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To profile discretionary food and beverage (DF) consumption among Australian adults.
Cross-sectional analysis. Dietary and sociodemographic data were used to profile DF intake. Prevalence of DF consumption, DF servings (1 serving=600 kJ), nutrient contribution from DF and top DF food groups by self-reported eating occasions were determined. DF consumers (>0 g) were classified according to quartile of DF intake and general linear models adjusted for age and sex were used to determine associations.
2011–12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS).
Adults aged ≥19 years (n 9341) who participated in the NNPAS 2011–12.
Most adults consumed DF (98 %) and over 60 % exceeded 3 DF servings/d, with a mean of 5·0 (se 0·0) DF servings/d. Cakes, muffins, scones, cake-type desserts contributed the most DF energy (8·4 %) of all food groups, followed by wines (8·1 %), pastries (8·0 %) and beers (6·1 %), with all these food groups consumed in large portions (2·3–3·0 DF servings). Lunch and dinner together contributed 45 % of total DF energy intake. High DF consumers had an average of 10 DF servings, and this group contained more younger adults, males, low socio-economic status, lower usual fruit intake and higher mean waist circumference, but not higher BMI.
A focus on DF consumed in large portions at lunch and dinner may help improve interventions aimed at reducing DF intake and addressing negative adiposity-related measures found in high DF consumers.
This chapter summarizes our current understanding of the ionosphere of Saturn. We give an overview of Saturn ionospheric science from the Voyager era to the present, with a focus on the wealth of new data and discoveries enabled by Cassini, including a massive increase in the number of electron density altitude profiles. We discuss recent ground-based detections of the effect of “ring rain” on Saturn’s ionosphere, and present possible model interpretations of the observations. Finally, we outline current model-data discrepancies and indicate how future observations can help in advancing our understanding of the various controlling physical and chemical processes.
Point-prevalence surveys for infection or colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CREs), and for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) were conducted in Canadian hospitals in 2010 and 2012 to better understanding changes in the epidemiology of antimicrobial-resistant organisms (AROs), which is crucial for public health and care management.
A third survey of the same AROs in adult inpatients in Canadian hospitals with ≥50 beds was performed in February 2016. Data on participating hospitals and patient cases were obtained using standard criteria and case definitions. Associations between ARO prevalence and institutional characteristics were assessed using logistic regression models.
In total, 160 hospitals from 9 of the 10 provinces with 35,018 adult inpatients participated in the survey. Median prevalence per 100 inpatients was 4.1 for MRSA, 0.8 for VRE, 1.1 for CDI, 0.8 for ESBLs, and 0 for CREs. No significant change occurred compared to 2012. CREs were reported from 24 hospitals (15%) in 2016 compared to 10 hospitals (7%) in 2012. Routine universal or targeted admission screening for VRE decreased from 94% in 2010 to 74% in 2016. Targeted screening for MRSA on admission was associated with a lower prevalence of MRSA infection. Large hospitals (>500 beds) had higher prevalences of CDI.
This survey provides national prevalence rates for AROs in Canadian hospitals. Changes in infection control and prevention policies might lead to changes in the epidemiology of AROs and our capacity to detect them.
The Five Year Forward View for Mental Health (FYFVMH) was a welcome development in the emerging ‘Parity of Esteem’ agenda, but focused mainly on a select few specialist services; much more limited attention was given to ‘core’ general adult and older age mental health services, such as community mental health teams, crisis teams and in-patient units. This relative policy vacuum, when combined with prolonged financial pressures and limited informatics, has left core services vulnerable and struggling to meet growing demands, with little sense of hope, in contrast to some of the newer, ‘shiny’ specialist services growing around them. Policy makers need to recognise the growing crisis and take action, ensuring that any sequel to the FYFVMH redresses this imbalance by clearly prioritising core services as the vital foundations of the larger whole-system. The potential benefits are huge and wide-ranging, but the harms of a second missed opportunity are perhaps even greater.
Declaration of interest
A.M. works in a National Health Service general adult community mental health team and is an elected member of the Royal College of Psychiatrists General Adult Faculty Executive Committee.
Biomass energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is represented in many integrated assessment models as a keystone technology in delivering the Paris Agreement on climate change. This paper explores six key challenges in relation to large scale BECCS deployment and considers ways to address these challenges. Research needs to consider how BECCS fits in the context of other mitigation approaches, how it can be accommodated within existing policy drivers and goals, identify where it fits within the wider socioeconomic landscape, and ensure that genuine net negative emissions can be delivered on a global scale.
CdTe solar cells with a Te-buffer layer adjacent to the back contact were fabricated. The effects of the Te layer on cell performance were evaluated in detail. The carrier density of the Te layer (1018 cm-3) was measured. The valence band offset of the CdTe/Te interface (∼0.3-0.5 eV) was determined from current-voltage-temperature measurements and published reports. These values were incorporated into a simulation model and compared to the measured experimental performance with good agreement. Most notably, it was found that the Te layer allowed improved cell performance with less Cu required to form the back contact.
