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This book offers translations of early critical reactions to Kant's account of free will. Spanning the years 1784-1800, the translations make available, for the first time in English, works by little-known thinkers including Pistorius, Ulrich, Heydenreich, Creuzer and others, as well as familiar figures including Reinhold, Fichte and Schelling. Together they are a testimony to the intense debates surrounding the reception of Kant's account of free will in the 1780s and 1790s, and throw into relief the controversies concerning the coherence of Kant's concept of transcendental freedom, the possibility of reconciling freedom with determinism, the relation between free will and moral imputation, and other arguments central to Kant's view. The volume also includes a helpful introduction, a glossary of key terms and biographical details of the critics, and will provide a valuable foundation for further research on free will in post-Kantian philosophy.
Property Rights and Social Justice analyses 'progressive property' in action by examining the role of constitutional property rights guarantees in mediating private ownership and social justice. It combines insights from property theory with enlightening doctrinal analysis of the interaction between property rights and social justice in the constitutional and broader legal context. It does so through the prism of the Irish Constitution's property guarantees, which uniquely in the English-speaking, common law world both protect property rights and requires their regulation by the State to secure social justice. Through this analysis, the book grounds key debates in contemporary property theory in fresh, illuminating doctrinal examples, and enhances global debates about the constitutional protection of property rights. It argues that primacy is perhaps inevitably afforded to political determinations about the appropriate mediation of property rights and social justice, meaning that the political impact of constitutionalisation needs to be disentangled from its strict legal effects.
The abundance and prevalence of dry-surface biofilms (DSBs) in hospitals constitute an emerging problem, yet studies rarely report the cleaning and disinfection efficacy against DSBs. Here, the combined impact of treatments on viability, transferability, and recovery of bacteria from DSBs has been investigated for the first time.
Staphylococcus aureus DSBs were produced in alternating 48-hour wet–dry cycles for 12 days on AISI 430 stainless steel discs. The efficacy of 11 commercially available disinfectants, 4 detergents, and 2 contactless interventions were tested using a modified standardized product test. Reduction in viability, direct transferability, cross transmission (via glove intermediate), and DSB recovery after treatment were measured.
Of 11 disinfectants, 9 were effective in killing and removing bacteria from S. aureus DSBs with >4 log10 reduction. Only 2 disinfectants, sodium dichloroisocyanurate 1,000 ppm and peracetic acid 3,500 ppm, were able to lower both direct and cross transmission of bacteria (<2 compression contacts positive for bacterial growth). Of 11 disinfectants, 8 could not prevent DSB recovery for >2 days. Treatments not involving mechanical action (vaporized hydrogen peroxide and cold atmospheric plasma) were ineffective, producing <1 log10 reduction in viability, DSB regrowth within 1 day, and 100% transferability of DSB after treatment.
Reduction in bacterial viability alone does not determine product performance against biofilm and might give a false sense of security to consumers, manufacturers and regulators. The ability to prevent bacterial transfer and biofilm recovery after treatment requires a better understanding of the effectiveness of biocidal products.
This research communication reports the results from questionnaires used to identify the impact of recent research into the disinfection of cattle foot-trimming equipment to prevent bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) transmission on (a) biosecurity knowledge and (b) hygiene practice of foot health professionals. An initial questionnaire found that more than half of participating farmers, veterinary surgeons and commercial foot-trimmers were not considering hand or hoof-knife hygiene in their working practices. The following year, after the release of a foot-trimming hygiene protocol and a comprehensive knowledge exchange programme by the University of Liverpool, a second survey showed 35/80 (43.8%) farmers, veterinary surgeons and commercial foot-trimmers sampled considered they were now more aware of the risk of spreading BDD during foot- trimming. Furthermore, 36/80 (45.0%) had enhanced their hygiene practice in the last year, impacting an estimated 1383 farms and 5130 cows trimmed each week. Participants who reported having seen both the foot-trimming hygiene protocol we developed with AHDB Dairy and other articles about foot-trimming hygiene in the farming and veterinary press, were significantly more likely to have changed their working practices. Difficulties accessing water and cleaning facilities on farms were identified as the greatest barrier to improving biosecurity practices. Participants' preferred priority for future research was continued collection of evidence for the importance and efficacy of good foot-trimming hygiene practices.
