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To integrate scholastic literature regarding the prevalence and characteristics of the psychological consequences faced by survivors of the 2011 Fukushima earthquake/tsunami/nuclear disaster, we conducted a systematic review of survivor studies concerning the Fukushima disaster. In August 2019, four literature databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, and ICHUSHI) were used in the literature search. Peer-reviewed manuscripts reporting psychological consequences, either in English or Japanese, were selected. A total of 79 studies were selected for the review. Twenty-four studies (30.4%) were conducted as part of the Fukushima Health Management Survey—large-scale cohort study recruiting the residents of the entire Fukushima prefecture. Study outcomes were primarily nonspecific psychological distress, depressive symptoms, post-traumatic stress symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. The rates of high-risk individuals determined by the studies varied significantly owing to methodological differences. Nevertheless, these rates were mostly high (nonspecific psychological distress, 8.3%-65.1%; depressive symptoms, 12%-52.0%; and post-traumatic stress symptoms, 10.5%-62.6%). Many studies focused on vulnerable populations such as children, mothers of young children, evacuees, and nuclear power plant workers. However, few studies reported on the intervention methods used or their effect on the survivors. As a conclusion, high rates of individuals with psychological conditions, as well as a wide range of mental conditions, were reported among the Fukushima nuclear disaster survivors in the first 8 years after the disaster. These findings demonstrate the substantial impact of this compound disaster, especially in the context of a nuclear catastrophe.
To compile the findings of studies assessing emotional and behavioral changes in the survivors of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, we performed a systematic review in August 2019 using four literature databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, and ICHUSHI). Peer-reviewed manuscripts, either in English or Japanese, were included in the searches. Sixty-one studies were retrieved for the review. Of these, 41 studies (67.2%) assessed emotional consequences, 28 studies (45.9%) evaluated behavioral consequences, and 8 studies (13.1%) evaluated both emotional and behavioral outcomes. The main research topic in emotional change was radiation exposure-associated risk perception, as reported in 15 studies. This risk perception included immediate health effects (eg, acute radiation syndrome) as well as future health effects (eg, future cancer and genetic effects). Lowered subjective well-being was reported in eight studies. Six studies reported perceived discrimination/stigmatization in the disaster survivors. The most critical behavioral change was an increase in suicides compared with residents in the whole of Japan or affected by the earthquake and tsunami, but not by the nuclear disaster. Increased rate of alcohol and tobacco use was reported, although the effect on one’s health was inconsistent. As a conclusion, the Fukushima nuclear disaster survivors suffered issues in risk perception, well-being, stigmatization, and alcohol/tobacco use in the first 8 years after the disaster. The present study is important in order to better understand the emotional and behavioral responses to future nuclear/radiological disasters as well as other “invisible” disasters, such as chemical and biological public health crises.
Fungi are one of the most diverse carbon source-assimilating organisms, living as saprobes, parasites and symbionts; they play an important role in carbon cycling in the ecosystem. A lichen thallus provides habitats for many non-lichenized fungi and usually contains large quantities of polyols. However, research has not been undertaken to identify carbon sources of lichen-inhabiting fungi. In this study, we isolated various lichen-inhabiting fungi from surface-sterilized Ramalina spp., Flavoparmelia caperata and Peltigera degenii, and demonstrated their ability to assimilate carbon sources, namely glucose, ribitol and mannitol. Several isolates efficiently assimilated mannitol and ribitol; however, most isolates could assimilate only mannitol or both ribitol and mannitol at low levels. It is suggested that there are different preferences and niche segregation of carbon sources among lichen-inhabiting fungi, and that this assemblage includes fungi with different lifestyles such as saprobes, endophytes and transient visitors.
