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A novel series of copolymers were obtained from the copolymerization of 1-ethynylpyrene (EP) (known as pyrenylacetylene) and ethynylbenzene (EB) (named also phenylacetylene) with WCl6 as catalyst and toluene as solvent, using different monomer molar ratios EP/EB (80:20, 60:40, 50:50; 40:60, 20:80). The optical properties of the obtained copolymers Poly(EP-co-EB) were determined by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Absorption spectra of the copolymers Poly(EP-co-EB) showed that copolymers containing phenylacetylene units possess a lower degree of conjugation than the homopolymer trans-poly(1-ethynylpyrene) (trans-PEP), since they showed a twisted conformation. These results were confirmed by emission spectroscopy showing the formation of excimers for those copolymers containing high pyrene content.
Deaths are frequently under-estimated during emergencies, times when accurate mortality estimates are crucial for emergency response. This study estimates excess all-cause, pneumonia and influenza mortality during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic using the 11 September 2020 release of weekly mortality data from the United States (U.S.) Mortality Surveillance System (MSS) from 27 September 2015 to 9 May 2020, using semiparametric and conventional time-series models in 13 states with high reported COVID-19 deaths and apparently complete mortality data: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania and Washington. We estimated greater excess mortality than official COVID-19 mortality in the U.S. (excess mortality 95% confidence interval (CI) 100 013–127 501 vs. 78 834 COVID-19 deaths) and 9 states: California (excess mortality 95% CI 3338–6344) vs. 2849 COVID-19 deaths); Connecticut (excess mortality 95% CI 3095–3952) vs. 2932 COVID-19 deaths); Illinois (95% CI 4646–6111) vs. 3525 COVID-19 deaths); Louisiana (excess mortality 95% CI 2341–3183 vs. 2267 COVID-19 deaths); Massachusetts (95% CI 5562–7201 vs. 5050 COVID-19 deaths); New Jersey (95% CI 13 170–16 058 vs. 10 465 COVID-19 deaths); New York (95% CI 32 538–39 960 vs. 26 584 COVID-19 deaths); and Pennsylvania (95% CI 5125–6560 vs. 3793 COVID-19 deaths). Conventional model results were consistent with semiparametric results but less precise. Significant excess pneumonia deaths were also found for all locations and we estimated hundreds of excess influenza deaths in New York. We find that official COVID-19 mortality substantially understates actual mortality, excess deaths cannot be explained entirely by official COVID-19 death counts. Mortality reporting lags appeared to worsen during the pandemic, when timeliness in surveillance systems was most crucial for improving pandemic response.
Over the past three decades, research efforts and interventions have been implemented across the United States to increase the persistence of underrepresented minority (URM) students in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). This Element systematically compares STEM interventions that offer resources and opportunities related to mentorship, research, and more. We organize the findings of this literature into a multi-phase framework of STEM integration and identity development. We propose four distinct phases of STEM integration: Phase 1: High School; Phase 2: Summer before College; Phase 3: First Year of College; and Phase 4: Second Year of College through Graduation. We combine tenets of theories about social identity, stereotypes and bias, and the five-factor operationalization of identity formation to describe each phase of STEM integration. Findings indicate the importance of exploration through exposure to STEM material, mentorship, and diverse STEM communities. We generalize lessons from STEM interventions to URM students across institutions.
The concept of the Anthropocene has highlighted the significant global impact of human activities on ecological systems on a geological scale (Crutzen 2002). This concept has come to significantly influence a scientific and political agenda orientated towards documenting and denouncing multiple negative anthropogenic factors that have led to global change. Nevertheless, not all large-scale environmental transformations by human societies have been intrinsically destructive. Many indigenous communities in the Neotropics, Palearctic, sub-Saharan Africa, North America, Indo-Malaya and Australasia have radically – albeit often constructively – modified the physical and biotic conditions of the ecological systems that they inhabit (Ellis 2015). It is necessary to revise the assumption that human actions always degrade the environment, through a reconceptualization that we have previously called ‘anthropogenesis’ (Rivera-Núñez et al. 2020). Instead of the naïve portrayal of the ‘good Anthropocene’ (Hamilton 2015, Fremaux & Barry 2019), anthropogenesis seeks to enrich the biodiversity debate with the historical human expressions of constructed environments that the conservation-focused ‘Edenic sciences’ and the ‘pristine syndrome’ (Robbins & Moore 2013) tend to ignore, or ‘Anthropo-not-see’ (de la Cadena 2019). The objective of this comment paper is to urge the academic community, grassroots organizations and governments to employ a concept of ‘palimpsest’ (from the Ancient Greek for ‘again scraped’, implying that something is scraped clear ready to be used again) in the reconceptualization of biodiversity conservation from a historical perspective that implements research and policy agendas that incorporate the human propensity for environmental construction in a deeper and more inclusive manner.
