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Italian ryegrass is a major weed in winter cereals in the south-central United States. Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) tactics that aim to remove weed seed from crop fields are a potential avenue to reduce Italian ryegrass seedbank inputs. To this effect, a 4-yr, large-plot field study was conducted in College Station, Texas, and Newport, Arkansas, from 2016 to 2019. The treatments were arranged in a split-plot design. The main-plot treatments were (1) no narrow-windrow burning (a HWSC strategy) + disk tillage immediately after harvest, (2) HWSC + disk tillage immediately after harvest, and (3) HWSC + disk tillage 1 mo after harvest. The subplot treatments were (1) pendimethalin (1,065 g ai ha−1; Prowl H2O®) as a delayed preemergence application (herbicide program #1), and (2) a premix of flufenacet (305 g ai ha−1) + metribuzin (76 g ai ha−1; Axiom®) mixed with pyroxasulfone (89 g ai ha−1; Zidua® WG) as an early postemergence application followed by pinoxaden (59 g ai ha−1; Axial® XL) in spring (herbicide program #2). After 4 yr, HWSC alone was significantly better than no HWSC. Herbicide program #2 was superior to herbicide program #1. Herbicide program #2 combined with HWSC was the most effective treatment. The combination of herbicide program #1 and standard harvest practice (no HWSC; check) led to an increase in fall Italian ryegrass densities from 4 plants m−2 in 2017 to 58 plants m−2 in 2019 at College Station. At wheat harvest, Italian ryegrass densities were 58 and 59 shoots m−2 in check plots at College Station and Newport, respectively, whereas the densities were near zero in plots with herbicide program #2 and HWSC at both locations. These results will be useful for developing an improved Italian ryegrass management strategy in this region.
To examine levels of psychological distress among higher education students in Ireland overall and across a range of personal, higher education, and socioeconomic characteristics, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic.
A cross-sectional online survey of college students in Ireland was undertaken in 2018. Data on 5201 students from 13 higher education institutions (HEIs) were analyzed. Stress, anxiety, and depression symptom scores based on the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) were calculated and reported, with statistical testing used to compare across groups.
Overall, 29.6% and 19.1% of respondents were classified in the mild to moderate and severe to extremely severe range for depression respectively. The corresponding proportions were 25.9% and 20.7% for anxiety, and 24.5% and 14.8% for stress. Differences across groups included higher levels of psychological distress for transgender and female students compared to males (p < 0.01), for gay/lesbian/bisexual students compared to heterosexuals (p < 0.01), for undergraduates compared to postgraduates (p < 0.01), for students from intermediate/technical/service/unskilled social classes compared to professional/self-employed social classes (p < 0.01), and for those with financial difficulties compared to those without financial difficulties (p < 0.01).
Rates of psychological distress were high amongst college students in Ireland prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, with substantial differences across groups. Due to study limitations, such as possible selection bias, the findings need replication. Further research is needed to determine the impact of the pandemic on the prevalence of mental illness in this population.
To overcome grass supply shortages on the main grazing block, some pasture-based dairy farmers are using zero-grazing (also known as ‘cut and carry’), whereby cows are periodically housed and fed fresh grass harvested from external land blocks. To determine the effect of zero-grazing on cow performance, two early-lactation experiments were conducted with autumn and spring-calving dairy cows. Cows were assigned to one of two treatments in a randomized complete block design. The two treatments were zero-grazing (ZG) and grazing (G). The ZG group were housed and fed zero-grazed grass, while the G group grazed outdoors at pasture. Both treatments were fed perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) from the same paddock. In experiment 1, 24 Holstein Friesian cows (n = 12) were studied over a 35-day experimental period in autumn and offered fresh grass, grass silage, ground maize and concentrates. In experiment 2, 30 Holstein Friesian cows (n = 15) were studied over a 42-day experimental period and offered fresh grass and concentrates. Average dry matter intake and milk yield was similar for ZG and G in both experiments. Likewise, ZG did not have an effect on milk composition, body condition or locomotion. Zero-grazing had no effect on total nitrogen excretion or nitrogen utilization efficiency in either experiment, or on rumen pH and ammonia concentration in experiment 1. While zero-grazing may enable farmers to supply fresh grass to early-lactation cows in spring and autumn, results from this study suggest that there are no additional benefits to cow performance in comparison to well-managed grazed grass.
