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This article investigates the early development of gendered Christian symbolism by focusing on discrepancies between two sections of the Shepherd of Hermas. Using close textual analysis and contemporary feminist theological frameworks, I identify the seemingly subtle, yet crucial and conspicuous, transformations of gender symbolism in the revision of Vision 3 into Similitude 9. These transformations include replacing the feminine Church with the Shepherd, the Tower, and the Son of God; dividing seven women (Faith and her genealogical descendants) into twelve virgins and their twelve vicious counterparts; and erasing “waters” and “the deep” from the Church’s foundation, while emphasizing tall rocks and level ground. Scholars typically have considered these revisions to be products of deeper and more systematic theological reflection, or mere elaborations and expansions in a “literary unity” drawn from oral composition. I argue instead that the revisions are rooted in embedded cultural patterns that consistently exclude maternal figures and their associated imagery. This re-evaluation of the revision process in Hermas complements other approaches to studying women in early Christian history, supplying a critical account of the evolving conceptual and symbolic structures that supported declines in the ecclesiastical status and symbolic significance of women.
International conventions and domestic laws have been enacted to prevent, punish and eradicate violence against women worldwide. However, these progressive policy initiatives have faced opposition in contentious contexts where policy rivals have contested their creation and implementation. Existing scholarship focuses primarily on progressive networks that have led to policy advances, such as violence against women (VAW) policies, while emerging literature has noted their limited impact and implementation. However, there is scant attention paid to one major underlying cause of limited impact and problematic implementation: that there is sustained opposition to these policies by policy rivals that resist and undermine progressive policies. We identify opponents and entrenched opposition to VAW laws in Mexico and Nicaragua in the 1990s and 2010s. We also identify how these opponents leverage ties with the state and utilise ‘family discourse’, framing progressives as anti-family, as strategies and mechanisms for stunting and even reversing VAW laws.
Extinction is a profound biological event, yet despite its finality it can be difficult to verify and many frameworks have been proposed to define formally that extinction has occurred. For most taxonomic groups and regions there is no reliable list of species considered to be probably or possibly extinct. The record of plant extinctions in Australia is no exception, characterized by high turn-over within lists, low transparency of attribution and lack of consistency between jurisdictions. This makes it impossible to evaluate how many plant taxa have become extinct in Australia. We present an ecological framework for assessing the likelihood of plant extinctions, based on taxonomic soundness, degree of habitat modification, detectability and search effort, underpinned by the best available expert knowledge. We show that, in sharp contrast to both the fate of the Australian fauna and prevailing assumptions, only 12 of 71 plant taxa currently listed as or assumed to be extinct are considered probably extinct, and a further 21 possibly extinct. Twenty taxa listed as or assumed to be extinct have dubious taxonomy or occurrence in Australia, and the remaining 18 taxa are considered possibly extant and further surveys are required to ascertain their status. The list of probably and possibly extinct plants is dwarfed by the number thought extinct but rediscovered since 1980. Our method can be used for vascular floras in other regions characterized by well-documented and curated floras and high levels of expert knowledge, and provides a transparent platform for assessing changes in the status of biodiversity.
The association between incarceration and psychiatric disorders has been noted. Yet, existing studies are cross-sectional or examine the risk of recidivism, which has limited the predictive validity of psychiatric disorders as a risk factor for incarceration. To overcome this limitation, this study used a prospective cohort to examine whether psychiatric diagnoses in early adulthood predicted incarceration throughout a 30-year follow-up. It tested the association between psychiatric diagnoses with future incarcerations, their number and durations, controlling for education and ethnic status.
This study merged data from three sources in Israel: a prospective 10-year birth cohort study of young adults aged 25–34, conducted in the 1980s (N = 4914) that included a psychiatric interview; data from the Prison Service, including the cause, number and duration of incarcerations; and from the Vital Statistics Registry on death records.
Multivariate analysis showed that substance-use disorders, antisocial personality and lower levels of education predicted future incarceration, their number and maximum duration. The remainder diagnoses were not significantly associated with future incarceration.
Results limited the prediction of future incarcerations to persons diagnosed with substance use and antisocial personality, and do not support an independent predictive association between additional psychiatric diagnoses and future incarceration.
