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Toilet ownership in India has grown in recent years, but open defecation can persist even when rural households own latrines. There are at least two pathways through which social norms inhibit the use of toilets in rural India: (1) beliefs/expectations that others do not use toilets or latrines or find open defecation unacceptable; and (2) beliefs about ritual notions of purity that dissociate latrines from cleanliness. A survey in Uttar Pradesh, India, finds a positive correlation between latrine use and social norms at baseline. To confront these, an information campaign was piloted to test the effectiveness of rebranding latrine use and promoting positive social norms. The intervention targeted mental models by rebranding latrine use and associating it with cleanliness, and it made information about growing latrine use among latrine owners more salient. Following the intervention, open defecation practices went down across all treatment households, with the average latrine use score in treatment villages increasing by up to 11% relative to baseline. Large improvements were also observed in pro-latrine beliefs. This suggests that low-cost information campaigns can effectively improve pro-latrine beliefs and practices, as well as shift perceptions of why many people still find open defecation acceptable. Measuring social norms as described can help diagnose barriers to reducing open defecation, contribute to the quality of large-scale surveys and make development interventions more sustainable.
The current study focused on characterization of the underlying genetic divergence in inbred lines developed from local landraces of North Eastern Hill Region of India – a designated Asiatic maize diversity centre – following six generations of inbreeding. Substantial genetic differentiation was indicated based on very high to moderate Fst values for 22 of the 38 simple sequence repeat markers studied. STRUCTURE analysis partitioned the subset into two distinct and one admixture subgroup (Populations I, II and III respectively) accompanied by a significant reduction in heterozygosity. Population II was further subdivided into subpopulations Pop-M9 and Pop-T9. Nei's pairwise genetic distance and population Fst values indicated that Populations I and II were more divergent with neighbour joining clustering analysis clearly defining landraces originating from the states of Tripura (Population II) and Sikkim (Population I) as most divergent. Principal coordinates analysis could explain 31.26% of the variation present in the subgroups wherein Population I was more variable. Analysis of molecular variance and Fst coefficients (P < 0.001) indicated 17% population structuring with 55% variation detected for individuals within populations. These results combined with the presence of phenotypic variability in the subgroups for yield traits supported by results of a preliminary partial diallel analysis strongly suggest the existence of distinct heterotic groups. Divergence studies are crucial for exploiting heterosis, and the current study would go a long way to help establish a germplasm base for developing varieties with improved agronomic performance and surer commercial prospects no reports of which are available thus far.
The relationship between obesity and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD) has been studied in recent years. It was indicated that the proportion of ADHD in children with obesity was high and body mass index (BMI) of children with ADHD was also higher than healthy controls . Impulsivity as a trait was found to be associated with obesity and predictor of future weight gain among children with obesity (2,3). From here, we aim to evaluate the impulsivity and ADHD symptoms among adults with obesity.
32 female patients with obesity (BMI>30) who admitted to the diet clinic of Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Medical Faculty were recruited for the study. ADHD symptoms were evaluated with Wender Utah Rating Scale(WURS) while impulsivity was measured with Barratt Impulsiveness Scale(BIS).
Mean age, BMI, WURS and BIS scores of the patiens were 35.3 ± 10.8 years, 39.2 ± 6.2 kg., 35.8 ± 19.2 and 61.3 ± 10.4, respectively. 42.3% of the patiens had child and adolescent ADHD symptoms and one third still had ADHD symptoms in adulthood (12.5% inattentive, 9.4% hyperactive-impulsive, 6.2% combined). BIS total(p+0.003), BIS attention(p < 0.01) and self control(p = 0.004) sub-item scores were positively correlated with WURS total scores.
Our findings were consistent the literature that patients with obesity were more impulsive than healthy controls(4).
ADHD and impulsivity might have implications for weight regulation. Our findings may provide a frame work for future studies with bigger sample sizes aiming to detect the relationship between impulsivity and ADHD symptoms in patients with obesity.
The surfaces of most of the atmosphereless solar system bodies are referred to as regolith or layers of usually loosely connected fragmentary debris, produced by meteorite impacts. Measurement of light scattered from such surfaces provide information about the composition and structure of the surface. In the present work, the effect of porosity and particle size, on reflectance is studied for regolith like samples. For modelling the experimental data Hapke 2008 is used and found to be in good agreement with laboratory data. From the present study, it can be concluded that the physical properties of a regolith, such as porosity, particle size etc are effectively represented by albedo.
The present study undertaken in the largest coastal lagoon of Asia, Chilika, deals with monthly monitoring of benthic foraminifera assemblages in terms of distribution pattern, diversity and variations in taxonomic composition spanning over a period of 20 months. In total, 13 species of benthic foraminifera represented by eight families were identified in the lagoon. The stations in the Southern sector of the lagoon showed relatively low foraminifera abundance yet high diversity whereas higher abundance and lower diversity were observed in stations located in the Central sector which indicates the spatial patterning of the assemblage. Live foraminifera abundance was sparse in the study area indicating the stressed nature of the lagoon environment. The dissolved nutrient concentration of bottom water reflected significant seasonal variation. The stressed nature of the lagoon is further indicated by the dominance of the genus Ammonia across the inner sectors of the lagoon, a genus known to inhabit impacted habitats. Overall these data can serve as a baseline proxy for understanding palaeontological assemblages of foraminifera in similar shallow-water settings globally.
