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A comprehensive study of the two-dimensional incompressible shear-driven flow in an open square cavity is carried out. Two successive bifurcations lead to two limit cycles with different frequencies and different numbers of structures which propagate along the top of the cavity and circulate in its interior. A branch of quasi-periodic states produced by secondary Hopf bifurcations transfers the stability from one limit cycle to the other. A full analysis of this scenario is obtained by means of nonlinear simulations, linear stability analysis and Floquet analysis. We characterize the temporal behaviour of the limit cycles and quasi-periodic state via Fourier transforms and their spatial behaviour via the Hilbert transform. We address the relevance of linearization about the mean flow. Although here the nonlinear frequencies are not very far from those obtained by linearization about the base flow, the difference is substantially reduced when eigenvalues are obtained instead from linearization about the mean and in addition, the corresponding growth rate is small, a combination of properties called RZIF (real zero imaginary frequency). Moreover growth rates obtained by linearization about the mean of one limit cycle are correlated with relative stability to the other limit cycle. Finally, we show that the frequencies of the successive modes are separated by a constant increment.
When a promising natural enemy of a key pest exists locally, it is a common practice in biological control (BC) to rear and release it for supplementary control in the targeted agroecosystem even though significant knowledge gaps concerning pre/post release may still exist. Incorporating genetic information into BC research fills some of these gaps. Habrobracon hebetor, a parasitoid of many economically important moths that infest stored and field crops worldwide is commonly used, particularly against the millet head miner (MHM), a key pest of millet in Sahelian countries. To advance our knowledge on how H. hebetor that occurs naturally in open-field cropping systems and grain stores as well as being mass-produced and released for MHM control, performs in millet agroecosystems in Niger we evaluated its population genetics using two mitochondrial and 21 microsatellite markers. The field samples were genetically more diverse and displayed heterozygote excess. Very few field samples had faced significant recent demographic bottlenecks. The mating system (i.e. nonrandom mating with complementary sex determination) of this species may be the major driver of these findings rather than bottlenecks caused by the small number of individuals released and the scarcity of hosts during the longlasting dry season in Niger. H. hebetor population structure was represented by several small patches and genetically distinct individuals. Gene flow occurred at local and regional scales through human-mediated and natural short-distance dispersal. These findings highlight the importance of the mating system in the genetic diversity and structure of H. hebetor populations, and contribute to our understanding of its reported efficacy against MHM in pearl millet fields.
The transition to unsteadiness of a three-dimensional open cavity flow is investigated using the joint application of direct numerical simulations and fully three-dimensional linear stability analyses, providing a clear understanding of the first two bifurcations occurring in the flow. The first bifurcation is characterized by the emergence of Taylor–Görtler-like vortices resulting from a centrifugal instability of the primary vortex core. Further increasing the Reynolds number eventually triggers self-sustained periodic oscillations of the flow in the vicinity of the spanwise end walls of the cavity. This secondary instability causes the emergence of a new set of Taylor–Görtler vortices experiencing a spanwise drift directed toward the spanwise end walls of the cavity. While a two-dimensional stability analysis would fail to capture this secondary instability due to the neglect of the lateral walls, it is the first time to our knowledge that this drifting of the vortices can be entirely characterized by a three-dimensional linear stability analysis of the flow. Good agreements with experimental observations and measurements strongly support our claim that the initial stages of the transition to turbulence of three-dimensional open cavity flows are solely governed by modal instabilities.
We propose a general dynamic reduced-order modelling framework for typical experimental data: time-resolved sensor data and optional non-time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) snapshots. This framework can be decomposed into four building blocks. First, the sensor signals are lifted to a dynamic feature space without false neighbours. Second, we identify a sparse human-interpretable nonlinear dynamical system for the feature state based on the sparse identification of nonlinear dynamics (SINDy). Third, if PIV snapshots are available, a local linear mapping from the feature state to the velocity field is performed to reconstruct the full state of the system. Fourth, a generalized feature-based modal decomposition identifies coherent structures that are most dynamically correlated with the linear and nonlinear interaction terms in the sparse model, adding interpretability. Steps 1 and 2 define a black-box model. Optional steps 3 and 4 lift the black-box dynamics to a grey-box model in terms of the identified coherent structures, if non-time-resolved full-state data are available. This grey-box modelling strategy is successfully applied to the transient and post-transient laminar cylinder wake, and compares favourably with a proper orthogonal decomposition model. We foresee numerous applications of this highly flexible modelling strategy, including estimation, prediction and control. Moreover, the feature space may be based on intrinsic coordinates, which are unaffected by a key challenge of modal expansion: the slow change of low-dimensional coherent structures with changing geometry and varying parameters.
