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Measurement error in self-reported total sugars intake may obscure associations between sugars consumption and health outcomes, and the sum of 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose may serve as a predictive biomarker of total sugars intake.
The Study of Latinos: Nutrition & Physical Activity Assessment Study (SOLNAS) was an ancillary study to the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) cohort. Doubly labelled water and 24 h urinary sucrose and fructose were used as biomarkers of energy and sugars intake, respectively. Participants’ diets were assessed by up to three 24 h recalls (88 % had two or more recalls). Procedures were repeated approximately 6 months after the initial visit among a subset of ninety-six participants.
Four centres (Bronx, NY; Chicago, IL; Miami, FL; San Diego, CA) across the USA.
Men and women (n 477) aged 18–74 years.
The geometric mean of total sugars was 167·5 (95 % CI 154·4, 181·7) g/d for the biomarker-predicted and 90·6 (95 % CI 87·6, 93·6) g/d for the self-reported total sugars intake. Self-reported total sugars intake was not correlated with biomarker-predicted sugars intake (r=−0·06, P=0·20, n 450). Among the reliability sample (n 90), the reproducibility coefficient was 0·59 for biomarker-predicted and 0·20 for self-reported total sugars intake.
Possible explanations for the lack of association between biomarker-predicted and self-reported sugars intake include measurement error in self-reported diet, high intra-individual variability in sugars intake, and/or urinary sucrose and fructose may not be a suitable proxy for total sugars intake in this study population.
Observations of atmospheric reactive nitrogen (Nr) deposition are severely restricted in spatial extent and type. The chain of processes leading to atmospheric deposition emissions, atmospheric dispersion, chemical transformation and eventual loss from the atmosphere is extremely complex and therefore currently, observations can only address part of this chain.
Modelling provides a way of estimating atmospheric transport and deposition of Nr at the European scale. A description of the different model types is provided.
Current deposition estimates from models are compared with observations from European air chemistry monitoring networks.
The main focus of the chapter is at the European scale; however, both local variability and and intercontinental Nr transfers are also addressed.
Key findings/state of knowledge
Atmospheric deposition is a major input of Nr for European terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems as well as coastal sea areas.
Models are key tools to integrate our understanding of atmospheric chemistry and transport, and are essential for estimating the spatial distribution of deposition, and to support the formulation of air pollution control strategies.
Our knowledge of the reliability of models for deposition estimates is, however, limited, since we have so few observational constraints on many key parameters.
Total Nr deposition estimates cannot be directly assessed because of a lack of measurements, especially of the Nr dry deposition component. Differences among European regional models can be significant, however, e.g. 30% in some areas, and substantially more than this for specific locations.
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