The coronal field typically reorganizes itself to attain a force-free field configuration. We have evaluated the power law index of the energy distribution f(E) = f0E−α by using a model of relaxation incorporating different profile functions of winding number distribution f(w) based on braided topologies. We study the radio signatures that occur in the solar corona using the radio data obtained from the Gauribidanur Radio Observatory (IIA) and extract the power law index by using the Statistic-sensitive nonlinear iterative peak clipping (SNIP) algorithm. We see that the power law index obtained from the model is in good agreement with the calculated value from the radio data observation.
We construct two classes of the magnetohydrostatic equilibria of the axisymmetric flux tubes with twisted magnetic fields in the stratified solar atmosphere that span from the photosphere to the transition region. We built the models by incorporating specific forms of the gas pressure and poloidal current in the Grad-Shafranov equation. This model gives both closed and open field structure of the flux tube. The other open field model we construct is based on the self-similar formulation, where we have incorporated specific forms of the gas pressure, poloidal current and two different shape functions. We study the homology of the parameter space that is consistent with the solar atmosphere and find that the estimation of the magnetic structure inside the flux tubes is consistent with the observation and simulation results of the magnetic bright points.
This paper presents the requirements and needs for establishing a benchmarking protocol that considers representation characteristics, supported cognitive criteria, and enabled reasoning activities for the systematic comparison of function modeling representations. Problem types are defined as reverse engineering, familiar products, novel products, and single-component systems. As different modeling approaches share elements, a comparison of modeling approaches on multiple levels was also undertaken. It is recommended that researchers and developers of function modeling representations collaborate to define a canonically acceptable set of benchmark tests and evaluations so that clear benefits and weaknesses for the disparate collection of approaches can be compared. This paper is written as a call to action for the research community to begin establishing a benchmarking standard protocol for function modeling comparison purposes. This protocol should be refined with input from developers of the competing approaches in an academically open environment. At the same time, the benchmarking criteria identified should also serve as a guide for validating a modeling approach or analyzing its failure.
The UK has one of the largest systems of immigration detention in Europe.. Those detained include asylum-seekers and foreign national prisoners, groups with a higher prevalence of mental health vulnerabilities compared with the general population. In light of little published research on the mental health status of detainees in immigration removal centres (IRCs), the primary aim of this study was to explore whether it was feasible to conduct psychiatric research in such a setting. A secondary aim was to compare the mental health of those seeking asylum with the rest of the detainees.
Cross-sectional study with simple random sampling followed by opportunistic sampling. Exclusion criteria included inadequate knowledge of English and European Union nationality. Six validated tools were used to screen for mental health disorders including developmental disorders like Personality Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Intellectual Disability, as well as for needs assessment. These were the MINI v6, SAPAS, AQ-10, ASRS, LDSQ and CANFOR. Demographic data were obtained using a participant demographic sheet. Researchers were trained in the use of the screening battery and inter-rater reliability assessed by joint ratings.
A total of 101 subjects were interviewed. Overall response rate was 39%. The most prevalent screened mental disorder was depression (52.5%), followed by personality disorder (34.7%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (20.8%). 21.8% were at moderate to high suicidal risk. 14.9 and 13.9% screened positive for ASD and ADHD, respectively. The greatest unmet needs were in the areas of intimate relationships (76.2%), psychological distress (72.3%) and sexual expression (71.3%). Overall presence of mental disorder was comparable with levels found in prisons. The numbers in each group were too small to carry out any further analysis.
It is feasible to undertake a psychiatric morbidity survey in an IRC. Limitations of the study include potential selection bias, use of screening tools, use of single-site study, high refusal rates, the lack of interpreters and lack of women and children in study sample. Future studies should involve the in-reach team to recruit participants and should be run by a steering group consisting of clinicians from the IRC as well as academics.
There have been no systematic reviews that investigated the heritability of the two-factor model of psychopathy: interpersonal-affective and behavioral. Our review aimed, first, to examine the heritability of general psychopathic traits and, second, if genetic influences were suggested, to determine the heritability of various traits related to the interpersonal-affective and behavioral factors of psychopathy.
A systematic literature search was conducted using articles from the PsycINFO, Embase, Global Health, Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases (January of 1980 to December of 2015) in order to identify eligible literature that reported on the heritability of psychopathy-related traits. Papers were also found via manual examination and reference tracking. Papers were subjected to exclusion criteria and quality appraisal. We identified a total of 24 studies.
Our results were grouped into three categories: general, interpersonal-affective, and behavioral. All these areas demonstrated modest to high heritability. The highest heritability values were found in studies investigating callous-unemotional behaviors.