The sparse identification of nonlinear dynamics (SINDy) is a recently proposed data-driven modelling framework that uses sparse regression techniques to identify nonlinear low-order models. With the goal of low-order models of a fluid flow, we combine this approach with dimensionality reduction techniques (e.g. proper orthogonal decomposition) and extend it to enforce physical constraints in the regression, e.g. energy-preserving quadratic nonlinearities. The resulting models, hereafter referred to as Galerkin regression models, incorporate many beneficial aspects of Galerkin projection, but without the need for a high-fidelity solver to project the Navier–Stokes equations. Instead, the most parsimonious nonlinear model is determined that is consistent with observed measurement data and satisfies necessary constraints. Galerkin regression models also readily generalize to include higher-order nonlinear terms that model the effect of truncated modes. The effectiveness of such an approach is demonstrated on two canonical flow configurations: the two-dimensional flow past a circular cylinder and the shear-driven cavity flow. For both cases, the accuracy of the identified models compare favourably against reduced-order models obtained from a standard Galerkin projection procedure. Finally, the entire code base for our constrained sparse Galerkin regression algorithm is freely available online.
The onset of unsteadiness in a boundary-layer flow past a cylindrical roughness element is investigated for three flow configurations at subcritical Reynolds numbers, both experimentally and numerically. On the one hand, a quasi-periodic shedding of hairpin vortices is observed for all configurations in the experiment. On the other hand, global stability analyses have revealed the existence of a varicose isolated mode, as well as of a sinuous one, both being linearly stable. Nonetheless, the isolated stable varicose modes are highly sensitive, as ascertained by pseudospectrum analysis. To investigate how these modes might influence the dynamics of the flow, an optimal forcing analysis is performed. The optimal response consists of a varicose perturbation closely related to the least stable varicose isolated eigenmode and induces dynamics similar to that observed experimentally. The quasi-resonance of such a global mode to external forcing might thus be responsible for the onset of unsteadiness at subcritical Reynolds numbers, hence providing a simple explanation for the experimental observations.
Oases are semi-natural woodlots surrounded by an inhospitable desert environment. This insular-like habitat system is known to support a mixture of sedentary and migratory bird species originating from different areas. However, little is known about the interactions between these birds and parasites. In this study, we investigated the diversity, prevalence and host specificity of avian haemosporidian parasites in southern Tunisian oases in two sedentary and common bird species, the laughing dove Spilopelia senegalensis and hybrid sparrow Passer domesticus × hispaniolensis, in six sites that differ regarding vegetation structure and distance to the coast. Two new Haemoproteus lineages, related to other Haemoproteus transmitted by biting midges, were detected in doves. With regard to sparrows, all detected parasites have previously been reported in other sparrow populations, except for one new Haemoproteus lineage. Our results also showed that densely vegetated sites were characterized by the higher prevalence of Plasmodium but a lower prevalence of Haemoproteus compared with less-vegetated sites. This is the first study aiming to explore avian parasites in the oasis habitat. Gathering data on a larger sample of oases with different sizes and isolation levels will be the next step to better understand factors shaping the transmission dynamics of avian parasites in such ecosystems.
Ecoevolutionary processes affecting hosts, vectors and pathogens are important drivers of zoonotic disease emergence. In this study, we focused on nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is caused by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) whose natural reservoir is the bank vole, Myodes glareolus. We questioned the possibility of NE emergence in a French region that is considered to be NE-free but that is adjacent to a NE-endemic region. We first confirmed the epidemiology of these two regions and we demonstrated the absence of spatial barriers that could have limited dispersal, and consequently, the spread of PUUV into the NE-free region. We next tested whether regional immunoheterogeneity could impact PUUV chances to circulate and persist in the NE-free region. We showed that bank voles from the NE-free region were sensitive to experimental PUUV infection. We observed high levels of immunoheterogeneity between individuals and also between regions. Antiviral gene expression (Tnf and Mx2) reached higher levels in bank voles from the NE-free region. During experimental infections, anti-PUUV antibody production was higher in bank voles from the NE-endemic region. These results indicated a lower susceptibility to PUUV for bank voles from this NE-free region, which might limit PUUV persistence and therefore, the risk of NE.
The linear global instability and resulting transition to turbulence induced by an isolated cylindrical roughness element of height
immersed within an incompressible boundary layer flow along a flat plate is investigated using the joint application of direct numerical simulations and fully three-dimensional global stability analyses. For the range of parameters investigated, base flow computations show that the roughness element induces a wake composed of a central low-speed region surrounded by a three-dimensional shear layer and a pair of low- and high-speed streaks on each of its sides. Results from the global stability analyses highlight the unstable nature of the central low-speed region and its crucial importance in the laminar–turbulent transition process. It is able to sustain two different global instabilities: a sinuous and a varicose one. Each of these globally unstable modes is related to a different physical mechanism. While the varicose mode has its root in the instability of the whole three-dimensional shear layer surrounding the central low-speed region, the sinuous instability turns out to be similar to the von Kármán instability in the two-dimensional cylinder wake and has its root in the lateral shear layers of the separated zone. The aspect ratio of the roughness element plays a key role on the selection of the dominant instability: whereas the flow over thin cylindrical roughness elements transitions due to a sinuous instability of the near-wake region, for larger roughness elements the varicose instability of the central low-speed region turns out to be the dominant one. Direct numerical simulations of the flow past an aspect ratio
) roughness element sustaining only the sinuous instability have revealed that the bifurcation occurring in this particular case is supercritical. Finally, comparison of the transition thresholds predicted by global linear stability analyses with the von Doenhoff–Braslow transition diagram provides qualitatively good agreement.
