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We have previously reported on the uniqueness and potential of room-temperature spectrometry of low-energy x-rays with a mercuric iodide (HgI2) detector (1,2,3). In this paper we emphasize the use of HgI2 detectors for x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis.
Because no vacuum plumbing or cryogenic cooling is required, the design of a mercuric iodide room-temperature x-ray spectrometer is extremely simple. Our present design consists of coupling a detector directly to the first-stage FET in a modified Tennelec 161 D preamplifier and making the configuration “light-tight”. Aside from providing a suitable entrance window, there are no other requirements for routine spectroscopy.
Continued development of mercuric iodide (HgI2) detectors for x-ray spectroscopy at room-temperature has led to a considerable improvement in energy resolution and a better understanding of the various detector parameters which affect sensitivity. The basic properties of a mercuric iodide detector and some of its characteristics pertinent to x-ray fluorescence analysis have been previously reported (1,2,3). In this paper we present results of studies to determine the shape o£ peaks and continuum background. Also, the use of Hgl2 in characterizing water pollutants by XRF analysis has been investigated and compared to cryogenically cooled Si(Li) and room-temperature proportional counter systems.
Taenia solium cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. Swine cysticercosis results in economic losses for pig farmers in disease endemic areas. Consumption of cysticercotic pork leads to taeniasis in humans. Eggs excreted in the faeces of T. solium carriers disseminate to humans and pigs through the faecal–oral route, thus maintaining the life cycle in endemic areas. An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay was developed using whole crude T. solium cysticercus antigens (WCA) for the diagnosis of swine cysticercosis. Sera from 30 swine with cysticercosis confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging were subjected to EITB assay. Sera from 50 swine that were raised in a government farm and not allowed to roam freely were included as negative controls. Two or more bands of 8, 11, 14, 24, 26 and 29 kDa were immunoreactive on blot with sera from all infected swine except two, and none from swine raised on the government farm. The overall sensitivity and specificity of EITB assay for diagnosis of swine cysticercosis were 93.3% and 100%, respectively. Hence, EITB assay based on WCA may be a suitable diagnostic tool for swine cysticercosis in endemic areas.
The indigenous poultry germplasm of Andaman & Nicobar Islands includes Nicobari fowl, Barred desi, Naked neck and Frizzle fowl, of which Nicobari fowl is the only native fowl of these Islands. The study of immune status is indirectly correlated with the disease resistance characteristics of the bird’s. The present study was conducted to know the primary humoral antibody response to Sheep RBC (SRBC) and their persistence in the immune system. However, for complete immunocompetence status, beside humoral responses the CMI and phagocytic responses are also to be considered.
This paper presents a sequential evaluation of snow microstructure and its associated thermal conductivity under the influence of a temperature gradient. Temperature gradients from 28 to 45 Km–1 were applied to snow samples having a density range 180–320 kgm–3. The experiments were conducted inside a cold room in a specially designed heat-flux apparatus for a period of 4weeks. A constant heat flux was applied at the base of the heat-flux apparatus to produce a temperature gradient in the snow sample. A steady-state approach was used to estimate the effective thermal conductivity of snow. Horizontal and vertical thick sections were prepared on a weekly basis to obtain snow micrographs. These micrographs were used to obtain snow microstructure using stereological tools. The thermal conductivity was found to increase with increase in grain size, bond size and grain and pore intercept lengths, suggesting a possible correlation of thermal conductivity with snow microstructure. Thermal conductivity increased even though surface area and area fraction of ice were found to decrease. The outcome suggests that changes in snow microstructure have significant control on thermal conductivity even at a constant density.
The acceleration of an electron by the ponderomotive force of a Gaussian whistler pulse in a magnetized high-density quantum plasma obeying Fermi–Dirac distribution is studied using the recently developed quantum hydrodynamic model. Effective acceleration takes place when the peak whistler amplitude exceeds a threshold value, and the whistler frequency is greater than the cyclotron frequency. The threshold amplitude decreases with ratio of plasma frequency to electron cyclotron frequency. The electron is accelerated at velocities of about twice the group velocity of the whistler.
