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For a compact metric space (K, d), LipK denotes the Banach algebra of all complex-valued Lipschitz functions on (K, d). We show that the continuous Hochschild cohomology Hn(LipK, (LipK)*) and Hn(LipK, ℂe) are both infinite-dimensional vector spaces for each n ≥ 1 if the space K contains a certain infinite sequence which converges to a point e ∈ K. Here (LipK)* is the dual module of LipK and ℂe denotes the complex numbers with a LipK-bimodule structure defined by evaluations of LipK-functions at e. Examples of such metric spaces include all compact Riemannian manifolds, compact geodesic metric spaces and infinite compact subsets of ℝ. In particular, the (small) global homological dimension of LipK is infinite for every such space. Our proof uses the description of point derivations by Sherbert [‘The structure of ideals and point derivations in Banach algebras of Lipschitz functions’, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc.111 (1964), 240–272] and directly constructs non-trivial cocycles with the help of alternating cocycles of Johnson [‘Higher-dimensional weak amenability’, Studia Math.123 (1997), 117–134]. An alternating construction of cocycles on the basis of the idea of Kleshchev [‘Homological dimension of Banach algebras of smooth functions is equal to infinity’, Vest. Math. Mosk. Univ. Ser. 1. Mat. Mech.6 (1988), 57–60] is also discussed.
Pipe inspection robots have been developed to reduce the cost and time required for gas pipe inspection. However, these robots have been developed using a scrap and build method and are not used in practice. In this paper, we propose a method of virtual pipe inspection simulation to clarify the parameters that are important in increasing the robot's ease of use. This paper presents the results obtained by a feasibility study with regard to pipe simulation. We developed a virtual pipe by simulating eight actual turns of an external gas pipe, and a robot equipped with camera at the tip. In the experiments, three individuals working in the field of gas inspection carried out the operation. We obtained questionnaire, time, and brain activity data. The results revealed various important points that must be considered in practical simulation and robot design. In conclusion, the virtual pipe simulation can be useful in developing the design of a pipe inspection robot.
In this paper, we propose a novel mechanism to compensate for gravity and the gripping force in a hand-arm robot. This mechanism compensates for the gravitational torque produced by an object gripped by the hand-arm robot. The gripping force required for the robot hand to prevent the object from dropping is also simultaneously compensated for. This mechanism requires only one actuator placed on the shoulder part of the robot. Therefore, this mechanism can reduce the torque requirement of joint actuators and lower the weight of the robot. The gear ratio of the reduction gears in each robot joint can then also be reduced. These advantages are critical for future robots that perform tasks in unstructured environments and collaborate with humans. We carried out experiments with a 6-DoF robot arm having a 1-DoF gripper to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism.
Eighty-six new acoustic survey lines along and across the Japan Trench revealed active sediment creep deformation on a deep-sea terrace at water depths of 400–1200 m in an area of arcuate-shaped depressions that are probably associated with tectonic erosion. The most active region of creep is located on the top at the surface of the depression south of 38° N. The area of creep deformation is characterized by arcuate-shaped topographic lineaments with active folds and active normal faults stepping down trenchward. In contrast to the southern region, normal faults at the top of the depression north of 38° N cut a sedimentary sequence (Unit 1) that is acoustically transparent with continuous weak reflectors, and this is covered by the undeformed layered sediment sequence of Unit 2. Unit 2 corresponds to the period of rising sea level that extended from the latest Pleistocene to the early Holocene (14–6 ka). Thus, creep is ongoing at the top of the depression south of 38° N in the surface layer, whereas it stopped north of the depression between 14 and 6 ka. These observations might indicate that the active region jumped from north to south due to probably retrogressive sliding.
Various herbivorous invertebrates in seagrass beds are considered to be generalists in food use and their diets may temporally fluctuate according to the availability of food sources. We assessed whether food sources of herbivorous gastropods vary in a subtropical seagrass bed in Nagura Bay, Ishigaki Island, where coexisting seaweeds grow densely in spring but minimally in summer. Abundant gastropods and their possible food sources were collected in spring and summer of 2013 and 2015, and their stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were measured. Between the two seasons, each possible food source had similar isotopic values, but all the herbivorous gastropod species in summer were more enriched in 13C than the gastropod samples in spring. The mixing models in SIAR (Stable Isotope Analysis in R) showed that the total contribution rates of seaweeds, i.e. rhodophytes, phaeophytes and chlorophytes, for all herbivorous gastropod species decreased from spring to summer; in contrast, the contribution rate of seagrasses increased. Linear Mixed Models showed that the seasonal variation in δ13C of the herbivorous gastropods was larger than that of the possible food sources, adding further evidence to the seasonal change in food sources of the herbivorous gastropods. This seasonal change in food use appears to correspond to the change in seaweed biomass, suggesting that herbivorous gastropods flexibly change their diets depending on food availability.
