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The Treaty of Lausanne, signed in Switzerland in July 1923, officially settled the conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Allied forces. Not only did the Treaty establish the borders of the modern Turkish republic, but it also defined boundaries, political systems, and understandings of citizenship in the newly formed post-Ottoman nation-states. Here, Hans-Lukas Kieser recounts how the eight dramatic months of the Lausanne Conference concluded more than ten years of war and genocide in the late Ottoman Empire. Crucially, the Treaty was in favour of a homogeneous Turkish state in Asia Minor and became the basis for the compulsory 'unmixing of people' that facilitated the persecution of minority groups, including Armenians, Kurds, and Arabs. Not only did this significant yet oft-overlooked treaty mark the end of the League of Nations' project of self-determination and security for small peoples, but it was crucial in shaping the modern Middle East, and dictatorships in Turkey and Europe.
The field of mathematical psychology began in the 1950s and includes both psychological theorizing, in which mathematics plays a key role, and applied mathematics motivated by substantive problems in psychology. Central to its success was the publication of the first Handbook of Mathematical Psychology in the 1960s. The psychological sciences have since expanded to include new areas of research, and significant advances have been made both in traditional psychological domains and in the applications of the computational sciences to psychology. Upholding the rigor of the original Handbook, the New Handbook of Mathematical Psychology reflects the current state of the field by exploring the mathematical and computational foundations of new developments over the last half-century. The third volume provides up-to-date, foundational chapters on early vision, psychophysics and scaling, multisensory integration, learning and memory, cognitive control, approximate Bayesian computation, and encoding models in neuroimaging.
Which dimensions of the religious experience of the ancient Greeks become tangible only if we foreground its local horizons? This book explores the manifold ways in which Greek religious beliefs and practices are encoded in and communicate with various local environments. Its individual chapters explore 'the local' in its different forms and formulations. Besides the polis perspective, they include numerous other places and locations above and below the polis-level as well as those fully or largely independent of the city-state. Overall, the local emerges as a relational concept that changes together with our understanding of the general or universal forces as they shape ancient Greek religion. The unity and diversity of ancient Greek religion becomes tangible in the manifold ways in which localizing and generalizing forces interact with each other at different times and in different places across the ancient Greek world.
Many studies suggest that both psychotherapy and drug therapy are effective in the treatment of bipolar disorders (BDs). However, the pathophysiology of both types of intervention has not been established definitively.
An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis was performed to identify the distinct brain activity alterations between psychotherapy and drug therapy for the treatment of BDs. Articles were identified by searching databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases. Eligible studies on BDs were published up until 10 June 2021.
21 studies were included and we conducted a meta-analysis for different therapies and imaging tasks. After receiving psychotherapy, BD patients showed increased activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and superior temporal gyrus. While after taking drug therapy, BD patients displayed increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, medial frontal gyrus, IFG, and decreased activation in the posterior cingulate cortex. The regions of brain activity changes caused by psychotherapy were mostly focused on the frontal areas, while drug therapy mainly impacted on the limbic areas. Different type of tasks also affected brain regions which were activated.
Our comprehensive meta-analysis indicates that these two treatments might have effect on BD in their own therapeutic modes. Psychotherapy might have a top-down effect, while drug therapy might have a bottom-up effect. This study may contribute to differential diagnosis of BDs and would be helpful to finding more accurate neuroimaging biomarkers for BD treatment.
The aeroacoustic characteristics of flying vehicles with pitch-fixed rotors differ from traditional helicopters with pitch-controlled rotor blades. Accurate predictions of rotor noise are still challenging because many uncertainty factors and unsteadinesses exist. This work investigates the aeroacoustic effects of rotational speed deviation, rotation speed fluctuation, blade vibration and blade geometric asymmetry. The analysis is based on the efficient computation of rotor noise under different working conditions. The mean aerodynamic variables are computed using the blade element moment theory, while small-amplitude fluctuations are introduced to account for the unsteadiness and uncertainty factors. It is shown that periodic rotation speed fluctuations and blade vibrations can produce significant extra tones. By contrast, if the fluctuations and vibrations are random, the noise level in a wide frequency range is increased. The intriguing result reminds us of the need to revisit the rotor broadband noise sources commonly attributed to turbulent flows. The influences are observer angle dependent, and the extra noise production is more significant in the upstream and downstream directions. The asymmetric blade geometry can cause extra tonal noise at the harmonics of the blade shaft frequency. The noise features of dual rotors are also investigated. Usually, the noise is sensitive to the initial phase difference and rotation directions due to the interference effect. However, the noise features are vastly altered if there are slight differences in the rotation speeds. Although the influences of some factors on rotor noise were already known, the present study provides a more comprehensive analysis of the problem. The results also highlight the need to consider these practical factors for accurate noise prediction of multi-rotor flying vehicles.
