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As island ecosystems are among the most critical breeding habitats for seabirds, their protection should enhance population viability for many species. The Peruvian Diving-petrel Pelecanoides garnotii breeds only in Chile and Perú, is an endangered seabird with historically large populations of over 100,000 breeding pairs, but fewer than 1,000 remained in the 1980s and it became the first endangered seabird of the Humboldt Current System. In Chile, they breed on five islands, three of which are legally protected, but only two have a management plan. Between 2010 and 2014, we evaluated the density of nests, burrow occupancy, and colony patch sizes on the islands to estimate the breeding population. The population trend was assessed by compiling historical data available in the literature and several unpublished technical reports. The current breeding population size in Chile was ∼12,500 breeding pairs (95% CI: 10,613–14,676 pairs) that is ∼34% of the breeding pairs reported for Peru (∼36,450 pairs). Choros Island, the only island with adequate protection, accounted for ∼95% of the total breeding population of the Peruvian Diving-petrel in Chile. Historical population trends showed a significant increase in breeding pairs during recent years on Choros Island. It seems that the adequate legal protection of Choros Island is leading to the recovery of Peruvian Diving-petrels, demonstrating that protection of breeding colonies remains an essential strategy for the conservation of endemic seabirds.
Weedy rice (Oryza spp.) is considered one of the main weeds in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) around the world, having a great impact on both yield and quality of crop rice. Recent studies have characterized the range of morphological and genetic diversity in weedy rice from different locations and have revealed that there is often great morphological diversity within growing regions. No systematic attempt to characterize phenotypic diversity of weedy rice in Colombia, where this group of weeds greatly affects rice production, has yet been carried out. This study seeks (1) to establish the range of variation in various morphological characters for weedy rice collected in the five production zones of Colombia and to compare these with commercial varieties and landraces sown in the country, (2) to determine the association between weedy rice morphotypes and rice production areas in the country, and (3) to assess whether any association exists between morphology and recently discovered genetic groupings for weedy rice in Colombia. Based on a sampling of rice production areas in Colombia and evaluation of 27 phenotypic traits, a two-step cluster analysis identified four morphological groups for weedy rice in Colombia. These groupings had some limited association with geography and the genetic ancestries of weedy rice. Clustering showed that awn and apiculus color and awn length and presence are the most important predictors in defining morphological groupings. Understanding and classifying the morphological diversity may be helpful in understanding weedy rice origins, evolution, and potential management practices.
Age and growth parameters were estimated for the deep-sea cardinalfish (Epigonus crassicaudus) from sagittal otoliths collected between 2012 and 2015 onboard commercial fishing vessels from the South-east Pacific off Chile between 33°04′S and 41°46′S. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters (VBGP) were estimated from assumed annual otolith growth zone counts. The verification of the first annulus of sagittal otoliths was determined by examining in detail daily micro-increments. These data helped inform the interpretation of the annual growth zones from transverse otolith sections. The von Bertalanffy growth model estimated to length-at-age data were asymptotic length (L∞) of 34.1 cm fork length (FL), a growth coefficient (k) of 0.1 cm/year and a t-zero (t0) of −0.85. The maximum ages observed were 67 and 65 years for female and male fish, respectively.
Circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) is related to decreased rates of gastrointestinal and ear infections in school-age children. Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) transports 25(OH)D and exerts immunological functions; however, it is unknown whether DBP is associated with infectious morbidity in children. We quantified plasma DBP concentrations in 540 school-age children at the time of recruitment into a cohort study in Bogotá, Colombia and obtained daily information on infectious morbidity symptoms and doctor visits during the school year. We compared the incidence rates of gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms across quartiles of DBP concentration by estimating adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI). We also estimated the per cent of the associations between DBP and morbidity that were mediated through 25(OH)D using a counterfactual frame. Mean ± s.d. DBP concentration was 2650 ± 1145 nmol/l. DBP was inversely associated with the rates of diarrhoea with vomiting (IRR for quartiles 2–4 vs. 1 = 0.48; 95% CI 0.25–0.92; P = 0.03) and earache/ear discharge with fever (IRR for quartiles 2–4 vs. 1 = 0.29; 95% CI 0.12–0.71; P = 0.006). The DBP–morbidity associations were not mediated through 25(OH)D. We conclude that plasma DBP predicts lower incidence of gastrointestinal and ear infections in school-age children independent of 25(OH)D.
