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Shipping is responsible for transporting 90% of the world's trade. This book provides a comprehensive review of the impact shipping has on the environment. Topics covered include pollutant discharges such as atmospheric emissions, oil, chemical waste, sewage and biocides; as well as non-pollutant impacts including invasive species, wildlife collisions, noise, physical damage, and the environmental effects associated with shipwrecks and shipbreaking. The history of relevant international legislation is also covered. With chapters written by eminent international authors, this book provides a global perspective on the environmental impact of ships, making it a useful reference for advanced students and researchers of environmental science, as well as practitioners of maritime law and policy, and marine business.
This paper gathers information on the diet of the people of Montevideo. It puts forward some hypotheses regarding the caloric intake of the plebeian and non-elite social groups, introduces two Laspeyres indexes of food prices for Montevideo in 1760-1810, analyses the movements of food prices in Montevideo in this period and compares the case of Montevideo with neighbouring cities.
Each individual in the population has a distinct maximum growth potential, and the growth curve may vary depending on the response to nutrient intake, growth phase and variability among animals. The present study aimed to (1) model weight gain (WG) response to methionine+cystine (Met+Cys) supply using different mathematical functions, (2) identify functions that better fit the growth responses of pullets, (3) determine the Met+Cys requirements that maximize WG based on breeding standards and (4) partition the Met+Cys requirements for WG and maintenance. Three trials were performed using 1448 laying-type pullets. We adopted a completely randomized design with eight treatments and six replicates. The first trial (2 to 6 weeks, P1) used 15 pullets per experimental unit. The second and third trials (8 to 12 weeks, P2; 14 to 18 weeks, P3) were used eight pullets per replicate. The Met+Cys levels were obtained using a dilution technique. The mathematical functions used to describe WG responses to Met+Cys intake were broken line, broken line with curvilinear ascendancy, Michaelis–Menten, saturation kinetics and three logistic and three exponential models. Models were selected using the Bayesian information criterion and evaluated by residual analysis. It was possible to model the responses using the studied functions. The best functions were obtained by logistic and sigmoidal models in P1 and P2, and with the broken line by the curvilinear ascendancy model in P3. The Met+Cys intake that determined the maximum potential for WG (WGmax) in P1, P2 and P3 were 313, 381 and 318 mg/day, respectively. The Met+Cys requirements for WG were 20, 22 and 27 mg/g, and for maintenance were 214, 53 and 30 mg/kgBW0.75 for P1, P2 and P3, respectively.
Colombia is experiencing a nutrition transition, characterised by nutritionally poor diets and an increased prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCD). We aimed to investigate the association between diet quality and general health outcomes related to the risk of NCD, in a nationally representative sample of Colombian adolescents and adults.
Cross-sectional analysis. The Alternative Healthy-Eating Index (AHEI) was derived to calculate diet quality. Adjusted regressions were used to examine the association between AHEI, self-perceived general health status (GHS) and anthropometric variables (i.e. age-specific z-scores for height, and BMI for adolescents; waist circumference and BMI for adults).
Nationally representative data from the Colombian National Nutrition Survey (ENSIN) 2010.
Adolescents aged 10–17 years (n 6566) and adults aged ≥18 years (n 6750).
AHEI scores were similar between adolescents (mean 29·3 ± 7·2) and adults (mean 30·5 ± 7·2). In the whole sample, a better diet quality (higher AHEI score) was associated with worse self-perceived GHS (adjusted (a) β-coefficient: –0·004; P < 0·001) and with a smaller waist circumference ((a) β-coefficient: –0·06; P < 0·01). In adults, a higher AHEI score was negatively associated with BMI ((a) β-coefficient: –0·02; P < 0·05), whilst in adolescents it was associated with a reduced height-for-age z-score ((a) β-coefficient: –0·009; P < 0·001).
A better diet quality was associated with reduced prevalence of predictors of NCD and with some indicators of general health in the Colombian population. In light of the high prevalence of overweight, our findings support the need for public health interventions focused on sustainable positive changes in dietary habits in the general population.
Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) is the most important egg parasitoid of Euschistus heros (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), and its successful parasitism is related to their searching ability to find suitable hosts under a complex chemical environment using host-reliable cues. Thus, the objective of this study was to elucidate chemical substances on the external layer of E. heros eggs and report its potential kairomonal activity on T. podisi. We tested female wasps in olfactometer system to synthetic compounds obtained from a chemical identification of E. heros egg masses. The synthetic blend was also evaluated in parasitism tests under laboratory and semi-field conditions. We identified 31 substances from egg surface extracts, including monoterpenes, aldehydes and alkanes. Among those compounds, a synthetic solution including camphene, β-pinene, limonene and benzaldehyde-induced chemotaxic behaviour on the wasps and increased the parasitism on E. heros eggs, either in laboratory or semi-field test, suggesting its potential use to T. podisi manipulation and parasitism improvement.
Green manures are a promising alternative for achieving the sustainable production of maize in the face of low soil fertility and increasingly long canicule periods, particularly in rainfed systems associated with the reproduction of local agrobiodiversity. However, it is necessary to investigate what are the advantages and disadvantages associated with different species of native and exotic pulse, as well as their overall contribution to the sustainable production of maize landraces. In order to do so, we followed the MESMIS method to assess five species of pulse (three native and two exotic) grown with maize in two plots with different soil conditions. This was done in the seasons of 2017 and 2018 the municipality of Villa de Zaachila, Oaxaca, a site with remarkable biological, agricultural and cultural diversity. A fully randomized complete block design was implemented with 11 treatments and three repetitions in the two plots. The output variables of the experiment were: land equivalence ratio, interspecific aggressiveness, content of soil organic matter, decomposition rate, plant survival rate and plant dry biomass. We also evaluated quantitative or qualitative indicators of cost, adaptability and contribution to food security. For all the possible maize-pulse combinations, except for one, polyculture outperformed maize and pulse monocultures. Exotic pulses (Crotalaria junscens spp. and Dolicho lablab) had a better performance in biomass, reincorporation of organic matter and possible nitrogen fixation, as well as greater resistance to drought in the second cycle. The native pulses (Phaseolus vulgaris and Phaseolus coccineus), however, had a greater acceptance and economic output and are important for the food security in our study site. Our results provide quantitative and qualitative elements to design combined schemes of green manures associated with maize that would help tackle current challenges regarding maize productivity, food security and response to climate change.
Landscape evolution studies enable us to understand site formation processes affecting past hunter-gatherer settlements. This work presents a landscape reconstruction of Roca dels Bous site (RB), which is a reference site for the Late Mousterian occupation of the incised valleys of the southeastern Pyrenees. For this purpose, we combined geomorphological studies, stratigraphic descriptions, new single-grain optically stimulated luminescence datasets, statistical methods, and geophysical surveys. RB formed by gravitational processes induced by fluvial undermining of the Segre River during changing late Pleistocene climatic conditions. Geomorphological and chronological data combined with fluvial age-incision models suggest that, during Late Mousterian occupation, RB was located very near the Segre floodplain level and closer to water and raw material natural resources than at present. The accumulation of gravitational deposits associated with the archaeological levels occurred at rates of 0.16–0.44 m ka-1, between 55 and 47 ka, coinciding with Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3). More detailed comparison with available climatic curves suggests that the dated RB layers were potentially deposited during cold phases within MIS3. This work provides new landscape-based evidence to examine the paleoenvironmental context of Neanderthal presence in the southeastern Pre-Pyrenees, an important region in the debate regarding Neanderthal demise in Western Europe around 40 ka.
There is a substantial proportion of patients who drop out of treatment before they receive minimally adequate care. They tend to have worse health outcomes than those who complete treatment. Our main goal is to describe the frequency and determinants of dropout from treatment for mental disorders in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.
Respondents from 13 low- or middle-income countries (N = 60 224) and 15 in high-income countries (N = 77 303) were screened for mental and substance use disorders. Cross-tabulations were used to examine the distribution of treatment and dropout rates for those who screened positive. The timing of dropout was examined using Kaplan–Meier curves. Predictors of dropout were examined with survival analysis using a logistic link function.
Dropout rates are high, both in high-income (30%) and low/middle-income (45%) countries. Dropout mostly occurs during the first two visits. It is higher in general medical rather than in specialist settings (nearly 60% v. 20% in lower income settings). It is also higher for mild and moderate than for severe presentations. The lack of financial protection for mental health services is associated with overall increased dropout from care.