That governance within the firm is deliberate, conscious and hierarchical, based on authority is considered almost axiomatic. Chester Barnard is cited as an early theorist of this view. In this short article we review Barnard's original theory of authority, his later work and his private correspondence with F. A. Hayek, Michael Polanyi, Bertrand de Jouvenal and others. We show that Barnard focused in his later thinking less on authority and more on ‘responsibility’ and on the spontaneous nature of coordination within the firm, argued for ‘invisible hand’ explanations of coordination within the firm and compared coordination within the firm to market coordination. We use this information to produce novel insights into the work of Chester Barnard and also to demonstrate that his insights into the inner workings of firms is still not completely understood or reflected in the literature on the firm.
Human sacrifice is a well-attested and much mythologised phenomenon of human society, but what constitutes human sacrifice? Why is socially sanctioned violence considered sacrifice? And why are human lives sacrificed? New research uses archaeological case studies from Scandinavia to understand performative violence.
Recurrent aortic arch obstruction following the Norwood procedure is recognised as an important complication. Balloon arch angioplasty is associated with a high recoarctation rate.
We sought to evaluate the prevalence and outcome of stent implantation for recoarctation in children following Norwood or Damus–Kaye–Stansel procedure over the past decade at a single national cardiology centre.
Of 114 children who underwent Norwood procedure or Damus–Kaye–Stansel procedure between January 2003 and June 2013, 80 patients survived. Of these 15 children underwent stent implantation for recoarctation. Six of these patients had previous balloon angioplasty. The median age at stent implantation was 4.4 months (range 2–82 months). The median peak aortic arch gradient at catheterisation decreased from 26mmHg (range 10–70mmHg) to 2mmHg (range 0–20mmHg). The median luminal diameter increased from 4.7 mm (range 3.2–7.9 mm) to 8.6 mm (range 6.2–10.9 mm). The median coarctation index increased by 0.49 (range = 0.24–0.64). A Valeo stent was employed in 11 children, a Palmaz Genesis stent in 2 patients, a MultiLink stent in 1 child, and a Jomed covered stent in 1 child. Two factors were associated with the need for stent placement: previous arch angioplasty (p valve < 0.001, χ-square 11.5) and borderline left ventricle (p = 0.04, χ-square = 4.1). Stent migration occurred in one child. There were two deaths related to poor right ventricular systolic function and severe tricuspid regurgitation. Six patients underwent redilation of the stent with no complications.
The prevalence of recurrent aortic arch obstruction following Norwood/Damus–Kaye–Stansel procedure was 18%. Stent implantation is safe and reliably eliminates the aortic obstruction. Redilation can be successfully achieved to accommodate somatic growth or development of stent recoarctation.
Although geriatric depression is a prevalent, serious, and under-recognized mental health condition in residential care facilities, there is a dearth of related research in Canada. This exploratory mixed methods study examines the perspectives and practices of regulated nurse professionals on assessment of geriatric depression in residential care facilities in Alberta. Findings from the quantitative surveys (n = 635) and qualitative interviews (n = 14) suggest that geriatric depression is not systematically assessed in these care settings due to multiple challenges, including confusing assessment protocol, inconsistent use and contested clinical utility of current assessment methods in facilities, limited availability of mental health professionals in facilities, and the varied views of regulated nurse professionals on who is responsible for depression assessment in facilities. Implications and future research directions are discussed.
Junglerice [Echinochloa colona (L.) Link] is a problematic weed in the northern grain region of Australia. Two pot experiments (Experiment 1 and Experiment 2) were conducted in a screen house to evaluate the growth and reproductive behavior of two biotypes (A, collected from a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)–fallow; B, collected from a fence near a water channel) of E. colona in response to water stress (100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% water holding capacity [WHC]). Averaged across both biotypes, the plant height, biomass, and seed production of E. colona were reduced at 25% WHC compared with 100% WHC. However, E. colona still produced a considerable amount of seeds at 25% WHC (at least 365 seeds plant−1). Biotype A produced more seeds in the second experiment, while biotype B produced more seeds in the first experiment. In Experiment 2, at 100% WHC, biotype A produced more seeds (17,618 seeds plant−1) than biotype B (4,378 seeds plant−1), and similar observations were noticed for root biomass. Growth and seed production of E. colona at all moisture levels and environmental conditions ensure survival in an unpredictable environment and contribute to the weedy nature of this species. Results indicate that biotype A is more invasive than biotype B under favorable environmental conditions (100% WHC). This study suggests an enhanced competitive ability of some biotypes of E. colona in response to a range of environmental and soil moisture conditions in Australia. Under favorable environmental conditions, biotype A could be more problematic, as it has higher seed production than biotype B. Therefore, it is important to implement sustainable weed control methods for such biotypes in the early stages of crop growth to prevent loss of stored moisture.