Background: Hospital-acquired influenza (HA flu) lacks a consensus definition. However, it is known to be associated with increased inpatient morbidity and mortality. Objective: To describe the clinical course of HA flu in a cohort population. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary-care adult and pediatric teaching hospital. Patients with HA flu during 3 seasons, 2016 through 2019, were identified from medical record information based on timing of the onset of signs and symptoms and positive virologic testing >72 hours after admission. Influenza infection was confirmed by multiplex respiratory PCR, influenza A/B PCR, or direct fluorescent antibody tests. Chart review was performed to abstract patient demographics and comorbidities, length of stay, testing, and timing to antiviral administration as well as diagnosis of pneumonia, coinfections, and 30-day mortality. Escalation of care during hospitalization was defined as a new requirement of supplemental oxygen, invasive or noninvasive ventilation, and transfer to an intensive care unit. Results: During the 3 flu seasons, 132 patients were identified with HA flu; 76 (58%) were women, 6 (4.6%) were aged <18 years, and 126 (95.4%) were adults. Annually, HA-flu patients accounted for 5%–7.8% of all patients hospitalized with laboratory-proven influenza. The median duration between hospitalization and positive flu test was 15 days, and the median length of stay after influenza diagnosis was 6 days. Antiviral treatment was received by 96% of the patients. In total, 41 patients (31%) showed radiographic evidence for pneumonia. Coinfection with either a viral or bacterial pathogen was identified in 25% of the cases. In addition, 26% of the patients experienced an escalation of care, and 20 patients (15%) were transferred to the intensive care unit after HA flu diagnosis. Furthermore, 4 deaths (3%) were attributed to influenza during their hospitalization. Conclusions: HA flu was a frequent cause for escalation in care and was associated with a mortality rate substantially higher than is typically seen in community-based populations with influenza. Coinfection was mostly related to bacteremia and pneumonia, yet not all pneumonias had an associated microbiological diagnosis other than influenza, and there was no significant association between coinfection and mortality. Future work should explore more precise definitions for HA flu as well as its complications.
Depression is common in people living with HIV (PLWH) and can contribute to neurocognitive dysfunction. Depressive symptoms in PLWH are often measured by assessing only cognitive/affective symptoms. Latinx adults, however, often express depressive symptoms in a somatic/functional manner, which is not typically captured in assessments of depression among PLWH. Given the disproportionate burden of HIV that Latinx adults face, examining whether variations in expressed depressive symptoms differentially predict neurocognitive outcomes between Latinx and non-Hispanic white PLWH is essential.
This cross-sectional study included 140 PLWH (71% Latinx; 72% male; mean (M) age = 47.1 ± 8.5 years; M education = 12.6 ± 2.9 years) who completed a comprehensive neurocognitive battery, Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), and Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Neurocognitive performance was measured using demographically adjusted T-scores. BDI-II domain scores were computed for the Fast-Screen (cognitive/affective items) score (BDI-FS) and non-FS score (BDI-NFS; somatic/functional items).
Linear regressions revealed that the BDI-NFS significantly predicted global neurocognitive function and processing speed in the Latinx group (p < .05), such that higher physical/functional symptoms predicted worse performance. In the non-Hispanic white group, the cognitive/affective symptoms significantly predicted processing speed (p = .02), with more symptoms predicting better performance. Interaction terms of ethnicity and each BDI sub-score indicated that Latinx participants with higher cognitive/affective symptoms performed worse on executive functioning.
Depressive symptoms differentially predict neurocognitive performance in Latinx and non-Hispanic white PLWH. These differences should be considered when conducting research and intervention among the increasingly culturally and ethnically diverse population of PLWH.
