention and use.
Pre-trial research indicated that the stainless steel pot would be the only acceptable type for use in this population due to excessive rusting and/or the high weight of other types. Cooking three typical refugee dishes in stainless steel pots led to an increase in Fe content of 3·2 to 17·1 mg/100 g food (P < 0·001). During the trial, the acceptability of the stainless steel pots was lower than expected owing to difficulties with using, cleaning and their utility for other purposes. Households also continued to use their pre-existing pots, and stainless steel pots were sold to increase household income.
Pre-trial research led to the selection of a stainless steel pot that met basic acceptability criteria. The relatively low usage reported during the trial highlights the limitations of using high-value iron-alloy cooking pots as an intervention in populations where poverty and the availability of other pots may lead to selling.
To evaluate the effectiveness of stainless steel (Fe alloy) cooking pots in reducing Fe-deficiency anaemia in food aid-dependent populations.
Repeated cross-sectional surveys. Between December 2001 and January 2003, three surveys among children aged 6–59 months and their mothers were conducted in 110 households randomly selected from each camp. The primary outcomes were changes in Hb concentration and Fe status.
Two long-term refugee camps in western Tanzania.
Children (6–59 months) and their mothers were surveyed at 0, 6 and 12 months post-intervention. Stainless steel pots were distributed to all households in Nduta camp (intervention); households in Mtendeli camp (control) continued to cook with aluminium or clay pots.
Among children, there was no change in Hb concentration at 1 year; however, Fe status was lower in the intervention camp than the control camp (serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentration: 6·8 v. 5·9 μg/ml; P < 0·001). There was no change in Hb concentration among non-pregnant mothers at 1 year. Subjects in the intervention camp had lower Fe status than those in the control camp (sTfR concentration: 5·8 v. 4·7 μg/ml; P = 0·003).
Distribution of stainless steel pots did not increase Hb concentration or improve Fe status in children or their mothers. The use of stainless steel prevents rusting but may not provide sufficient amounts of Fe and strong educational campaigns may be required to maximize use. The distribution of stainless steel pots in refugee contexts is not recommended as a strategy to control Fe deficiency.
To assess changes in the Fe and vitamin A status of the population of Nangweshi refugee camp associated with the introduction of maize meal fortification.
Pre- and post-intervention study using a longitudinal cohort.
Nangweshi refugee camp, Zambia.
Two hundred and twelve adolescents (10–19 years), 157 children (6–59 months) and 118 women (20–49 years) were selected at random by household survey in July 2003 and followed up after 12 months.
Maize grain was milled and fortified in two custom-designed mills installed at a central location in the camp and a daily ration of 400 g per person was distributed twice monthly to households as part of the routine food aid ration. During the intervention period mean Hb increased in children (0·87 g/dl; P < 0·001) and adolescents (0·24 g/dl; P = 0·043) but did not increase in women. Anaemia decreased in children by 23·4 % (P < 0·001) but there was no significant change in adolescents or women. Serum transferrin receptor (log10-transformed) decreased by −0·082 μg/ml (P = 0·036) indicating an improvement in the Fe status of adolescents but there was no significant decrease in the prevalence of deficiency (−8·5 %; P = 0·079). In adolescents, serum retinol increased by 0·16 μmol/l (P < 0·001) and vitamin A deficiency decreased by 26·1 % (P < 0·001).
The introduction of fortified maize meal led to a decrease in anaemia in children and a decrease in vitamin A deficiency in adolescents. Centralised, camp-level milling and fortification of maize meal is a feasible and pertinent intervention in food aid operations.
To assess the applicability and use of infant nutrition and health indicators during emergencies.
Indicators recommended by international health and nutrition organisations for assessing infant feeding practice were compiled and analysed to evaluate their consistency and applicability for use in surveys of emergency-affected populations. These indicators included measures of breast-feeding status, use of artificial feeding, anthropometric status and morbidity. Health and nutrition surveys performed on the resident or refugee population of Kosovo during the years 1996–1999 were then reviewed and the use of infant feeding and morbidity indicators were compared.
A number of recommended indicators exist for assessing infant and child feeding practice which have been generated by different international organisations. A comparison of these indicators revealed a number of inconsistencies, both in target population and measurement method. Their use during the Kosovo crisis was likewise inconsistent and prevented conclusions being drawn about the effectiveness of the international response in protecting infant health and nutrition.
Standard indicators need to be agreed and promoted for use during surveys of emergency-affected populations. Failure to do so will lead to a continued inability to monitor the health and nutrition of infants at a population level during international relief operations.
To assess the iodine status of long-term refugees dependent on international food aid and humanitarian assistance.
A series of cross-sectional two-stage cluster or systematic random sample surveys which assessed urinary iodine excretion and the prevalence of visible goitre. Salt samples were also collected and tested for iodine content by titration.
Six refugee camps in East, North and Southern Africa.
Male and female adolescents aged 10–19 years.
The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) ranged from 254 to 1200 μg l−1 and in five of the camps exceeded the recommended maximum limit of 300 μg l−1, indicating excessive iodine intake. Visible goitre was assessed in four surveys where it ranged from 0.0 to 7.1%. The camp with the highest UIC also had the highest prevalence of visible goitre. The iodine concentrations in 11 salt samples from three camps were measured by titration and six of these exceeded the production-level concentration of 20 to 40 ppm recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), but were all less than 100 ppm.
Excessive consumption of iodine is occurring in most of the surveyed populations. Urgent revision of the level of salt iodisation is required to meet current WHO recommendations. However, the full cause of excessive iodine excretion remains unknown and further investigation is required urgently to identify the cause, assess any health impact and identify remedial action.