The wings of butterflies are relatively heavier than those of other insects, and the inertial force and torque due to the wing mass are likely to have a significant effect on agility and manoeuvrability in the flapping flight of butterflies. In the present study, the effect of wing mass on the free flight of butterflies is investigated by numerical simulations based on an immersed boundary–lattice Boltzmann method. We use a butterfly-like model consisting of two square wings with mass connected by a rod-shaped body. We simulate the free flights of the model by changing the ratio of the wing mass to the total mass of the model and also changing the mass distributions of the wings. As a result, we find that the aerodynamic vertical and horizontal forces decrease as the wing-mass ratio increases, since for a large wing-mass ratio the body has large vertical and horizontal oscillations in each stroke and consequently the speeds of the wing tip and the leading edge relatively decrease. In addition, we find that the wing-mass ratio has a dominant effect on the rotational motion of the model, and a large wing-mass ratio reduces aerodynamic force and intensifies the time variation of the pitching angle. From the results of our free flight simulations, we clarify the critical wing-mass ratio between upward flight and downward flight and find that the critical wing-mass ratio is a function of the non-dimensional total mass and almost independent of the wing length. Then, we evaluate the effect of the wing-mass distribution on the critical wing-mass ratio. Finally, we discuss the limitations of the model.
Behavioural activation is an efficient treatment for depression and can improve intrinsic motivation. Previous studies have revealed that the frontostriatal circuit is involved in intrinsic motivation; however, there are no data on how behavioural activation affects the frontostriatal circuit.
We aimed to investigate behavioural activation-related changes in the frontostriatal circuit.
Fifty-nine individuals with subthreshold depression were randomly assigned to either the intervention or non-intervention group. The intervention group received five weekly behavioural activation sessions. The participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning on two separate occasions while performing a stopwatch task based on intrinsic motivation. We investigated changes in neural activity and functional connectivity after behavioural activation.
After behavioural activation, the intervention group had increased activation and connectivity in the frontostriatal region compared with the non-intervention group. The increased activation in the right middle frontal gyrus was correlated with an improvement of subjective sensitivity to environmental rewards.
Behavioural activation-related changes to the frontostriatal circuit advance our understanding of psychotherapy-induced improvements in the neural basis of intrinsic motivation.
United Nations peacekeeping personnel face numerous stressors due to their challenging deployments. Past studies have had inconsistent results regarding whether or not their deployment experience affects their mental health outcomes. Further studies are required to ascertain the associations between their outcomes and factors before, during and after their peacekeeping missions.
The 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident was the worst nuclear disaster since Chernobyl. The Daiichi workers faced multiple stressors (workplace trauma, victim experiences, and public criticism deriving from their company’s post-disaster management). Literatures suggest the importance of workplace interpersonal support (WIS) in enhancing psychological health among disaster workers. We sought to elucidate the role of their demographics, disaster-related experiences, and post-traumatic stress symptoms on perceived WIS.
We analyzed self-report questionnaires of 885 workers 2-3 months post-disaster. We used sociodemographic and disaster exposure-related variables and post-traumatic stress symptoms (measured by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised) as independent variables. We asked whether WIS from colleagues, supervisors, or subordinates was perceived as helpful, and used yes or no responses as a dependent variable. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess correlates of WIS.
Of the participants, one-third (34.7%) reported WIS. WIS was associated with younger age (20-28 years [vs 49-], adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.25, 95% CI: 1.99-5.32), supervisory work status (aOR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.35-3.92), and discrimination or slur experience (aOR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.08-2.53).
Educational programs focusing on WIS might be beneficial to promote psychological well-being among nuclear disaster workers, especially younger workers, supervisors, and workers with discrimination experiences. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:460–463)
Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is thought to be useful for chronic pain, with the pathology of the latter being closely associated with cognitive–emotional components. However, there are few resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies. We used the independent component analysis method to examine neural changes after CBT and to assess whether brain regions predict treatment response.
We performed R-fMRI on a group of 29 chronic pain (somatoform pain disorder) patients and 30 age-matched healthy controls (T1). Patients were enrolled in a weekly 12-session group CBT (T2). We assessed selected regions of interest that exhibited differences in intrinsic connectivity network (ICN) connectivity strength between the patients and controls at T1, and compared T1 and T2. We also examined the correlations between treatment effects and rs-fMRI data.