Social exclusion amongst rural-dwelling older adults and the role of the diversity of people and places in mediating the construction of that exclusion has not been adequately investigated or conceptualised in the international literature. Consequently, how ageing in a rural community can function to disadvantage or protect older people remains poorly understood. With the aim of advancing conceptual understanding on rural old-age social exclusion, this article explores how exclusion is manifest in the lifecourse experiences of rural-dwelling older adults and the role of mediating factors in the construction of exclusion in different kinds of rural places. The analysis draws on ten rural case-study sites across Ireland and Northern Ireland, encompassing five kinds of rural communities: dispersed rural; remote rural; island rural; village rural; and near-urban rural. Data come from 106 interviews with older people ranging in age from 59 to 93 years. Rural old-age social exclusion is confirmed as a multi-dimensional construct, involving: social relations; service infrastructure; transport and mobility; safety, security and crime; and financial and material resources. This analysis demonstrates that social exclusion for rural-dwelling older people is multi-layered, and its prevalence and form is shaped by four mediating factors: individual capacities; lifecourse trajectories; place; and macro-economic forces. The findings are used to present a conceptual framework that emphasises the role of mediating forces on rural old-age social exclusion.
Conventional failure analysis ignores a growing challenge in the responsible implementation of novel technologies into engineered systems - unintended consequences, which impact the engineered system itself and other systems including social and environmental systems. In this paper, a theory for unintended consequences is developed. The paper proposes a new definition of unintended consequences as behaviors that are not intentionally designed-into an engineered system yet occur even when a system is operating nominally, that is, not in a failure state as conventionally understood. It is argued that the primary cause for this difference is the bounded rationality of human designers. The formation of unintended consequences is modeled with system dynamics, using a specific real-world example, and bifurcation analysis. The paper develops propositions to guide research in the development of new design methods that could mitigate or control the occurrence and impact of unintended consequences. The end goal of the research is to create a new class of failure analysis tools to manage unintended consequences responsibly to facilitate engineering design for a more sustainable future.
The Bonebridge is an active transcutaneous bone conduction implant recommended as a surgical option for adults and children (aged 5–18 years). Successful implantation of the Bonebridge is often restricted by an insufficient amount of temporal bone to house the transducer in the paediatric patient.
Method and results
In this unique paediatric case, bilateral Bonebridge devices were implanted simultaneously in the right sinodural angle and the left middle cranial fossa.
The simultaneous implantation of bilateral Bonebridge devices was well tolerated in this paediatric patient, with significant improvement in her hearing. The middle cranial fossa is a viable option for housing the transducer.
Little evidence exists to support pharmacotherapeutic strategies for heart failure management in paediatrics. A recent Europe-wide survey suggests that this translates into substantial variability in clinical practice.
To conduct a formal discussion among an expert group of paediatric cardiology physicians on controversial aspects regarding the pharmacotherapy of children heart failure, facilitate consensus, and highlight areas of agreement and disagreement.
A two-round modified Delphi process was conducted between July and August 2015. Topics addressed were predominantly selected from the results of a previous Europe-wide survey. Fourteen statements were presented for discussion grouped under three categories; Angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors: Considerations for optimal dosage; Angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors for the management of CHDs; Neurohumoral antagonists for the management of dilated cardiomyopathy-related heart failure.
A total of 13 paediatricians dedicated to cardiology from across Europe and the United States of America completed the study; of them, 92% had a working experience in the field of more than 10 years and were working in a specific paediatric cardiology unit. Agreement on the acceptance/rejection of 11 statements was achieved. Results show agreement on the importance of a set of topics relevant to the standardisation of the therapy as well as consensus upon specific therapeutic attitudes.