The authors set a relatively small and little-known corpus of human remains recovered from Iron Age wetland contexts in Norway in a wider theoretical framework of sacrifice and personhood. The material studied, fragmentary skeletal remains in wetland contexts, juxtaposed with the better-known bog body tradition of northern Europe, offers a base from which to query constructions and perceptions of personhood. Situating the discussion in a contextual framework and relational underpinnings of ways of being, the authors examine whether or not the assumption that personhood rests in a human body can be implicitly inferred when confronted with ancient human remains, and what this may imply for interpretations of human bodies in votive settings.
Caregivers of patients with cancer are at significant risk for existential distress. Such distress negatively impacts caregivers’ quality of life and capacity to serve in their role as healthcare proxies, and ultimately, contributes to poor bereavement outcomes. Our team developed Meaning-Centered Psychotherapy for Cancer Caregivers (MCP-C), the first targeted psychosocial intervention that directly addresses existential distress in caregivers.
Nine caregivers of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) enrolled in a pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating the feasibility, acceptability, and effects of MCP-C, and completed in-depth interviews about their experience in the therapy. One focus group with three MCP-C interventionists was also completed.
Four key themes emerged from interviews: (1) MCP-C validated caregivers’ experience of caregiving; (2) MCP-C helped participants reframe their “caregiving identity” as a facet of their larger self-identity, by placing caregiving in the context of their life's journey; (3) MCP-C enabled caregivers to find ways to assert their agency through caregiving; and (4) the structure and sequence of sessions made MCP-C accessible and feasible. Feedback from interventionists highlighted several potential manual changes and overall ways in which MCP-C can help facilitate caregivers’ openness to discussing death and engaging in advanced care planning discussions with the patient.
Significance of results
The overarching goal of MCP-C is to allow caregivers to concurrently experience meaning and suffering; the intervention does not seek to deny the reality of challenges endured by caregivers, but instead to foster a connection to meaning and purpose alongside their suffering. Through in-depth interviews with caregivers and a focus group with MCP interventionists, we have refined and improved our MCP-C manual so that it can most effectively assist caregivers in experiencing meaning and purpose, despite inevitable suffering.
In the past two decades, subanaesthetic doses of ketamine have been demonstrated to have rapid and sustained antidepressant effects, and accumulating research has demonstrated ketamine's therapeutic effects for a range of psychiatric conditions.
In light of these findings surrounding ketamine's psychotherapeutic potential, we systematically review the extant evidence on ketamine's effects in treating mental health disorders.
The systematic review protocol was registered in PROSPERO (identifier CRD42019130636). Human studies investigating the therapeutic effects of ketamine in the treatment of mental health disorders were included. Because of the extensive research in depression, bipolar disorder and suicidal ideation, only systematic reviews and meta-analyses were included. We searched Medline and PsycINFO on 21 October 2020. Risk-of-bias analysis was assessed with the Cochrane Risk of Bias tools and A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) Checklist.
We included 83 published reports in the final review: 33 systematic reviews, 29 randomised controlled trials, two randomised trials without placebo, three non-randomised trials with controls, six open-label trials and ten retrospective reviews. The results were presented via narrative synthesis.
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses provide support for robust, rapid and transient antidepressant and anti-suicidal effects of ketamine. Evidence for other indications is less robust, but suggests similarly positive and short-lived effects. The conclusions should be interpreted with caution because of the high risk of bias of included studies. Optimal dosing, modes of administration and the most effective forms of adjunctive psychotherapeutic support should be examined further.
The National Institutes of Health launched the NIH Centers for Accelerated Innovation and the Research Evaluation and Commercialization Hubs programs to develop approaches and strategies to promote academic entrepreneurship and translate research discoveries into products and tools to help patients. The two programs collectively funded 11 sites at individual research institutions or consortia of institutions around the United States. Sites provided funding, project management, and coaching to funded investigators and commercialization education programs open to their research communities.
We implemented an evaluation program that included longitudinal tracking of funded technology development projects and commercialization outcomes; interviews with site teams, funded investigators, and relevant institutional and innovation ecosystem stakeholders and analysis and review of administrative data.