Heritability was found for all the psychopathic traits. Future research should include endophenotypic approaches that explore gene–environment correlations, which could aid in identification of the behavioral phenotype that is most amenable to early intervention by way of moderation of genetic risk.
The Proterozoic Sushina Hill Complex is the only agpaitic complex, reported from India and is characterized by a eudialyte-rinkite-bearing nepheline syenite. The complex is considered a ‘metamorphosed agpaitic complex'. This study describes the mineral assemblages formed during successive stages of evolution from magmatic to hydrothermal stages and low-temperature subsolidus re-equilibration assemblage. The primary-late magmatic assemblage is characterized by albite, orthoclase, unaltered nepheline, zoned diopside-hedenbergite, rinkite, late magmatic eudialyte and magnesio-arfvedsonite formed at ∼700°C with maximum aSiO2 of 0.60. In contrast, a deuteric assemblage (400-348°C) is represented by aegirine-jadeite-rich clinopyroxene, post-magmatic eudialyte, sodalite, analcime and the decomposition assemblages formed after eudialyte with decreasing aSiO2 (0.52-0.48). A further low-temperature subsolidus assemblage (≤250°C) represented by late-forming natrolite could be either related to regressive stages of metamorphism or a continuum of the subsolidus processes. Considering the P/T range of the greenschist - lower-amphibolite facies of metamorphism it is evident that the incorporation of a jadeite component within pyroxene is related to a subsolidus process between ∼400°C and 348°C in a silica deficient environment. We emphasize that the deuteric fluid itself acted as an agent of metamorphism and the decomposition assemblage formed after eudialyte is retained even after metamorphism due to the convergence of subsolidus and metamorphic domains. The formation of jadeite-rich aegirine is not considered to result from metamorphism. Overall it is near-impossible to discern any bona fide metamorphic textures or mineral assemblages in these syenites which appear to preserve a relict mineralogy regardless of their occurrence in country rocks which have experienced greenschist - amphibolite facies metamorphism. The Sushina complex is very similar in this respect to the Norra Kärr complex (Sweden).
Outcrop-scale structures and magnetic fabric anisotropy of the Bomdila Gneiss (BG) that intruded the Lesser Himalayan Crystallines (LHC) of the Arunachal Lesser Himalaya are studied to understand the BG deformation history and tectonic evolution. Detailed analysis of structures reveals that the LHC have undergone three phases of deformation, D1, D2 and D3. The S2 foliation developed during the second phase of deformation (D2) is the most penetrative planar fabric in the studied rock, which shows a general ENE–WSW strike with moderate NW dip. Mesoscopic evidence of a later phase of deformation (D3) in the BG is lacking. Evidence of D3 deformation in the form of F3 folds is only observed in the adjacent metasedimentary rocks of the LHC. The magnetic foliations recorded from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) analysis of the BG are mostly striking NW–SE with a moderate dip towards the NE or SW, and magnetic lineation is mostly sub-horizontal and dominantly plunging towards the SE. Our study shows that the magnetic fabric of the BG does not correspond to any visible outcrop-scale mesoscale foliation. However, the magnetic foliation of the BG is parallel to the axial plane of the F3 folds of the adjacent metasedimentary rocks of the LHC. Integration of AMS and outcrop-scale structural analysis helps us envisage the superposed deformation history of the BG. Our study emphasizes the importance of AMS to detect late-stage or feeble deformation events that leave no visible outcrop-scale imprint and are difficult to discern through conventional geological means.
To report the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium surveillance data from 40 hospitals (20 cities) in India 2004–2013.
Surveillance using US National Healthcare Safety Network’s criteria and definitions, and International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium methodology.
We collected data from 236,700 ICU patients for 970,713 bed-days
Pooled device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates for adult and pediatric ICUs were 5.1 central line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs)/1,000 central line–days, 9.4 cases of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAPs)/1,000 mechanical ventilator–days, and 2.1 catheter-associated urinary tract infections/1,000 urinary catheter–days
In neonatal ICUs (NICUs) pooled rates were 36.2 CLABSIs/1,000 central line–days and 1.9 VAPs/1,000 mechanical ventilator–days
Extra length of stay in adult and pediatric ICUs was 9.5 for CLABSI, 9.1 for VAP, and 10.0 for catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Extra length of stay in NICUs was 14.7 for CLABSI and 38.7 for VAP
Crude extra mortality was 16.3% for CLABSI, 22.7% for VAP, and 6.6% for catheter-associated urinary tract infections in adult and pediatric ICUs, and 1.2% for CLABSI and 8.3% for VAP in NICUs
Pooled device use ratios were 0.21 for mechanical ventilator, 0.39 for central line, and 0.53 for urinary catheter in adult and pediatric ICUs; and 0.07 for mechanical ventilator and 0.06 for central line in NICUs.
Despite a lower device use ratio in our ICUs, our device-associated healthcare-associated infection rates are higher than National Healthcare Safety Network, but lower than International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium Report.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2016;37(2):172–181