The coevolutionary relationships between avian malaria parasites and their hosts influence the host specificity, geographical distribution and pathogenicity of these parasites. However, to understand fine scale coevolutionary host–parasite relationships, robust and widespread sampling from closely related hosts is needed. We thus sought to explore the coevolutionary history of avian Plasmodium and the widespread African sunbirds, family Nectariniidae. These birds are distributed throughout Africa and occupy a variety of habitats. Considering the role that habitat plays in influencing host-specificity and the role that host-specificity plays in coevolutionary relationships, African sunbirds provide an exceptional model system to study the processes that govern the distribution and diversity of avian malaria. Here we evaluated the coevolutionary histories using a multi-gene phylogeny for Nectariniidae and avian Plasmodium found in Nectariniidae. We then assessed the host–parasite biogeography and the structuring of parasite assemblages. We recovered Plasmodium lineages concurrently in East, West, South and Island regions of Africa. However, several Plasmodium lineages were recovered exclusively within one respective region, despite being found in widely distributed hosts. In addition, we inferred the biogeographic history of these parasites and provide evidence supporting a model of biotic diversification in avian Plasmodium of African sunbirds.
Graphene, a two-dimensional carbon allotrope, has raised great interests as a material candidate for future electronics due to its superb carrier transport and unique physics. The demand for future-generation large-scale carbon-based electronics motivates assembly of large-area graphene and selection of ideal substrate material that best preserves the transport property of graphene. In this work, CVD-assembled large-area graphene on thin multilayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is employed to demonstrate the basic building block of digital circuit - inverter prototype made of two graphene-channel field-effect transistors (GFETs). The doping in the CVD-grown graphene, probed via electrical measurements, is implemented through non-uniform local surface chemistry. The full transfer response of the graphene logic inverter is demonstrated in the localized P/N doping region.
A combined experimental and simulation approach into the impacts of electron irradiation on carbon nanotube morphology was conducted. Single-walled nanotubes (SWCNTs) were irradiated using a JEOL Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) using a range of accelerating voltages varying from 90keV to 200keV and temperatures between 300K and 800K with different exposure periods (order of minutes). The effects of irradiation were observed and characterised using electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Specimens were observed prior to, during and following irradiation to discern any changes that occurred in SWCNTs as a result of irradiation. Raman spectroscopy was used to characterise the different allotropes of carbon present in irradiated and non-irradiated samples of SWCNTs. Experimental conditions were mimicked using molecular dynamics simulation. SWCNTs were irradiated under conditions equivalent to experimental electron beam intensity and specimen temperature using AIREBO [1,2] and Primary Knock-on (PKA) approximation . The preliminary results indicate that electron beam intensity and temperature affect the type and frequency of modification to CNT structure.
Relative stabilities and electronic structure of graphene/h-BN superlattices are discussed in the framework of the density functional theory. Most importantly, relative stabilities between commensurate and incommensurate superlattices are studied. Commensurate graphene/h-BN monolayer superlattices are found to be definitely more stable than incommensurate superlattices. In graphene/h-BN bilayer superlattices, commensurate superlattices are found to be slightly more stable than incommensurate superlattices. Results also imply that a finite pressure can induce transition from an incommensurate superlattice to a commensurate superlattice.
In this work we present preliminary results from multi-million fully atomistic classical molecular dynamics simulations carried out to test different existing mechanisms that have been proposed in the literature to explain the drawing of yarns from carbon nanotube forests. Despite the fact that it has been almost ten years since yarns were first drawn, there are still controversies on the mechanisms and necessary conditions that can produce yarns and sheets drawn from carbon nanotube forests. Moreover, few works have tried to understand at atomistic level the details of yarn drawing mechanisms, and no fully atomistic simulations have been carried out so far on this particular subject. Our preliminary results suggest that only direct van der Waals interactions among large bundles seem not to be enough to explain the yarn drawing process. Bundle interconnectors (such as small bundles connecting large bundles) were observed to play a critical role in our simulations. Depending on the topology of these interconnectors it was possible to observe from the simulations fibers/yarn formation from proposed structural models. These models were built based on structural information inferred from scanning electron microscopy data.