Glacier ice thickness is crucial to quantifying water resources in mountain regions, and is an essential input for ice-flow models. Using a surface velocity inversion method, we combine ice thickness measurements with detailed surface elevation and velocity data, and derive ice thickness and volume estimates for the Monte Tronador glaciers, North Patagonian Andes. We test the dependence of the inversion model on surface slope by resampling glacier slopes using variable smoothing filter sizes of 16–720 m. While total glacier volumes do not differ considerably, ice thickness estimates show higher variability depending on filter size. Smaller (larger) smoothing scales give thinner (thicker) ice and higher (lower) noise in ice thickness distribution. A filter size of 300 m, equivalent to four times the mean ice thickness, produces a noise-free thickness distribution with an accuracy of 35 m. We estimate the volume of the Monte Tronador glaciers at 4.8 ± 2 km3 with a mean ice thickness of 75 m. Comparison of our results with earlier regional and global assessments shows that the quality of glacier inventories is a significant source of discrepancy. We show that including surface slope as an input parameter increases the accuracy of ice thickness distribution estimates.
In 1990, Latin American countries committed to psychiatric reforms including psychiatric bed removals. Aim of the study was to quantify changes in psychiatric bed numbers and prison population rates after the initiation of psychiatric reforms in Latin America.
We searched primary sources to collect numbers of psychiatric beds and prison population rates across Latin America between the years 1991 and 2017. Changes of psychiatric bed numbers were compared against trends of incarceration rates and tested for associations using fixed-effects regression of panel data. Economic variables were used as covariates. Reliable data were obtained from 17 Latin American countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, El Salvador, Uruguay and Venezuela.
The number of psychiatric beds decreased in 15 out of 17 Latin American countries (median −35%) since 1991. Our findings indicate the total removal of 69 415 psychiatric beds. The prison population increased in all countries (median +181%). Panel data regression analyses showed a significant inverse relationship −2.70 (95% CI −4.28 to −1.11; p = 0.002) indicating that prison populations increased more when and where more psychiatric beds were removed. This relationship held up when introducing per capita income and income inequality as covariates −2.37 (95% CI −3.95 to −0.8; p = 0.006).
Important numbers of psychiatric beds have been removed in Latin America. Removals of psychiatric beds were related to increasing incarceration rates. Minimum numbers of psychiatric beds need to be defined and addressed in national policies.
Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice for schistosomiasis. The potential drug resistance necessitates the search for adjunct or alternative therapies to PZQ. Previous functional genomics has shown that RNAi inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) gene in Schistosoma adult worms significantly improved the effectiveness of PZQ. Here we tested the in vitro efficacy of 15 selective and non-selective CaMK inhibitors against Schistosoma mansoni and showed that PZQ efficacy was improved against refractory juvenile parasites when combined with these CaMK inhibitors. By measuring CaMK activity and the mobility of adult S. mansoni, we identified two non-selective CaMK inhibitors, Staurosporine (STSP) and 1Naphthyl PP1 (1NAPP1), as promising candidates for further study. The impact of STSP and 1NAPP1 was investigated in mice infected with S. mansoni in the presence or absence of a sub-lethal dose of PZQ against 2- and 7-day-old schistosomula and adults. Treatment with STSP/PZQ induced a significant (47–68%) liver egg burden reduction compared with mice treated with PZQ alone. The findings indicate that the combination of STSP and PZQ dosages significantly improved anti-schistosomal activity compared to PZQ alone, demonstrating the potential of selective and non-selective CaMK/kinase inhibitors as a combination therapy with PZQ in treating schistosomiasis.
To summarise the findings from this supplemental issue on the distribution of malnutrition (stunting/short stature, anaemia and overweight) by wealth, education and ethnicity within and between ten Latin American countries.
We retrieved information from each country’s article and estimated the average difference in the prevalence of malnutrition between groups. We estimated the associations between countries’ malnutrition prevalence and GDP, percentage of women with high education and percentage of non-indigenous ethnicity.
Nationally representative surveys from ten Latin American countries conducted between 2005 and 2017.
Children (<5 years), adolescent women (11–19 years) and adult women (20–49 years).