Laser-produced copper plasma in the presence of variable transverse external magnetic field in air is investigated using optical emission spectroscopy. As the magnetic field increases from 0 to 0.5 T, the intensity of Cu I lines initially increases and then decreases slightly at a 0.5 T. The maximum intensity enhancement of all five Cu I lines occurs at a magnetic field of 0.3 T. The increase in intensity is attributed to an increase in the electron impact excitation of Cu. With increase in magnetic field, the electron density and temperature were found to increase due to increase in the confinement of plasma. The difference in intensity enhancement factor is due to the difference in excitation rate coefficients. The surface morphology of irradiated copper target is also analyzed at 0.3 T magnetic field at which the density is maximum and reveals the formation of Cu/Cu2O/CuO nanoparticles (NPs). More NPs are formed at the peripheral region than at the central region of the ablated crater and is due to the oxidation of Cu atom in the plasma–ambient interface. The larger grain size of nanostructures in the presence of magnetic field is due to an increase in the inverse pulsed laser deposition. The intensity of Raman peak of Cu2O decreases in the presence of magnetic field and that of CuO increases which is more likely due to conversion of Cu2O to CuO. The photoluminescence intensity of CuO increases in the presence of magnetic field due to the phase transformation of Cu2O to CuO in agreement with the result of Raman spectroscopy.
The possibilities of electron acceleration by ponderomotive force of a circularly polarized laser pulse in magnetized quantum plasma have been explored. The basic mechanism involves acceleration of electron by the axial gradient in the ponderomotive potential of the laser. The quantum effects have been taken into account for a high-density plasma. The ponderomotive force of the laser is resonantly enhanced when Doppler up-shifted laser frequency equals the cyclotron frequency.
Copper nanoparticles are synthesized successfully through chemical reduction of different copper salts stabilized by Ocimum Sanctum Leaf extract, a natural biopolymer. The resulting copper nanoparticles are characterized by using UV Visible Absorption Spectrometer, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) experiments. Copper nanoparticles prepared display an absorption peak at around 558 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the particles are FCC crystalline. SEM and TEM display the formation of copper nanoparticles with an average size of 10 nm. The SAXS studies demonstrate the formation of spherical nanoparticles with bimodal size distribution. The FTIR spectrum analysis has confirmed the presence of functional groups of stabilizer Ocimum Sanctum leaf extract in capping the copper nanoparticles.
Sharp-tail sunfish (Masturus lanceolatus) occurrence in Indian seas is uncommon and its taxonomy is still in controversy. The species was hooked in a sub-surface long-line during an exploratory survey for oceanic tuna and allied fish within the Indian exclusive economic zone in the Lakshadweep Sea along the west coast of India by survey ship MFV ‘Yellow Fin’ attached to the Fishery Survey of India, Mormugoa, Goa, India. It is reported to be the first Masturus species in the Lakshadweep Sea. The sample weighted 100 kg and had a total length of 147 cm. The morphometric and meristic measurements were made and results indicated; the species recorded was the third largest in total length and the heaviest in terms of mass compared to earlier reports in Indian seas.
Enterobius vermicularis infection remains one of the most common parasitic infections, particularly prevalent in children. Enterobiasis, although not usually dangerous, may cause significant morbidity. Elimination of the parasite from a family or an institution often poses problems, either because of an incomplete cure or re-infection. While there have been limited reports of ectopic enterobiasis throughout the world, ours is probably one of the rarest reports of recurrent vaginal E. vermicularis infection in the absence of any gastrointestinal symptoms despite complete treatment. A 4-year-old girl presented with recurrent episodes of vulval itching on 3–4 occasions over 2 years. There was no pruritis ani nor urinary/gastrointestinal complaints. The vulva was inflamed with 4–5 living worms, 6–7 mm in length, emerging from the anterior vaginal fornix, but with no vaginal discharge. Direct microscopic examination of vaginal swabs revealed adult worms of Enterobius but no eggs. Repeated stool samples from the patient, parents and a sibling were negative. The patient was treated orally with 100 mg of mebendazole for 3 days followed by two more courses at 3-week intervals over a period of 3 months. Recurrent vaginal enterobiasis despite complete treatment and in the absence of any gastrointestinal involvement suggests that the vagina is a potential reservoir for E. vermicularis, which supports the theory of rare ectopic enterobiasis through the ascending pathway of the female genital tract.