The eastern Nankai accretionary prism toe was surveyed to evaluate the nature and deformation of its frontal thrust. According to the determined porosities and yield strengths, turbidites were successively buried down to depths of 250–300 m before accretion, and were then exposed at the prism toe by uplift along the Tenryu frontal thrust during 3.4–1.98 Ma. Consolidation tests provided reasonable estimates of burial depth and, when combined with exposed sediment dates, yield prism toe uplift rates of 0.74–2.27 m ka–1. The displacement along the frontal thrust is estimated to be 500–900 m and the slip rates are 1.47–4.55 m ka–1, corresponding to the highest class of active faults on land in Japan. During the surveys of the Tenryu frontal thrust zone, we discovered a new active fault scarp that was several tens of centimetres high, interpreted to be a protothrust located c. 100 m south of the frontal thrust. This scarp is associated with chemosynthetic biocommunities. The thrust might potentially be the result of displacement during the East Nankai (To-Nankai) earthquake (Mw 8.1) in 1944. These lines of evidence indicate that the Tenryu frontal thrust is still active and that displacement along the thrust might induce a tsunami during future Tokai or To-Nankai earthquakes.
Austral summer sea-ice processes were investigated in January 1999 during a cruise of the R.V. Nathaniel B. Palmer in the central and eastern Ross Sea, Antarctica. The crystal texture, 18O/16O ratios, density and salinity of ice cores and of ice blocks ‘perched’ on slush at the ice surface were studied. The perched ice blocks had a distinctive polygonal granular (PG) crystal texture and very negative isotope signature that were also characteristic of layers at the top of first-year floes and of layers ‘buried’ below the surface in multi-year floes. The PG ice is superimposed ice that results from melting in the snow cover and refreezing at the slush surface and directly on top of ice floes. If PG ice is buried after the ice surface floods and the resultant slush freezes, then snow ice forms above the PG ice. The contribution of superimposed ice to floe surface mass balance and some implications with respect to weather and climate are discussed.
The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed brackish water basin where sea ice occurs annually. The sea-ice study discussed here was conducted as a Finnish-Japanese cooperative research programme entitled "Ice Climatology of the Okhotsk and Baltic Seas’’ to investigate the structure and properties of the brackish ice in the Baltic Sea. Ice, snow and water samples were collected at Santala Bay, near the mouth of the Gulf of Finland, once a week from 20 January to 12 April 1999. The salinity and oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of the samples were measured. The ice samples were analyzed stratigraphically. The ice was composed of a granular upper layer, occupying approximately one-third of the entire ice thickness, and underlying columnar ice toward the bottom. The crystallography structure and δ18O values reveal that the granular ice consisted of two layers with different origins, i.e. snow ice and superimposed ice. The fraction of snow relative to the total thickness was estimated. The limited data show a significant contribution of the snow cover to the sea-ice development. The salinity of the granular ice was higher than that of the columnar ice, implying that the mechanism of entrapment of brine may be different between the two ice types.
Electromagnetic–induction (EM) instruments can be used to estimate Sea-ice thickness because of the large contrast in the conductivities of Sea ice and Sea water, and are currently used in investigations of Sea-ice thickness. In this Study we analyze Several Snow, ice and Sea-water Samples and attempt to derive an appropriate formula to transform the apparent conductivity obtained from EM measurements to the total thickness of Snow and ice for all regions and Seasons. This was done to Simplify the EM tuning procedure. Surface EM measurement transects with the instrument at varying heights above the ice were made in the Chukchi Sea, off East Antarctica, in the Sea of Okhotsk and in Saroma-ko (lagoon). A Standardized transformation formula based on a one-dimensional multi-layer model was developed that also considers the effects of water-filled gaps between deformed ice, a Saline Snow Slush layer, and the increase in the footprint Size caused by increasing the instrument height. The overall average error in ice thickness determined with the Standardized transform was <7%, and the regional average errors were 2.2% for the Arctic, 7.0% for the Antarctic, 6.5% for the Sea of Okhotsk and 4.4% for Saroma-ko.
Based on studies in the Antarctic Oceans, the contribution of the snow cover to sea-ice growth has become of major interest. Snow can result in upward ice growth in contrast with ordinary downward congelation growth at the bottom. A sea-ice study was conducted to verify the upward ice growth found in a previous study and to investigate the relation between sea-ice growth and radar backscattering signature. Sea-ice samples collected at four points in Lützow-Holm Bay, Antarctica, from 1998 to 2003 are analyzed. Analyses of snow-/ice-gauge measurements, snow depth and ice structure reveal an extremely large amount of upward ice growth of up to 1.0 m during one full year compared with a slight amount of downward growth. The upward growth was caused mostly by snow ice and to a lesser extent by superimposed ice. The salinity profile remained unchanged, although the ice survived the summer melt season. Characteristics of superimposed ice such as salinity, δ18O values and structure were obliterated during the summer, implying complete melting or dissolution of the superimposed layer. The ERS-2 backscatter showed a remarkable annual variation: It had a minimum value in midsummer and increased abruptly to a maximum value in late summer, then decreasing gradually in wintertime. The relation of the backscatter coefficient to the growth and properties of the snow cover and sea ice are discussed.