We have found areas of common thinking and motivation, which can provide a means of triggering scientific collaboration. Our results might also contribute to disseminate available paediatric evidence and promote reducing unjustified variability in everyday practice. Until solid evidence is available, other research methods can contribute to advancing the goal of safe and effective paediatric heart failure pharmacotherapy.
Background: Due to increasingly limited access to cadavers and first-hand operative experience, there is an increasing need for innovative modalities in neurosurgical education. Recent developments in computer modelling, virtual/augmented reality, and video game technology have created new opportunities for novel teaching tools. We set out to develop a library of 3D models of normal anatomy and pathologic states for use in conjunction with an interactive simulated environment and 3D printing for teaching of neurosurgical residents. Methods: Anatomically accurate 3D models were developed using CT/MRI data from multiple patients using open source segmentation and 3D animation software. An interactive simulated environment was then created using a 3D game engine and used in conjunction with a virtual/augmented reality system. 3D models were also used to for 3D printing. Results: 3D models and an interactive simulated environment were used in conjunction with various viewing modalities, including 3D video, 360 video, and virtual reality headsets, as well as 3D printing. These teaching tools were successfully implemented in neurosurgery didactic teaching sessions and in the skull base lab. Additional benefits were seen with patient engagement and marketing. Conclusions: 3D modeling and animation show considerable promise for neurosurgical education, with additional benefits for patient engagement, marketing, and social media.
Background: In spite of the shift towards “personalized medicine,” ambulatory medicine lags behind the cutting edge technology employed in non-medical fields to convey information in unique ways to enhance customer interactions. Furthermore, the complex nature of neurosurgical concepts can be difficult to convey within the confines of a short outpatient visit. These factors, coupled with potentially long wait times, can limit a patient’s engagement in the treatment process. We propose that application of advanced video platforms will empower patients to feel that neurosurgical concepts are accessible and understandable and enable the face-to-face time with the physician to begin at a more sophisticated level, ultimately improving patient engagment. Methods: 3D modeling, animation, and video game design were used in conjuction with tablet computers and VR headsets to create a video-driven “choose-your-own-adventure style patient experience” with initial use during waiting times prior to face-to-face interaction with the neurosurgery providers. Results: 3D modeling, animation, and virtual reality were successfully implemented in the Northwestern Medicine neurosurgery clinic with positive impact on patient engagement, including preliminary improvements in multiple patient satisfaction/”Likelihood to Recommend” scores. Conclusions: Advanced imaging platforms, including 3D modeling, animation, and virtual reality show great promise in improving patient engagement, patient retention, and “Likelihood to Recommend” scores.
The widespread use of herbicides in cropping systems has led to the evolution of resistance in major weeds. The resultant loss of herbicide efficacy is compounded by a lack of new herbicide sites of action, driving demand for alternative weed control technologies. While there are many alternative methods for control, identifying the most appropriate method to pursue for commercial development has been hampered by the inability to compare techniques in a fair and equitable manner. Given that all currently available and alternative weed control methods share an intrinsic energy consumption, the aim of this review was to compare methods based on energy consumption. Energy consumption was compared for chemical, mechanical, and thermal weed control technologies when applied as broadcast (whole-field) and site-specific treatments. Tillage systems, such as flex-tine harrow (4.2 to 5.5 MJ ha−1), sweep cultivator (13 to 14 MJ ha−1), and rotary hoe (12 to 17 MJ ha−1) consumed the least energy of broadcast weed control treatments. Thermal-based approaches, including flaming (1,008 to 4,334 MJ ha−1) and infrared (2,000 to 3,887 MJ ha−1), are more appropriate for use in conservation cropping systems; however, their energy requirements are 100- to 1,000-fold greater than those of tillage treatments. The site-specific application of weed control treatments to control 2-leaf-stage broadleaf weeds at a density of 5 plants m−2 reduced energy consumption of herbicidal, thermal, and mechanical treatments by 97%, 99%, and 97%, respectively. Significantly, this site-specific approach resulted in similar energy requirements for current and alternative technologies (e.g., electrocution [15 to 19 MJ ha−1], laser pyrolysis [15 to 249 MJ ha−1], hoeing [17 MJ ha−1], and herbicides [15 MJ ha−1]). Using similar energy sources, a standardized energy comparison provides an opportunity for estimation of weed control costs, suggesting site-specific weed management is critical in the economically realistic implementation of alternative technologies.