Extending financial protection and coverage for mental disorders may reduce dropout. Efficiency can be improved by managing the milder clinical presentations at the entry point to the mental health system, providing adequate training, support and specialist supervision for non-specialists, and streamlining referral to psychiatrists for more severe cases.
Nutrient requirements in cattle are dependent on physiological stage, breed and environmental conditions. In Holstein × Gyr crossbred dairy heifers, the lack of data remains a limiting factor for estimating energy and protein requirements. Thus, we aimed to estimate the energy and protein requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred heifers raised under tropical conditions. Twenty-two crossbred (½ Holstein × ½ Gyr) heifers with an average initial BW of 102.2 ± 3.4 kg and 3 to 4 months of age were used. To estimate requirements, the comparative slaughter technique was used: four animals were assigned to the reference group, slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment to estimate the initial empty BW (EBW) and composition of the animals that remained in the experiment. The remaining animals were randomized into three treatments based on targeted rates of BW gain: high (1.0 kg/day), low (0.5 kg/day) and close to maintenance (0.1 kg/day). At the end of the experiment, all animals were slaughtered to determine EBW, empty body gain (EBG) and body energy and protein contents. The linear regression parameters were estimated using PROC MIXED of SAS (version 9.4). Estimates of the parameters of non-linear regressions were adjusted through PROC NLIN of SAS using the Gauss–Newton method for parameter fit. The net requirements of energy for maintenance (NEm) and metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) were 0.303 and 0.469 MJ/EBW0.75 per day, respectively. The efficiency of use of MEm was 64.5%. The estimated equation to predict the net energy requirement for gain (NEg) was: NEg (MJ/day) = 0.299 × EBW0.75 × EBG0.601. The efficiency of use of ME for gain (kg) was 30.7%. The requirement of metabolizable protein for maintenance was 3.52 g/EBW0.75 per day. The equation to predict net protein requirement for gain (NPg) was: NPg (g/day) = 243.65 × EBW−0.091 × EBG. The efficiency of use of metabolizable protein for gain (k) was 50.8%. We observed noteworthy differences when comparing to ME and protein requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred heifers with other systems. In addition, we also observed differences in estimates for NEm, NEg, NPg, kg and k. Therefore, we propose that the equations generated in the present study should be used to estimate energy and protein requirements for Holstein × Gyr crossbred dairy heifers raised in tropical conditions in the post-weaning phase up to 185 kg of BW.
The present study investigated the potential benefits of extended exposure to captioned videos for second language pronunciation. We tested 90 L2 adult learners of English on speech processing skills (segmentation, speed of lexical access, and sentence processing) and phonological accuracy in perception (ABX discrimination) and production (accentedness ratings) before and after an 8-week treatment consisting of regular exposure to audiovisual materials. Participants were randomly assigned to four experimental conditions involving two viewing modes (captioned or uncaptioned) and two task focus conditions (focus on phonetic form or focus on meaning). Results showed benefits in speech segmentation and speech processing skills irrespective of viewing mode. No significant benefits were found for phonological accuracy in perception. In production, a focus on phonetic form improved pronunciation only in the absence of captions, whereas captioned viewing led to pronunciation gains as long as there was no focus on phonetic form. These findings suggest that pronunciation improvement can take place with the help of captions or, in the absence of captions, when learners’ attention is directed to pronunciation. Cognitive overload might explain why no benefits were obtained when attention was directed to pronunciation in a captioned viewing mode.
Short-term peripheral venous catheter–related bloodstream infection (PVCR-BSI) rates have not been systematically studied in resource-limited countries, and data on their incidence by number of device days are not available.
Prospective, surveillance study on PVCR-BSI conducted from September 1, 2013, to May 31, 2019, in 727 intensive care units (ICUs), by members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC), from 268 hospitals in 141 cities of 42 countries of Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South East Asia, and Western Pacific regions. For this research, we applied definition and criteria of the CDC NHSN, methodology of the INICC, and software named INICC Surveillance Online System.