Inclusions affect the behavior of ice, and their characteristics help us understand the formation history of the ice. Recently, a low-temperature magnesium sulfate salt was discovered. This paper describes this naturally occurring MgSO4·11H2O mineral, meridianiite, derived from salt inclusions in sea ice of Lake Saroma, Japan and in Antarctic continental core ice. Its occurrence is confirmed by using micro-Raman spectroscopy to compare Raman spectra of synthetic MgSO4·11H2O with those of the inclusions.
Melt layers are clear indicators of extreme summer warmth on polar ice caps. The visual identification of refrozen meltwater as clear bubble-free layers cannot be used to study some past warm periods, because, in deeper ice, bubbles are lost to clathrate formation. We present here a reliable method to detect melt events, based on the analysis of Kr/Ar and Xe/Ar ratios in ice cores, and apply it to the detection of melt in clathrate ice from the Eemian at NEEM, Greenland. Additionally, melt layers in ice cores can compromise the integrity of the gas record by dissolving soluble gases, or by altering gas transport in the firn, which affects the gas chronology. We find that the easily visible 1 mm thick bubble-free layers in the WAIS Divide ice core do not contain sufficient melt to alter the gas composition in the core, and do not cause artifacts or discontinuities in the gas chronology. The presence of these layers during winter, and the absence of anomalies in soluble gases, suggests that these layers can be formed by processes other than refreezing of meltwater. Consequently, the absence of bubbles in thin crusts is not in itself proof of a melt event.
We determined that the conduction band offset (CBO) and the valence band offset (VBO) at the CdS/ Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) heterointerface are +0.56 and +0.89eV, respectively, by using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and inversed photoemission spectroscopy (IPES). A positive CBO value, so-called “spike” structure, means that the position of conduction band becomes higher than that of absorber layer. The evaluated CBO of +0.56 eV suggests that the conduction band alignment at CdS/CZTSe interface is enough to become an electron barrier. Despite such a large spike structure in the conduction band at the interface, a conversion efficiency of 8.7 % could be obtained for the CdS/CZTSe heterojunction solar cells.
Atmospheric circulation patterns associated with snowfall fluctuations in Japan are examined using a rotated empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. We also compute correlation coefficients between the scores of EOF modes in the 500 hPa geopotential height field of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and amounts of snowfall in Japan on annual, monthly and pentad time scales. It is found that recent variability of snowfall amount in Japan is closely related to the long-term variations of large-scale circulation patterns. It is suggested that the dominance of teleconnection patterns such as Pacific/North American (PNA) and Northern Asian (NA) are responsible for the increase of snowfall in the coastal regions of the Sea of Japan during the cold period for Japan (1977–86).
An experimental study on the preferred growth of grains in sea ice was performed. As a seed an artificial bi-crystal was prepared by welding two single crystals; the c-axis of one grain was in a horizontal plane, that of the other made an angle of α with the horizontal plane, and they intersected at right angles. An angle between a resulting grain boundary and the vertical line, Θ, was measured on thin sections of sea ice after it grew about 10 cm downward in sea water. The relation between a and ? was given by ? = 0.4α + 6, when a was varied from -25º to 25º. When α = 0º , that is c-axes of both the grains are at right angles on a horizontal plane, encroachment still occurs, which is contrary to the earlier studies. These results can be explained by the difference in the horizontal component of growth rate between neighbouring grains at the grain boundary groove.
A simple technique is presented for growing large single crystals of sea ice. Using this technique, crystals with dimensions of 20 cm × 20 cm × 10 cm or more can be readily obtained within an orientational accuracy of 3°. Such crystals can then be used to investigate the physical properties of sea ice.
In 1987 an ice core to the bedrock at a depth of 85.6 m was drilled at the top of Høghetta ice dome in northern Spitsbergen. Chronology of the ice core was examined by tritium and 14C methods showing time gap at about 50 m depth. The age of three bottom ice samples was determined as 4150–5670 year B.P. by 14C method done for frozen bacteria colonies and a frozen petal. This chronology and negative bottom temperature of −9.4°C suggest that glaciers in Spitsbergen shrank considerably during the hypsithermal. The pH of melt-water samples lower than 5.0 corresponds well to large northern hemispheric volcanic eruptions during the last 300 years. Increase of acidity from 30 m depth to the surface may reflect the spread of air pollution to the Arctic during the past 200 years. On the basis of ice-core analyses on electrical conductivity, pH, chemical composition and air bubble pattern, climate and environment in Spitsbergen during the last 6000 years are discussed.
Water-temperature structure in the Cosmonaut Sea at 60 68° S, 35 65° E in 1987–92 shows that cold water with a temperature below -1.5°C was present in the coastal region. The Circumpolar Deep Water with a temperature higher than 1.0°C was found below about 150m depth from northeast to northwest of the cold water area. The SSM/I images in 1987–91 indicate that polynya activities were intensive in 1988 and the typical Cosmonaut Polynya was observed; due to weaker activities, the small and sporadic Cosmonaut Polynya formed in 1987, 1989, 1990 and 1991. A coastal polynya was frequently observed every year at about 66° S, 50–60° E. A train of polynyas to the east of Cosmonaut Polynya often appeared. It is considered that the Atmospheric Convergence Line and Antarctic Divergence Region are responsible for polynya activities in the Cosmonaut Sea.