Abnormal ICN connectivity of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and inferior parietal lobule within the dorsal attention network (DAN) and of the paracentral lobule within the sensorimotor network in patients with chronic pain normalized after CBT. Higher ICN connectivity strength in the OFC indicated greater improvements in pain intensity. Furthermore, ICN connectivity strength in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) within the DAN at T1 was negatively correlated with CBT-related clinical improvements.
We conclude that the OFC is crucial for CBT-related improvement of pain intensity, and that the dorsal PCC activation at pretreatment also plays an important role in improvement of clinical symptoms via CBT.
The Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plant workers experienced multiple stressors as both victims and onsite workers after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent nuclear accidents. Previous studies found that disaster-related exposures, including discrimination/slurs, were associated with their mental health. Their long-term impact has yet to be investigated.
A total of 968 plant workers (Daiichi, n = 571; Daini, n = 397) completed self-written questionnaires 2–3 months (time 1) and 14–15 months (time 2) after the disaster (response rate 55.0%). Sociodemographics, disaster-related experiences, and peritraumatic distress were assessed at time 1. At time 1 and time 2, general psychological distress (GPD) and post-traumatic stress response (PTSR) were measured, respectively, using the K6 scale and Impact of Event Scale Revised. We examined multivariate covariates of time 2 GPD and PTSR, adjusting for autocorrelations in the hierarchical multiple regression analyses.
Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD at time 1 (β = 0.491, p < 0.001) and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.065, p = 0.025, adjusted R2 = 0.24). Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted with higher PTSR at time 1 (β = 0.548, p < 0.001), higher age (β = 0.085, p = 0.005), and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.079, p = 0.003, adjusted R2 = 0.36).
Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1. Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted by higher PTSR, higher age, and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1.
The three most frequently commented texts of the classical literary canon are Kokin wakashu or KKS, Ise monogatari or The Tales of Ise, and Genji monogatari or The Tale of Genji. Imperial waka anthologies for the three centuries after KKS were ignored by commentators until the eighteenth century; the same is true for The Tale of Sagoromo, a narrative fiction the waka of which were considered comparable to those of Genji in late Heian and Kamakura times. One factor must be that KKS and Tales of Ise themselves incorporate distinctive forms of commentary. KKS can be defined in fact as a corpus of cited poems framed by two kinds of editorial comments and two "prefaces". The earliest extant commentaries on The Tales of Ise inclined toward extravagant allegoresis incorporating strains of Esoteric and Tantric Buddhism and Shinto that flourished in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, often intertwined with heterodox KKS commentaries of a similar bent.
The mean age of inpatients with schizophrenia has gradually increased in Japan and the risk of fracture in older schizophrenia patients is elevated. One possible cause may be idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and symptoms of iNPH in older inpatients with schizophrenia.
We prospectively examined older inpatients with schizophrenia (N = 21, mean age = 70.5 ± 5.9) in a psychiatric ward. We evaluated iNPH symptoms using the idiopathic Normal-Pressure Hydrocephalus Grading Scale (iNPHGS), Timed Up-and-Go test (TUG), Gait Status Scale (GSS), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). We also evaluated symptoms of schizophrenia using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Drug-Induced Extrapyramidal Symptoms Scale (DIEPSS). We conducted cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap tests for patients with possible-iNPH.
In total, three (14.3%) patients were diagnosed with possible iNPH: age, GS-Gait, GS-Cognition, TUG, 10-meter walking test, GSS, and DIEPSS were significantly increased in these compared to patients without iNPH; however, GS-Urine, MMSE, NPI, and BPRS did not differ significantly. Probable iNPH was diagnosed for two (9.5%) patients because of positive CSF tap tests.
The prevalence of possible and probable iNPH in older patients with schizophrenia was much higher than that reported for older people without mental illness. Of the symptoms evaluated with the tests employed, only gait disturbances, particularly walking speed, distinguished schizophrenia patients with iNPH. These findings suggest that we should pay more attention to the possibility of iNPH in older patients with schizophrenia.
Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite causative of human amoebiasis, disease responsible for 40 000–100 000 deaths annually. The cysteine proteinase-adhesin complex of this parasite (EhCPADH) is a heterodimeric protein formed by a cysteine protease (EhCP112) and an adhesin (EhADH) that plays an important role in the cytopathic mechanism of this parasite. The coding genes for EhCP112 and EhADH are adjacent in the E. histolytica genome, suggesting that their expression may be co-regulated, but this hypothesis has not yet been confirmed. Here, we performed the knockdown of EhCP112 and EhADH using gene-specific short-hairpin RNAs (shRNA), and the effect of these knockdowns on the expression of both complex components as well as on the in vitro and in vivo virulence was analysed. Results showed that the knockdown of one of the EhCPADH components produced a simultaneous downregulation of the other protein. Accordingly, a concomitant reduction in the overall expression of the complex was observed. The downregulation of each component also produced a significant decrease in the in vitro and in vivo virulence of trophozoites. These results demonstrated that the expression of EhCP112 and EhADH is co-regulated and confirmed that the EhCPADH complex plays an important role in E. histolytica virulence.
We sought to elucidate news article reporting of adverse public psychosocial behaviors, in particular, rumor-related coverage (eg, panic, demagoguery) and exclusive behavior coverage (negative behaviors, eg, discrimination, bullying) during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) influenza pandemic in Japan.
We examined 154 Internet news-site articles reporting adverse public psychosocial responses in the first 60 days of the outbreak. Rumor-related coverage and exclusive behavior coverage were dichotomously coded as included or not. Moreover, we assessed whether or not health information (eg, coping methods, virus toxicity information) or emphasis on information quality (eg, importance of information, cautions about overreactions) were simultaneously reported.
Rumor-related coverage (n=120, 77.9%) was less likely to simultaneously report public health information (eg, toxicity information, health support information, and cautions about overreactions; P<.05). Conversely, exclusive behavior coverage (n=41, 26.6%) was more likely to report public health information (P<.05).
Rumor-related coverage was less likely to have accompanying public health information, whereas exclusive behavior coverage was more likely to include it. During public health crises, it is essential to understand that rumors and exclusive behaviors have adverse effects on the public and that accompanying public health information may help people take proactive coping actions. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2015;9:459–463)
The life history of the Japanese sternaspid polychaete Sternaspis costata von Marenzeller, 1879 was investigated in the inner part of Ariake Bay from May 2010 to May 2011, with additional sampling in July and September 2011. All the worms were measured by the width of the ventral shield (WS) as an indicator of body size, and their coelomic contents were also examined. Ovigerous females occurred throughout the year, except during October and March, with the highest ovigerous rate (number of ovigerous females/number of adults with a WS larger than that of the smallest ovigerous female, i.e. 1.8 mm) noted in September (43.8% in 2010, 34.7% in 2011). The ovigerous rate was less than 10% in the other months, except in April 2011 (30%). Although the coelomic oocytes ranged from 90 to 160 μm in diameter, the diameters of most of the oocytes were 140–160 μm in September. The number of adults drastically decreased from September to October, suggesting that most of the adults died after spawning in the major reproductive period, although a small fraction of adults seemed to reproduce earlier or later. A cohort of recruits with an approximately 1.2 mm WS was identified in March and April. Most of the recruits grew to adult size in July–September, when many ovigerous females occurred. These results indicated that this species is fundamentally semelparous, with longevity around 1 year, and they mostly reproduce in September, with a few adults reproducing almost throughout the year.
This study examined whether the occurrence of late neck metastasis in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma can be predicted by evaluating HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1) expression in the primary lesion.
A case–control study was conducted. The cases comprised 10 patients with late neck metastasis. The controls consisted of 16 patients without recurrence. All were examined immunohistochemically for HMGB1 protein expression. The odds ratio for late neck metastasis in relation to HMGB1 was estimated.