People with DSM-5 intellectual disability/intellectual developmental disorder (ID/IDD) or ICD-11 disorders of intellectual development (DID) have multiple healthcare needs, but in many countries these needs are neither recognised nor managed effectively. This paper discusses the negative impact that stigma, discrimination and social exclusion have on the identification and care of persons with ID/IDD in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It also reviews different models of care for children, adolescents and adults. In discussing some initiatives in LMICs the emphasis is on early diagnosis, with success in providing locally sourced care for affected people and their families. This is where the medical, social and rights-based models of care intersect and is a premise of the person-centred biopsychosocial framework of the World Psychiatric Association's Presidential Action Plan 2020–2023. The plan invites psychiatrists to take a lead in changing the culture of care, as well as medical education, clinical training and research, with a renewed emphasis on workforce integration and service development in terms of community-based rehabilitation strategies.
Having demonstrated a more plausible social context for the gospel writers in the previous chapter, Chapter 4 establishes how many of the features of the gospels traditionally associated with their exceptionalism – for example, anonymity or consulting eyewitnesses – can be understood as evidence of rhetorical strategy and literary influence. By comparing the Synoptic gospels to the Satyrica, in particular, we see how these writings were in dialogue with the literary interests of the age in subjects like funerary meals, crucifixion, resurrection, and so forth.
Chapter 3 reviews what we know about ancient literary and literate practices and what some scholars term “book culture.” Using testimony from Greek and Latin writers, this chapter provides a concrete description of how one was trained to read and write in the ancient Mediterranean world and how literacy was attained. The theorizations of Pierre Bourdieu on habitus and fields helps articulate how a Greco-Roman writer could possess and represent a number of different interests, social influences, and skill sets, and how we might more fruitfully describe this kind of knowledge in our scholarship. Philo of Alexandria serves as a case study for this new approach as a writer interested in a number of overlapping subjects, including religion, philosophy, politics, and texts.
Chapter 5 argues that the Synoptic gospels can be read as a “subversive biography” in the tradition of similar treatments of notable underdogs like Alexander the Great in the Alexander Romance or the notorious Aesop. Situating the gospels securely within a new genre classification demonstrates their engagement with the literary culture of the imperial period. Thus, specific characteristics of Jesus’ portrayal in the Synoptics need not be a function of oral tradition, but a reflection of the rational interests of elite, imperial writers.
Chapter 2 discusses the history of the critical study of the New Testament, with a focus on the era of German Romanticism. By tracing the development of the concepts of Geist and Volk, one can see how notions of oral tradition, cohesive Christian “communities,” and the gospel writers as literate spokespersons for these communities was inculcated in the field. A discussion of literary theory and the “death of the author” further demonstrates the category mistakes those who study the so-called origins of Christianity have made by uncritically treating the subject of ancient authorship.
Chapter 1 discusses how the categories of analysis traditionally used by scholars of the New Testament and early Christianity can be refined, with critical attention paid to terminology, vocabulary, and anachronism. Invoking the work of J. Z. Smith, Stanley Stowers, Eric Hobsbawm, and others, this chapter challenges how Christianity was rhetorically “invented” after the first century and how a figure like Paul the Apostle was transformed into one of the founders of Christianity, despite questions about how effective his so-called ministry was at creating cohesion about presumed Christian “communities.”
The Introduction outlines the primary theoretical approaches of the monograph and scrutinizes why the study of early Christianity and the New Testament tends to adopt idiosyncratic methodologies when compared with allied fields like classics. Chapter summaries are provided as well as a discussion of what I term the “paradigm of exceptionalism,” or the reasons why so-called religious literature – that is, writings associated with still-practiced religions – often faces a different set of evaluative criteria within the academy.
In 2012, the Gagosian Gallery in New York City hosted an exhibition of the artwork of Pablo Picasso and Françoise Gilot. Curated by the late art historian John Richardson, “Picasso and Françoise Gilot: Paris–Vallauris 1943–1953” featured numerous drawings, paintings, sculpture, and ceramics produced by the pair during their relationship. The collection reacquainted the public with Gilot and her compelling biography, which includes romantic partnerships with Picasso and the vaccine pioneer Jonas Salk. Queried time and again on why these notable men sought her companionship, she has often quipped, “lions mate with lions … they don’t mate with mice” – a clever riposte that gently reminds the inquirer that she is a celebrated artist in her own right.1 Her response also acknowledges the social circles in which she has traveled for much of the twentieth century. Through Picasso, she forged friendships with Georges Braque and Henri Matisse. Her 1964 memoir Vivre avec Picasso (To Live with Picasso) narrates the couple’s interactions with the likes of Georges Bataille and Charlie Chaplin. Gilot also details what Picasso told her about his past intellectual and artistic dialogues with the poet Guillaume Apollinaire or F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald.2 The dynamic exchange of ideas and the creative process she describes reveal a network of cultural elites in dialogue across disciplines, educating one another and reflecting that influence in their work.