Socially disadvantaged groups (low wealth, low education and indigenous ethnicity) had on average 15–21 (range across indicators and age groups) percentage points (pp) higher prevalence of stunting/short stature and 3–11 pp higher prevalence of anaemia. For overweight or obesity, adult women with low education had a 17 pp higher prevalence; differences were small among children <5 years, and results varied by country for adolescents by education, and for adults and adolescents by wealth and ethnicity. A moderate and strong correlation (–0·58 and –0·71) was only found between stunting/short stature prevalence and countries’ GDP per capita and percentage of non-indigenous households.
Overweight was equally distributed among children; findings were mixed for ethnicity and wealth, whereas education was a protective factor among adult women. There is an urgent need to address the deep inequalities in undernutrition and prevent the emerging inequalities in excess weight from developing further.
The purpose of this research was to determine biosecurity measures at the dental office after the appearance of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A search was conducted in the main databases of the scientific literature using the words “COVID-19, coronavirus, SARS-Cov2, biosecurity, disinfection and dentistry.” We analyzed biosecurity and disinfection standards at the dental office and dental health personnel to date, and their adaptation to the needs and way of working of each. As a result, according to the information collected the following procedure was identified: a telephone appointment must be made and a questionnaire should be given before dental care; at arrival to the appointment, the temperature of the patient should be taken and proper cleaning and disinfection of the waiting room should be maintained. Panoramic radiography and CBCT are the auxiliary methods of choice. Absolute isolation and atraumatic restorative therapy techniques are a good alternative to decrease fluid exposure. The removal of protective clothing and accessories must follow a specific order and washing hands before and after is essential. In conclusion, the efficient biosecurity for dentists and patients in all dental care processes before, during, and immediately after the appointment reduces the risk of COVID-19 infection and allows healthy dental care environments.
Darwin's frogs Rhinoderma darwinii and Rhinoderma rufum are the only known species of amphibians in which males brood their offspring in their vocal sacs. We propose these frogs as flagship species for the conservation of the Austral temperate forests of Chile and Argentina. This recommendation forms part of the vision of the Binational Conservation Strategy for Darwin's Frogs, which was launched in 2018. The strategy is a conservation initiative led by the IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group, which in 2017 convened 30 governmental, non-profit and private organizations from Chile, Argentina and elsewhere. Darwin's frogs are iconic examples of the global amphibian conservation crisis: R. rufum is categorized as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) on the IUCN Red List, and R. darwinii as Endangered. Here we articulate the conservation planning process that led to the development of the conservation strategy for these species and present its main findings and recommendations. Using an evidence-based approach, the Binational Conservation Strategy for Darwin's Frogs contains a comprehensive status review of Rhinoderma spp., including critical threat analyses, and proposes 39 prioritized conservation actions. Its goal is that by 2028, key information gaps on Rhinoderma spp. will be filled, the main threats to these species will be reduced, and financial, legal and societal support will have been achieved. The strategy is a multi-disciplinary, transnational endeavour aimed at ensuring the long-term viability of these unique frogs and their particular habitat.
Herein, we report a synthetic route capable of producing superparamagnetic, stable and biocompatible glucosamine (GLU) nanocarriers, composed by colloidal iron oxide nanoparticles (ION, ~6 nm) surface-functionalized with GLU dispersed in physiological media (pH 7.2). The route consists first of the preparation of ION by aqueous alkaline co-precipitation of 1:2 Fe(II)/Fe(III) followed by surface treatment with citric acid, activation of acidic groups via carbodiimide intermediary and further amidation using GLU as the amine reactant. Results from cell viability tests performed with human dental pulp tissue cells suggest that ION–GLU nanocolloids are biocompatible and non-toxic for two different concentrations and several hours of incubation. Moreover, optical microscopy shows that ION–GLU adsorbs at the cells walls and also transposes them, reaching cytoplasm and nucleus as well. All findings point out the promising use of ION–GLU as biocompatible nanocarriers for GLU delivery such as in articulation diseases.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To assess the impact of FLTCs on CTR on S and F from health professions and basic science academic programs island wide in Puerto Rico. Cycles supported by the Title V Cooperative Project at University of Puerto Rico-Medical Sciences Campus (UPRMSC) and Universidad Central del Caribe (UCC)(Title V). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: After offering FLTCs in CTR to S and F from UPRMSC and UCC, Title V expanded it to S and F from other institutions island wide in PR. These FLTCs were offered the 2nd semester of 2018 and consisted of 20 hours of interdisciplinary sessions in: introduction to and definition of CTR; preparation of a CTR-presentation; how to interview/share a presentation of a CT researcher and to prepare a research question in CTR. To assess the knowledge of S and F in the above-mentioned skills and their continuation in the 2nd level of CTR training, surveys were administered: pre-test, at the beginning, post-test, sometime during the FLTCs, and satisfaction at the end of the FLTCs. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Fifty eight (58) S/F from UPRMSC, UCC and 7 other institutions participated. Forty two (42,72%) answered a pre-test and 31/42 (74%) completed the post-test. Results showed that S/F: who correctly defined CTR increased from 7% to 77 %; their ability to identify a CT researcher increased from 10% to 83%. Fifty five percent (55 %) (21/38) S/F that were certified in the FLTCs, answered the satisfaction survey. One hundred percent (100%) indicated that the materials offered contributed in the identification of a CT researcher and a topic in CTR; 100% answered that the FLTCs contributed higher knowledge in and provided new skills in CTR. Moreover, 31/38 (82%) S/F started the 2nd level of training. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The FLTCs were successful in increasing S/F knowledge of CTR and to further engage in 2nd level of trainings. Title V impact extended island wide, increasing the diversity of represented health professions and science fields among participants. The interventions were deemed to be of high quality.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To compare the opioid drug requirements amongst those individuals with high levels of catecholamines in blood and acute post-procedural pain, by ICD9/10 codes (experimental) to those with normal levels of catecholamines and acute post-procedural pain (AP-PP) only (controls) METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In collaboration with both the Informatics and the Biostatistics Departments at CTSI and under the auspices of the IRB at the University of Rochester, we completed the collection of ~8,000 electronic health records(EHRs) of adults 18 years and older with surgical appointments at Strong Memorial Hospital (SMH), who met inclusion criteria, from January 2006 to September 2019 and received Fentanyl therapy for AP-PP management. Subjects were categorized in a two-arm-matched case-control fashion. A ratio of 1(Experimental):1(Control) was utilized. Analytic comparisons were completed using normal distribution statistical methods with p >0.1 for significance. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: After removal of duplicates and exclusion of EHRs, a total of 17 subjects met inclusion criteria for the experimental group. We matched controls (n = 17) with experimental subjects for age, gender and surgical procedure for accurately compare opioid requirements in the postoperative recovery. Mean age of subjects was 69(+/-10.1235) years old. Most of subjects were females (70%). Mean Fentanyl requirement was significantly different in the experimental group 466.17(625.621)mcg compared to 215.58(353.323)mcg in the controls (p value 0.07832) DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: It is suggested that healthy individuals with genetic variations in pain pathways including; the COMT and MAOA rendered individuals with higher levels of catecholamines in the body driving abnormal responses to pain sensitivity. We emulated this genetic variation for clinical purposes using ICD10/9 codes of those with conditions related to higher catecholamine levels in the body. Based on our preliminary results, we suggest that COMT and MAOA genetic variations could impact opioid drug use and the current opioid dependency and epidemics in the U.S. This study will address remarkable questions and identify strategies about this topic.
Although there is growing interest in mental health problems in university students there is limited understanding of the scope of need and determinants to inform intervention efforts.
To longitudinally examine the extent and persistence of mental health symptoms and the importance of psychosocial and lifestyle factors for student mental health and academic outcomes.
Undergraduates at a Canadian university were invited to complete electronic surveys at entry and completion of their first year. The baseline survey measured important distal and proximal risk factors and the follow-up assessed mental health and well-being. Surveys were linked to academic grades. Multivariable models of risk factors and mental health and academic outcomes were fit and adjusted for confounders.
In 1530 students surveyed at entry to university 28% and 33% screened positive for clinically significant depressive and anxiety symptoms respectively, which increased to 36% and 39% at the completion of first year. Over the academic year, 14% of students reported suicidal thoughts and 1.6% suicide attempts. Moreover, there was persistence and overlap in these mental health outcomes. Modifiable psychosocial and lifestyle factors at entry were associated with positive screens for mental health outcomes at completion of first year, while anxiety and depressive symptoms were associated with lower grades and university well-being.
Clinically significant mental health symptoms are common and persistent among first-year university students and have a negative impact on academic performance and well-being. A comprehensive mental health strategy that includes a whole university approach to prevention and targeted early-intervention measures and associated research is justified.