The eastern Adriatic is a key area for understanding the mechanisms and effects of the spread of agriculture. This article presents an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon chronology for the introduction and subsequent development of farming villages on the eastern shore of the Adriatic (∼6000–1700 cal BC) and evaluates this in comparison with the established pottery chronology based on stylistic data from Pokrovnik (Drniš) on the Dalmatian coast of Croatia. Models for the spread of agriculture rely heavily on changing pottery styles to define cultural groups and trace geographic relationships. Based on AMS 14C dates presented here, Impressed Wares first appear in central Dalmatia by 6000 cal BC and persist until 5300 cal BC, well into what is generally termed the Middle Neolithic. Similarly, a typical Middle Neolithic ware, figulina, appeared earlier than anticipated. These findings stand in contrast to cave and rockshelter assemblages in the eastern Adriatic, but mirror assemblages from farming villages on the Italian Adriatic coast. This study argues that the similarities in ceramic assemblage composition and change through time may have less to do with direct contacts between areas, but more with the nature of ceramic production and consumption at village sites in general. These data shed light on the limitations of regional ceramic chronologies in the eastern Adriatic and highlight the necessity for systematic expansion of 14C chronologies to address the social, economic, and ecological relevance of early farming in the Adriatic for the spread of agriculture in Europe and the Mediterranean.
Accurate discrimination of two morphologically similar species of Patella limpets has been facilitated by using qPCR amplification of species-specific mitochondrial genomic regions. Cost-effective and non-destructive sampling is achieved using a mucus swab and simple sample lysis and dilution to create a PCR template. Results show 100% concurrence with dissection and microscopic analysis, and the technique has been employed successfully in field studies. The use of highly sensitive DNA barcoding techniques such as this hold great potential for improving previously challenging field assessments of species abundance.
To determine whether a color-coded tourniquet designed for public use increases successful tourniquet application by laypeople.
This was a randomized study conducted on April 25, 2015. The study occurred during the Maryland Day activity at the University of Maryland in College Park, Maryland. Investigators recruited participants with posters displayed at major crosswalks around a central testing area. A total of 157 volunteers aged 18 years or older and without prior military service or medical training were enrolled. A participant stood in front of a waist-down mannequin with an isolated leg injury while an investigator read aloud a mass causality scenario. The investigator then asked the participant to apply a tourniquet to the mannequin’s leg. All participants received a 4-step illustrated just-in-time (JiT) instruction card designed to facilitate layperson tourniquet application. Test participants received a color-coded tourniquet designed for layperson use with instructions printed on the device. Control participants received a black Combat Application Tourniquet (C-A-T; Composite Resources, Rock Hill, SC). Participants were randomized in a 1:1 ratio in blocks of 50. The primary outcome was the proportion of successful tourniquet applications by those who received color-coded tourniquets compared to those who received black tourniquets. Secondary outcomes included validation of previous data analyzing layperson success with tourniquet application, time for successful placement, reasons for failed applications, and participant self-willingness and comfort using tourniquets. We also analyzed demographic data on the study population and inter-rater reliability regarding the assessment of successful tourniquet application.
Participants supplied with color-coded tourniquets successfully placed the device 51.38% of the time, compared to 44.71% of the time for controls using a black tourniquet (risk ratio: 1.15; 95% confidence interval: 0.83-1.59; P=0.404). Participants’ self-reported willingness to use a tourniquet rose from 40.8% before the study to 80.3% after the study (P<0.05).
The color-coded device did not significantly increase laypeople’s proportion of successful tourniquet applications when compared with a standard black device. However, this study reproduced pilot study data showing that laypeople can successfully apply tourniquets about half the time if provided JiT instructions. Age, sex, race, income, and highest level of education were not found to impact one’s ability to properly apply a tourniquet. Laypeople’s willingness to apply tourniquets doubled to 80% after brief exposure to the device. These results affirm the feasibility of engaging laypeople as immediate lifesavers of trauma victims and justify further efforts to boost rates of proper application. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:274–280)
A scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini was observed opportunistically from a remotely operated vehicle 1 m off the seabed at 1042 m depth, during hydrocarbon exploration activities in the Ruvuma Basin off Tanzania. The observation, which occurred during night hours, is the deepest accurately recorded for this species and the first deep-water record for the Indian Ocean. The record adds support for the occurrence in deep water during night hours being a widespread and possibly common behaviour in this species, and further expands a small but growing literature that meso- and bathypelagic environments may be of greater importance to elasmobranchs previously considered to be primarily epipelagic.
In this work, we report on development of one-dimensional reaction-diffusion simulator needed to understand the kinetics of Cu-related metastabilities observed in CdTe PV devices. Evolution of intrinsic and Cu-related defects in CdTe solar cells has been studied in time-space domain self-consistently with free carrier transport. Resulting device performance was simulated as a function of stress time, thus showing pronounced effect that the evolution of associated acceptor and donor states can cause on device characteristics. Although 1D simulation has intrinsic limitations when applied to poly-crystalline films, the results presented confirm the validity and the potential of the approach presented in better understanding of the performance and metastabilities of CdTe photovoltaic devices.
To examine cross-sectional relationships between plasma vitamin D and cardiometabolic risk factors in young adults.
Data were collected from interviews, physical examinations and biomarker measurements. Total plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured using LC–tandem MS. Associations between 25(OH)D and cardiometabolic risk factors were modelled using weighted linear regression with robust estimates of standard errors.
Individuals born in Jerusalem during 1974–1976.
Participants of the Jerusalem Perinatal Study (n 1204) interviewed and examined at age 32 years. Participants were oversampled for low and high birth weight and for maternal pre-pregnancy obesity.
Mean total 25(OH)D concentration among participants was 21·7 (sd 8·9) ng/ml. Among males, 25(OH)D was associated with homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (natural log-transformed, β=−0·011, P=0·004) after adjustment for BMI. However, these associations were not present among females (P for sex interaction=0·005).
We found evidence for inverse associations of 25(OH)D with markers of insulin resistance among males, but not females, in a healthy, young adult Caucasian population. Prospective studies and studies conducted on other populations investigating sex-specific effects of vitamin D on cardiometabolic risk factors are warranted.