Childhood intake of animal foods is associated with age at first menstrual period (menarche). It is unknown whether the micronutrients present in these foods could explain this association. Our objective was to investigate the associations of micronutrient status biomarkers in middle childhood with age at menarche. We quantified circulating Hb, ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, Zn, vitamin B12, erythrocyte folate and retinol in 1464 pre-menarcheal girls aged 5–12 years in Bogotá, Colombia, and followed them for a median 5·7 years for the occurrence and date of menarche. We estimated median age at menarche and hazard ratios (HR) with 95 % CI by levels of each biomarker with use of Kaplan–Meier survival probabilities and Cox regression, respectively. Median age at menarche was 12·4 years. Middle childhood Hb was inversely related to age at menarche whereas plasma ferritin was positively associated with this outcome in a linear manner. HR of menarche for every 1 sd of Hb (11 g/l) and ferritin (23·2 µg/l) were 1·11 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·18; P=0·001) and 0·94 (95 % CI 0·88, 0·99; P=0·02), respectively, after adjustment for baseline age, C-reactive protein concentration, maternal age at menarche and parity and socioeconomic status. The association with ferritin was stronger in girls aged 9–10 years at baseline. Additional adjustment for baseline height- and BMI-for-age did not change the results. We conclude that higher Fe status in middle childhood is related to later age at menarche whereas Hb concentrations are inversely associated with age at onset of menses.
Biomass production is a diagnosis tool for the evaluation of the effect of climate, crop genomic and management. The differences in biomass accumulation are necessary for the assessment of the fertilization necessities in the strategies for variable nitrogen doses. Remote sensing-based data provide a direct observation of the differences in canopy development across time and space and can be integrated into the physiological basis of crop growth models to provide estimates of biomass production at fine scales. The proposed approach was applied in a wheat field in Albacete, Spain and the results were compared with measurements of aboveground biomass and yield maps obtained by a combined-mounted grain yield monitor.
To determine if processed and ultra-processed foods consumed by children in Colombia are associated with lower-quality nutrition profiles than less processed foods.
We obtained information on sociodemographic and anthropometric variables and dietary information through dietary records and 24 h recalls from a convenience sample of the Bogotá School Children Cohort. Foods were classified into three categories: (i) unprocessed and minimally processed foods, (ii) processed culinary ingredients and (iii) processed and ultra-processed foods. We also examined the combination of unprocessed foods and processed culinary ingredients.
Representative sample of children from low- to middle-income families in Bogotá, Colombia.
Children aged 5–12 years in 2011 Bogotá School Children Cohort.
We found that processed and ultra-processed foods are of lower dietary quality in general. Nutrients that were lower in processed and ultra-processed foods following adjustment for total energy intake included: n-3 PUFA, vitamins A, B12, C and E, Ca and Zn. Nutrients that were higher in energy-adjusted processed and ultra-processed foods compared with unprocessed foods included: Na, sugar and trans-fatty acids, although we also found that some healthy nutrients, including folate and Fe, were higher in processed and ultra-processed foods compared with unprocessed and minimally processed foods.
Processed and ultra-processed foods generally have unhealthy nutrition profiles. Our findings suggest the categorization of foods based on processing characteristics is promising for understanding the influence of food processing on children’s dietary quality. More studies accounting for the type and degree of food processing are needed.