We followed 149,609 ICU patients for 731,135 bed days and 743,508 short-term peripheral venous catheter (PVC) days. We identified 1,789 PVCR-BSIs for an overall rate of 2.41 per 1,000 PVC days. Mortality in patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 6.67%, and mortality was 18% in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. The length of stay of patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 4.83 days, and the length of stay was 9.85 days in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. Among these infections, the microorganism profile showed 58% gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (16%), Klebsiella spp (11%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%), Enterobacter spp (4%), and others (20%) including Serratia marcescens. Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant gram-positive bacteria (12%).
PVCR-BSI rates in INICC ICUs were much higher than rates published from industrialized countries. Infection prevention programs must be implemented to reduce the incidence of PVCR-BSIs in resource-limited countries.
Clozapine is the most effective antipsychotic medication, but it has the highest propensity for metabolic side effects. A clozapine clinic was established within an early intervention for psychosis service to facilitate the timely commencement of clozapine and to manage the associated adverse effects. This study describes the changes in the weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and blood pressure after 6 months in young people commenced on clozapine.
This was a prospective cohort study of all young people, aged 15–24 years, commenced on clozapine within an early intervention service in Melbourne, Australia, between 01.04.2016 and 30.06.2018. Continuous data were analyzed with paired t-test and categorical with Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
Twenty-six young people received 6 months of treatment with clozapine, of whom the mean age was 19.8 years (s.d. ±3.1) and 66.7% were male. After 6 months, the mean weight gain was 5.1 kg (s.d. ±10.1 kg) and over half (53.8%) gained clinically significant weight. The proportion of young people classified as either overweight or obese rose from 69.2% to 88.5% (p = 0.006). The proportion of young people with a waist circumference above the recommended parameters increased from 57.9% to 78.9% (p = 0.008). Hypertension was present in 30%, and after 6 months, 45% had hypertension (p = 0.64). Metformin was prescribed to 34.6%, typically to those with the greatest and most rapid weight gain.
Among young people with treatment resistant psychosis, clozapine is associated with significant metabolic side effects in the early stages of commencement. More interventions aimed at attenuating this weight gain are needed.
This paper studies the Cascajal Block, a serpentinite artifact with an Olmec text dating to ca. 1000–900 b.c. (Rodríguez Martínez et al. 2006a). It introduces a new line drawing made possible by the detailed documentation carried out by Carrasco and Englehardt, presents a distributional analysis of the inscription in order to assess the sign inventory proposed by Rodríguez Martínez et al. (2006a) and revised by Mora-Marín (2009), and, most significantly, suggests that certain irregularities in the patterns of sign co-occurrence raised by previous authors (Justeson 2012; Macri 2006) are consistent with spelling practices in logosyllabic scripts, showing that the script is linguistically motivated. The work by Carrasco and Englehardt (2015) on the identification and analysis of sign pairings as likely diphrastic kennings is highlighted as crucial to establishing semantic controls needed for any attempt at decipherment; a new, repeated pairing is proposed, consisting of the PELT-PAW signs. Finally, this paper assesses how the various models for the reading formatting and direction of the text could impact the proposed hypotheses.
Essential oils (EOs) are considered a new class of ecological products aimed at the control of insects for industrial and domestic use; however, there still is a lack of studies involving the control of fleas. Ctenocephalides felis felis, the most observed parasite in dogs and cats, is associated with several diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity, the establishment of LC50 and toxicity of EOs from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) B. L. Burtt & R. M. Sm, Cinnamomum spp., Laurus nobilis L., Mentha spicata L., Ocimum gratissimum L. and Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle against immature stages and adults of C. felis felis. Bioassay results suggest that the method of evaluation was able to perform a pre-screening of the activity of several EOs, including the discriminatory evaluation of flea stages by their LC50. Ocimum gratissimum EO was the most effective in the in vitro assays against all flea stages, presenting adulticide (LC50 = 5.85 μg cm−2), ovicidal (LC50 = 1.79 μg cm−2) and larvicidal (LC50 = 1.21 μg cm−2) mortality at low doses. It also presented an excellent profile in a toxicological eukaryotic model. These findings may support studies involving the development of non-toxic products for the control of fleas in dogs and cats.