In this study a new species of nematode, Iheringascaris goai n. sp., is reported from two fish hosts, including silver whiting, Sillago sihama, and spotted catfish, Arius maculatus, caught off the Central West Coast of India at Goa. The new species can be differentiated morphologically from I. inquies, the most closely related species collected from cohabiting marine fish. The distinguishing characteristics are distinct cuticular striations, a unilateral excretory system, the presence of dentigerous ridges on the inner margin of the lips and the ratio of oesophagus to body length. In males, the ratio of spicules to body length is higher and the number of pre-anal papillae is less in comparison to those in I. inquies. In addition, the tail curves ventrad in males, while in females, the vulva is post-equatorial. The sequence alignment of 18S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I with sequences of known species selected from the same superfamily shows a significant difference. The morphological and molecular differences reported here can, therefore, be used to assign the specimen to a new species.
Bipolar devices made with SiC offer 20–50X lower switching losses as compared to conventional semiconductors, and a comparable on-state voltage drop at sufficiently high current densities. To exploit the tremendous advantages offered by SiC for bipolar power devices, it is important to understand the relevant voltage/current range, fundamental limits and technological challenges in order to develop this technology commercially. The opportunity of operating a device at a high current density (>300 A/cm2) to increase total current with reasonable yield, the poor reliability of MOS at high temperatures, and the relatively low channel mobilities obtained in 4H-SiC MOSFETs may make certain bipolar devices more attractive even as low as 1700 V. The total power loss in various bipolar devices is analyzed and compared to fundamental operational limits in order to find the applicability of various devices to advanced applications.
This paper discusses the design and process issues of high voltage power DiMOSFETs (Double implanted MOSFETs) in 4H-silicon carbide (SiC). Since Critical Field (EC) in 4H-SiC is very high (10X higher than that of a Si), special care is needed to protect the gate oxide. 2D device simulation tool was used to determine the optimal JFET gap, which provides adequate gate oxide protection as well as a reasonable JFET resistance. The other issue in 4H-SiC DiMOSFETs is extremely low effective channel mobility (μeff) in the implanted p-well regions. NO anneal of the gate oxide and buried channel structure are used for increasing μeff. NO anneal, which was reported to be very effective in increasing the μeff of SiC MOSFETS in p-type epilayers, did not produce reasonable μeff of SiC MOSFETs in the implanted p-well. Buried channel (BC) structure with 2.7×1012 cm−2 charge in the channel showed high μeff utilizing bulk buried channel, but resulted in a normally-on device. However, it was shown that by controlling the charge in the BC layer, a normally off device with high μeff can be produced. A 3.3 mm × 3.3 mm DiMOSFET with BC structure showed a drain current of 10 A, which is the highest current reported in SiC power MOSFETs to date, at a forward drop of 4.4 V with a gate bias of only 2.5 V.
The primary objective of this research is to optimize the different deposition conditions to obtain high tunability and low dielectric loss of Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) thin films at microwave frequencies. Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3thin films were deposited on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition technique (PLD). Deposition conditions like temperature, oxygen pressure, substrate to target distance and laser energy are varied to obtain the objective. Deposition of the BST thin films on the Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates was carried out at temperatures of 450°°C, 550°°C, 650°°C and oxygen pressures of 250mTorr and 450mTorr with laser fluence of 250 mJ/cm2 and 450mJ/cm2 at 10 pulses per second. The microstructural and phase analysis of the deposited BST films at different temperatures and different oxygen pressures were performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The diffraction patterns are attributed to cubic (perovskite) crystal system. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to perform the surface analysis of the films deposited at different substrate to target distances, varied laser energies and oxygen pressures. The BST capacitor was fabricated using the Coplanar Waveguide Structure and the capacitance and dielectric constant were measured using the Vector Network Analyzer (VNA). Tunability of 3.1:1 and loss tangent of 0.0121 was achieved at 0.4 – 0.8 GHz.