As of May 2021, interim results for 366 funded projects show that technologies have received nearly $1.7 billion in follow-on funding to-date. There were 88 start-ups formed, a 40% Small Business Innovation Research/Small Business Technology Transfer application success rate, and 17 licenses with small and large businesses. Twelve technologies are currently in clinical testing and three are on the market.
Best practices used by the sites included leadership teams using milestone-based project management, external advisory boards that evaluated funding applications for commercial merit as well as scientific, sustained engagement with the academic community about commercialization in an effort to shift attitudes about commercialization, application processes synced with education programs, and the provision of project managers with private-sector product development expertise to coach funded investigators.
Background: On DECT, the ratio of maximum iodine concentration within parenchyma compared to the superior sagittal sinus has been shown to predict hemorrhagic transformation. We aimed to determine if this ratio also predicts the development of an infarct. Methods: 53 patients with small infarct cores (ASPECTS≥7) and good endovascular recanalization (mTICI 2b/3) were enrolled. Maximum brain parenchymal iodine concentration as per DECT relative to the superior sagittal sinus (iodine ratio) was correlated with the development of an infarct on follow up CT. Results: All patients showed contrast staining, 52 developed infarcts in the area of staining. The extent of infarction (smaller, equal or larger than area of staining) did not correlate with the iodine ratio. Conclusions: Brain parenchyma with contrast staining on post-procedure head CT almost invariably goes on to infarct, however the extent of infarct development is not predicted by the intensity of contrast staining.
n=53 patients with successful recanalization of anterior circulation LVO infarct (TICI2b,3) with post procedural parenchymal iodine staining
F/U infarct extent
Iodine ratio on intial CT(median/range)
0: No infarct in area of staining
1: Infarct smaller than staining
2: Infarct equal to staining
3:Infarct larger than staining
0,1:No or smaller infarct than staining
2,3 :equal or larger infarct than staining
There was no correlation between the degree of contrast staining on initial post procedural CT as expressed in iodine ratio and F/U infarct extent.
Wild radish is the most problematic broadleaf weed in Australian grain production. The propensity of wild radish to evolve resistance to herbicides has led to high frequencies of multiple herbicide–resistant populations present in these grain production regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesotrione to selectively control wild radish in wheat. The initial dose response pot trials determined that at the highest mesotrione rate of 50 g ha−1 applied preemergence (PRE) was 30% more effective than when applied postemergence (POST) on wild radish. This same rate of mesotrione applied POST resulted in a 30% reduction in wheat biomass compared to 0% for the PRE application. Subsequent mesotrione PRE dose response trials identified a wheat selective rate range of >100 and <300 g ai ha−1 that provided greater than 85% wild radish control with less than 15% reduction in wheat growth. Field evaluations confirmed the efficacy of mesotrione at 100 to 150 g ai ha−1 in reducing wild radish populations by greater than 85% following PRE application and incorporation by wheat planting. Additionally, these field trials demonstrated the opportunity for season-long control of wild radish when mesotrione applied PRE was followed by bromoxynil applied POST. The sequential PRE application of mesotrione, a herbicide that inhibits p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase, followed by POST application of bromoxynil, a herbicide that inhibits photosystem II, has the potential to provide 100% wild radish control with no effect on wheat growth.
Burnout, anxiety and depression are commonly reported among surgical residents and faculty members. Resident training programmes are encouraged to implement structured wellness initiatives, to address emotional stress.
Thirty otolaryngology residents and faculty members were invited to participate in this prospective pilot trial. Participants were randomised to either the intervention group, which involved completing 10 mobile meditation sessions, or the control group. Outcomes were measured with the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale-7, Patient Health Questionnaire and Professional Quality of Life scale.
Nineteen participants completed the study. Participants in the intervention group had a significantly greater mean change in Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale-7 score (−2.7 ± 3.335 vs 0.33 ± 1.225; p = 0.04). There was no significant difference in average change in Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores or Professional Quality of Life scale sub-scores between the intervention and control groups.
Short meditation sessions can significantly improve anxiety in surgical residents and faculty members, and they offer a simple, attainable and effective wellness intervention.
Diagnosis of sinus venosus defects, not infrequently associated with complex anomalous pulmonary venous drainage, may be delayed requiring multimodality imaging.