Results for HMGB1 were dichotomised into positive staining scores (score, 5–7) and negative scores (0–4). Six cases (60 per cent) and four controls (25 per cent) were HMGB1-positive. Although no significant result was seen, compared with HMGB1-negative patients the odds ratio for late neck metastasis in HMGB1-positive patients was 3.8 (95 per cent confidence interval, 0.6–26.5) after adjusting for other factors.
In the present study, immunohistochemical study of HMGB1 in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma did not appear to be very useful for predicting occult neck metastasis. Further study is necessary to clarify the relationship between HMGB1 expression and late neck metastasis in early tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
During the Pleistocene a fauna composed of large (biomass > 44 kg) and giant mammals (biomass > 1000 kg) that are usually associated with open environments lived in the Brazilian Intertropical Region. We present here new information concerning the paleoecology and chronology of some species of this megafauna. Carbon isotope analyses were performed for a better understanding of the paleoecology of the species Eremotherium laurillardi (Lund, 1842), Notiomastodon platensis (Ameghino, 1888) and Toxodon platensis (Owen, 1849). The δ13C data allow attributing a generalist diet to these species, which varied according to the kind of habitat in which they lived. In more open habitats all species were grazers; in mixed habitats E. laurillardi and T. platensis were mixed feeders, and N. platensis was grazer; and in more closed habitats all species were mixed feeders.
The identification of skeletal remains has been achieved by several methods: matching of ante-mortem dental records with teeth of the skull, matching of ante-mortem radiographs with various skeletal parts, matching of facial photographs with the skull by craniofacial superimposition and DNA analysis of bones or teeth and reference samples. Ante-mortem dental records and radiographs have been generally accepted to suggest positive identification of skeletal remains. However, the availability of these ante-mortem records is relatively rare in criminal cases. Molecular approaches such as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis have been applied to bone identification and have improved an assessment for personal identification, but such analyses are expensive and time-consuming. Craniofacial superimposition is the most popular technique for identifying unknown skulls because facial photographs of the presumed person can be easily obtained from the victim’s family.
In the earliest stage of craniofacial superimposition, the skulls of historically important individuals such as Immanuel Kant, Johann Sebastian Bach and Josef Haydn were compared with relevant portraits, busts and death masks using skull morphology, osteometry and physiognomy (Stewart, 1979; Krogman and İşcan, 1986; Gruner, 1993; Taylor and Brown, 1998; Glassman, 2001). Although these comparisons were performed for academic purposes, their methods were basically applied to subsequent research in the field of forensic sciences.
The aim of this short essay is to further reflect on sociology in Japan by supplementing discussions on the three sociological papers compiled in this volume and adding critical perspectives. Discussions, and arguments, will be provided on the three thematic categories, namely, ‘international sociology’, sociology of culture as well as language use, and the global academic market, the latter addressing not merely sociology but also other social sciences.
We investigated morphological differences in specimens of the arcid bivalve Scapharca kagoshimensis collected from two sites differing in turbidity in the inner part of Ariake Bay. First, we confirmed if the specimens collected from the two sites were the same species by comparing the sequences of their nuclear 18S ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) and cytchrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), since the closely related species S. inequivalvis could be distributed in one site. The results of DNA analyses showed that specimens from both sites belonged to the same species. Shell morphology, gill and posterior adductor muscle size did not differ between the two populations. However, the size of the labial palp was significantly larger in bivalves living in an area of high turbidity compared with those living in an area with low turbidity. This difference could not simply be attributed to differences in meat content because the total weight of the soft body parts did not differ between the two populations. The labial palp is an organ functioning in preingestive particle selection. Hence, the large palps would presumably be a response to high turbidity conditions in which the need for particle processes increases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating palp size flexibility in arcid bivalves, and such flexibility could be a factor enabling S. kagoshimensis to successfully exploit a wide area of shallow water in the inner part of Ariake Bay.