Early life traits (ELT) of the sand-burrowing cryptic marine fish Sindoscopus australis (family Dactyloscopidae) were compared between cohorts hatched during winter and spring 2013, in nearshore rocky reefs off central Chile. Pelagic larvae were similarly abundant during both periods, but larger larvae were collected during austral spring. The sagittal otolith microstructure and size analyses also indicated that size-at-hatch was larger (4.7 mm) for the winter cohort, but winter larvae experienced slower growth rates (0.145 mm day−1 ± 0.008). Conversely, larvae from the spring cohort hatched at smaller sizes (2.9 mm), but they grew faster (0.182 mm day−1 ± 0.008). Hatching periods were coupled with the lunar cycle; in winter, hatching events were related to neap tides (first and third quarter moon), increasing chances of self-recruitment. Meanwhile, during spring, hatching occurred during spring tides, particularly over the new moon, decreasing chances of larval mortality by predation. Otolith traits used to test asymmetry among cohorts showed inconsistent results. Only sagittal perimeter presented fluctuating asymmetry, showing higher variance for the winter cohort. We conclude that this burrowing species displays different reproductive tactics at a seasonal scale.
Multimodal social-emotional interactions play a critical role in child development and this role is emphasized in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In typically developing children, the ability to correctly identify, interpret, and produce social behaviors (Figure 28.1) is a key aspect for communication and is the basis of social cognition (Carpendale & Lewis, 2004). This process helps children to understand that other people have intentions, thoughts, and emotions and act as a trigger of empathy (Decety & Jackson, 2004; Narzisi et al., 2012). Social cognition includes the child's ability to spontaneously and correctly interpret verbal and nonverbal social and emotional cues (e.g., speech, facial and vocal expressions, posture and body movements, etc.); the ability to produce social and emotional information (e.g., initiating social contact or conversation); the ability to continuously adjust and synchronize behavior to others (i.e., parent, caregivers, peers); and the ability to make an adequate attribution about another's mental state (i.e., “theory of mind”).
Definitions and Treatments
ASDs are a group of behaviorally defined disorders with abnormalities or impaired development in two areas: (1) persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction and (2) restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. An individual with ASD has difficulty interacting with other people due to an inability to understand social cues as well as others’ behaviors and feelings. For example, children with ASD often have difficulty with cooperative play with other peers; they prefer to continue with their own repetitive activities (Baron-Cohen & Wheelwright, 1999). Persons with ASD evaluate both world and human behavior uniquely because they react in an abnormal way to input stimuli while there is problematic human engagement and inability to generalize the environment (Rajendran & Mitchell, 2000). Although ASD remains a devastating disorder with a poor outcome in adult life, there have been important improvements in treating ASD with the development of various therapeutic approaches (Cohen, 2012).
Successful autism “treatments” using educational interventions have been reported as recently as a decade ago (Murray, 1997). Since then, the literature devoted to the description and evaluation of interventions in ASD has become substantial over the last few years. From this literature, a number of conclusions can be drawn. First, there is increasing convergence between behavioral and developmental methods (Ospina et al., 2008).
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
Given that earthquakes do not occur only along high slip-rate faults, slow moving seismogenic faults should be characterized in order to minimize seismic hazard uncertainties. Although no historical earthquakes related to the El Camp fault have been documented, earlier regional geological analysis and the presence of a fault scarp provide evidence of its activity. A paleoseismological study on the southern part of the fault was performed in accordance with the following steps: 1) geological and géomorphologie analysis focussing on the detection of evidence for the seismogenic behavior of the fault, 2) near fault analysis to select the best trenching sites, and 3) trenching to establish and characterize the paleoseismic events. Different dating procedures were used in regional and trenching analyses (Thermoluminiscence, U/Th, Radiocarbon, Pollen analysis). The seismogenic nature of the fault was established by the presence of liquefaction features related to the fault, and by the presence of colluvial wedges composed of large angular blocks. We identified a segment boundary to the north of the Porquerola creek and we focussed our attention on the southern segment, which was active after 125000 yr. The slip rate in this southern segment is 0.02 mm/yr. A minimum of three seismic events were detected, from young to old: the last event Z took place some time prior to 1195 yr AD, the penultimate event Y between event X and the Holocene, and, finally, event X occurred after 125000 yr and prior to 60000 yr. The recurrence period is between 25000 and 35000 yr, the elapsed time is estimated to be no longer than 3000 yr; and the maximum estimated earthquake considering both the onshore and the offshore part of the fault is Mw 6.7 +/-0,5.