Retrospective review of all patients from February 2008 to January 2019.
Thirty-seven children were diagnosed at a median age of 4.2 years (range 0.5−15.5 years). In 32 of 37 (86%) patients, diagnosis was achieved on transthoracic echocardiography, but five patients (14%) had complex variants (four had high insertion of anomalous vein into the superior caval vein and three had multiple anomalous veins draining to different sites, two of whom had drainage of one vein into the high superior caval vein). In these five patients, the final diagnosis was achieved by multimodality imaging and intra-operative findings. The median age at surgery was 5.2 years (range 1.6−15.8 years). Thirty-one patients underwent double patch repair, four patients a Warden repair, and two patients a single-patch repair. Of the four Warden repairs, two patients had a high insertion of right-sided anomalous pulmonary vein into the superior caval vein, one patient had bilateral superior caval veins, and one patient had right lower pulmonary vein insertion into the right atrium/superior caval vein junction. There was no post-operative mortality, reoperation, residual shunt or pulmonary venous obstruction. One patient developed superior caval vein obstruction and one patient developed atrial flutter.
Complementary cardiac imaging modalities improve diagnosis of complex sinus venosus defects associated with a wide variation in the pattern of anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Nonetheless, surgical treatment is associated with excellent outcomes.
We use three-dimensional (3-D) fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations to study the occurrence of magnetic reconnection in a simulation of decaying turbulence created by anisotropic counter-propagating low-frequency Alfvén waves consistent with critical-balance theory. We observe the formation of small-scale current-density structures such as current filaments and current sheets as well as the formation of magnetic flux ropes as part of the turbulent cascade. The large magnetic structures present in the simulation domain retain the initial anisotropy while the small-scale structures produced by the turbulent cascade are less anisotropic. To quantify the occurrence of reconnection in our simulation domain, we develop a new set of indicators based on intensity thresholds to identify reconnection events in which both ions and electrons are heated and accelerated in 3-D particle-in-cell simulations. According to the application of these indicators, we identify the occurrence of reconnection events in the simulation domain and analyse one of these events in detail. The event is related to the reconnection of two flux ropes, and the associated ion and electron exhausts exhibit a complex 3-D structure. We study the profiles of plasma and magnetic-field fluctuations recorded along artificial-spacecraft trajectories passing near and through the reconnection region. Our results suggest the presence of particle heating and acceleration related to small-scale reconnection events within magnetic flux ropes produced by the anisotropic Alfvénic turbulent cascade in the solar wind. These events are related to current structures of the order of a few ion inertial lengths in size.
This article seeks to approach the famous tenth-century account of the burial of a chieftain of the Rus, narrated by the Arab traveller Ibn Fadlan, in a new light. Placing focus on how gendered expectations have coloured the interpretation and subsequent archaeological use of this source, we argue that a new focus on the social agency of some of the central actors can open up alternative interpretations. Viewing the source in light of theories of human sacrifice in the Viking Age, we examine the promotion of culturally appropriate gendered roles, where women are often depicted as victims of male violence. In light of recent trends in theoretical approaches where gender is foregrounded, we perceive that a new focus on agency in such narratives can renew and rejuvenate important debates.
This study aimed to evaluate hearing outcomes and device safety in a large, single-surgeon experience with the totally implantable active middle-ear implants.
This was a retrospective case series review of 116 patients with moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss undergoing implantation of active middle-ear implants.
Mean baseline unaided pure tone average improved from 57.6 dB before surgery to 34.1 dB post-operatively, signifying a mean gain in pure tone average of 23.5 dB (p = 0.0002). Phonetically balanced maximum word recognition score improved slightly from 70.5 per cent to 75.8 per cent (p = 0.416), and word recognition score at a hearing level of 50 dB values increased substantially from 14.4 per cent to 70.4 per cent (p < 0.0001). Both revision and explant rates were low and dropped with increasing surgeon experience over time.
This study showed excellent post-operative hearing results with active middle-ear implants with regard to pure tone average and word recognition score at a hearing level of 50 db. Complication rates in this case series were significantly lower with increasing experience of the surgeon. Active middle-ear implants should be considered in appropriate patients with moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss who have struggled with conventional amplification and are good surgical candidates.