A variety of materials have been toughened by incorporating ductile phases. Brittle silicide intermetallics such as Nb5Si3 composited with niobium particles incorporated during in situ processing techniques have realized significant improvements in toughness and stable crack extension. In the present work, toughness tests conducted on Nb5Si3/Nb materials monitored in a scanning electron microscope were instrumental in viewing the role of the deforming niobium particles on the process of toughening. In particular, the behavior of the ductile phase was monitored and related to the toughness values obtained. In an attempt to vary the behavior of the ductile phase, the composite materials were exposed to a variety of gaseous environments and subsequently tested in air. The resulting toughness, resistance-curve behavior, and in situ test results highlight the importance of the behavior of the ductile phase on subsequent properties.
Soft X-ray photoelectron spectromicroscopy has been employed to examine the microstructural chemistry of corrosion on thin films of AL-i%Cu-1%Si alloy. Cu-rich precipitates are formed after the film is annealed at around 320ºC Localized corrosion takes place around these precipitates, and circular microstructures have been observed. Energy distribution curves (EDCs) taken at specific points are analyzed and photoelectron images were obtained from different kinetic energies corresponding to the peaks in EDC. It was found that after corrosion the Al2Cu particles are revealed and distributed at the center of the corrosion structure with oxide as matrix, while the oxides form a ring-like band outside.
Pulsed laser deposition has been explored to synthesize gallium nitride films on c-plane sapphire by ablating a pressed GaN target in vacuum. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and high resolution transmission electron microscopy to study the nature of epitaxy, growth, and defect content. Single crystal films with narrow o0-rocking curve width were deposited in the substrate temperature range 700-780°C. High resolution microscopy revealed uniform film surface at lower substrate temperature for films as thin as 150 nm. The predominant extended defects were found to be threading edge dislocations (Burgers vector 1/3<1120>) with the density ~1010 cm-2. The thickness of all these films were in the range 100-150 nm. The coexistence of zincblende phase of GaN alongwith wurtzite phase was found in the film deposited at 780°C. The stabilization of metastable zincblende phase at higher temperature point towards the noneqilibrium nature of laser ablation. These preliminary results indicate the potential of PLD to synthesize high quality GaN films free of hydrogen.
The structural and optical characterizations of single crystal zinc oxide films on sapphire have been performed. The ZnO films were deposited by pulsed laser deposition in an oxygen environment. These films were annealed in oxygen for further improvement in the oxygen stoichiometry. Both as-deposited and oxygen annealed films were high quality single crystal as characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The defect density, comprised mainly of dislocations and stacking faults, was low as compared to high quality films of III-nitrides deposited on sapphire. Under these growth conditions, the ZnO films grow two dimensionally on sapphire as opposed to GaN which grows three dimensionally. The band edge photoluminescence was found to be dominant, and an order of magnitude higher in the annealed films. Transmission measurements and the electrical resistivity of the annealed films also show the films were of high quality after annealing. It is envisaged that these improvements in the quality of the ZnO films occur as a result of reduction of oxygen vacancies and the density of point defects.
We have deposited diamondlike carbon, carbon nitride, and titanium nitride biocompatible coatings using pulsed laser deposition and magnetron sputtering on metallic (cobalt-chromium and titanium- 6% aluminum- 4% vanadium) and polymeric (high-density polyethylene) substrates commonly used in human prosthetic devices. A major advantage of the magnetron sputtering deposition technique is that it provides conformal coverage of large-area films. The coatings were characterized by electron diffraction and imaging, Raman spectroscopy, X- ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electron- energy loss spectroscopy, and nanoindenter hardness measurements. The physical properties (especially hardness) of the diamondlike carbon films were controlled using carbide and noncarbide forming elements. By varying the doping concentration as a function of thickness, functionally gradient materials with superior tribological and mechanical properties can be created. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of biomedical applications.