It is generally assumed that the digenean human liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, gained entry to South America during the 15th century upon arrival of Europeans and their livestock. Nonetheless in Patagonia, Argentina, digenean eggs similar to F. hepatica have been observed in deer coprolites dating back to 2300 years B.P. The main objective of our present study was to identify and characterize these eggs using an ancient DNA (aDNA) study. Eggs were isolated and used for aDNA extraction, amplification and sequencing of partial regions from the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 mitochondrial genes. Also, phylogenetic trees were constructed using Bayesian and maximum likelihood. Our results confirm the presence of F. hepatica in South America from at least 2300 years B.P. This is the first report and the first aDNA study of this trematode in South America prior to the arrival of the European cattle in the 15th century. The present work contributes to the study of phylogenetic and palaeobiogeographical aspects of F. hepatica and its settlement across America.
This chapter looks at the modalities through which impartiality can be guaranteed in a context as fraught and highly politicized as post-war Kosovo, and explores how impartiality is produced in the everyday at the Kosovo Property Agency (KPA). The KPA is a quasi-judicial institution put in place by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) to ‘resolve’ war-related property claims and thereby restitute property rights to, for a great majority of claims, Kosovo Serbian ‘displaced persons’. The chapter argues that impartiality is produced and made possible by different, seemingly contradictory repertoires of justice that are acted out in everyday practice by the national lawyers of the agency. It probes the tenets of the dialectic between ‘global’ ideals and ‘local’ practice, and ethnographically demonstrates the limits of an anthropology of human rights that sees vernacularization and meaning-making as the only analytical tools available. The chapter shows that, in the specific political landscape of post-war Kosovo, it is the ‘nationalistic bias’ of Kosovo Albanian lawyers that ensures due diligence and respect for rule of law principles.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome consists of several structural abnormalities in the left side of the heart and may be associated with a hereditary genetic cause, possibly related to the connexin gene GJA1; however, only a few studies have investigated it. The present study aimed to analyse the expression of connexin-43 in the cardiac muscle of hypoplastic left heart syndrome children by Western blot method and confocal laser scanning microscopy. For that, tissue samples were taken during corrective surgery to treat heart defects. Patients of control group (8) presented any type of heart defect not related to hypoplastic left heart syndrome, connexin-43, or its gene and those of hypoplastic left heart syndrome group (9) presented this disease singly, without any other associated congenital diseases. By means of confocal laser scanning microscopy, it was noticed no connexin-43 qualitative differences in positioning and location pattern between both groups. From Western blot analysis, the connexin-43 expression did not show a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0571) as well. Within the limits of this study, it is suggested that cardiomyocytes of hypoplastic left heart syndrome children are similar in connexin-43 location, distribution, and structural and conformational patterns to those of children with heart defects not related to this protein and its genes.
TwinsMX is a national twin registry in Mexico recently created with institutional support from the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. It aims to serve as a platform to advance epidemiological and genetic research in the country and to disentangle the genetic and environmental contributions to health and disease in the admixed Mexican population. Here, we describe our recruitment and data collection strategies and discuss both the progress to date and future directions. More information about the registry is available on our website: https://twinsmxofficial.unam.mx/ (content in Spanish).
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) shows promising results in treating radionecrosis (RN) but there is limited evidence for its use in brain RN. The purpose of this study is to report the outcomes of using HBOT for symptomatic brain RN at a single institution.
This was a retrospective review of patients with symptomatic brain RN between 2008 and 2018 and was treated with HBOT. Demographic data, steroid use, clinical response, radiologic response and toxicities were collected. The index time for analysis was the first day of HBOT. The primary endpoint was clinical improvement of a presenting symptom, including steroid dose reduction.
Thirteen patients who received HBOT for symptomatic RN were included. The median time from last brain radiation therapy to presenting symptoms of brain RN was 6 months. Twelve patients (92%) had clinical improvement with median time to symptom improvement of 33 days (range 1–109 days). One patient had transient improvement after HBOT but had recurrent symptomatic RN at 12 months. Of the eight patients with evaluable follow-up MRI, four patients had radiological improvement while four had stable necrosis appearance. Two patients had subsequent deterioration in MRI appearances, one each in the background of initial radiologic improvement and stability. Median survival was 15 months with median follow-up of 10 months. Seven patients reported side effects attributable to HBOT (54%), four of which were otologic in origin.
HBOT is a safe and effective treatment for brain RN. HBOT showed clinical and radiologic improvement or stability in most patients. Prospective studies to further evaluate the effectiveness and side effects of HBOT are needed.