Making healthy food choices is crucial for health promotion and disease prevention. While there are an increasing number of technology-assisted interventions to promote healthy food choices, the underlying mechanism by which consumption behaviours and weight status change remains unclear. Our scoping review and meta-analysis of 17 studies represents 3,988 individuals with mean ages ranging from 19.2 to 54.2 years old and mean body mass index ranging from 24.5kg/m2 to 35.6kg/m2. Six main outcomes were identified namely weight, total calories, vegetables, fruits, healthy food, and fats and other food groups including sugar-sweetened beverages, saturated fats, snacks, whole grains, sodium, proteins, fibre, cholesterol, dairy, carbohydrates, and takeout meals. Technology-assisted interventions were effective for weight loss (g=-0.29; 95% CI=-0.54, -0.04; I2=65.7%, t=-2.83, P=0.03) but not for promoting healthy food choices. This highlights the complexity in creating effective interactive technology-assisted interventions and understanding its mechanisms of influence and change. We also identified that there needs to be greater application of theory to inform the development of technology-assisted interventions in this area as new and improved interventions are being developed.
Individuals with gender dysphoria display an incongruence between birth-assigned gender and gender expression. However, there is no existing Chinese measure for gender dysphoria.
This study aims to validate the Utrecht Gender Dysphoria Scale – Gender Spectrum (UGDS-GS) in a Chinese population, and compare the psychometric properties of the UGDS-GS with one frequently used scale for gender dysphoria measurement, the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults (GIDYQ-AA).
A total of 2646 Chinese participants were recruited. The following information was collected: sociodemographic variables, gender identity, sexual orientation, gender dysphoria measured by the UGDS-GS and the GIDYQ-AA, anxiety, depression and suicide assessment. Principal component analyses and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted to test the fitness of the model. Discriminant validity was tested with one-way analysis of variance.
The UGDS-GS showed good psychometric properties, with the GIDYQ-AA demonstrating slightly better psychometric properties than the UGDS-GS. UGDS-GS also showed strong internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.89), and good convergent validity and criterion validity. Exploratory factor analysis showed a one-factor structure (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test, 0.93; χ2 = 13 342.50; d.f. = 153; P < 0.001). The UGDS-GS was positively associated with anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, attempted suicide and self-harm. We also found the results were robust in different samples.
The validated UGDS-GS can significantly stimulate and promote gender dysphoria assessment in Chinese populations, allowing for assessment in a more diverse subset of gender minorities.
During the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, symptoms of infection varied widely among adults younger than 60 years. This cross-sectional investigation of adults ages 18–59 years explored associations between SARS-CoV-2 symptomatology and supplementation of micronutrients involved in immune function, such as multivitamins, vitamin D, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc. Between August and December 2020, an online survey was completed by 287 respondents, averaging 33⋅3 ± 10⋅5 years, who recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection within the previous 4 months. In regression models, intake of supplements over the previous year was not protective against number of symptoms or symptom severity. Despite higher rates of supplementation over the previous year, smokers experienced more symptoms and greater symptom severity than non-smokers. Micronutrient supplementation did not protect young adults from experiencing symptoms of SARS-CoV-2, but our results suggest that smoking cessation may be a more effective modifiable lifestyle factor.
Model order reduction (MOR) can provide low-dimensional numerical models for fast simulation. Unlike intrusive methods, nonintrusive methods are attractive because they can be applied even without access to full order models (FOMs). Since nonintrusive MOR methods strongly rely on snapshots of the FOMs, constructing good snapshot sets becomes crucial. In this work, we propose a novel active-learning-based approach for use in conjunction with nonintrusive MOR methods. It is based on two crucial novelties. First, our approach uses joint space sampling to prepare a data pool of the training data. The training data are selected from the data pool using a greedy strategy supported by an error estimator based on Gaussian process regression. Second, we introduce a case-independent validation strategy based on probably approximately correct learning. While the methods proposed here can be applied to different MOR methods, we test them here with artificial neural networks and operator inference.
The carotid artery is a valuable vascular access that can be used in patients who have undergone repetitive interventional and surgical procedures and premature babies. In the past, cut-down was used but nowadays, mostly the procedure is performed under ultrasonographic guidance. Complications such as bleeding, haematoma, and pseudoaneurysm may occur when the carotid artery is used as a vascular access for the procedures such as aortic balloon valvuloplasty, coarctation balloon angioplasty, or after interventional or surgical treatments to the carotid artery. Although pseudoaneurysm is very rare, prompt diagnosis and accurate treatment planning are life-saving. In this article, the diagnosis and treatment of pseudoaneurysm in the left common carotid after transcatheter coarctation balloon angioplasty in a 6-month-old infant will be presented.
Few studies examined the association of energy, macronutrients and food consumption at dinner v. breakfast with hypercholesterolaemia. A total of 27 911 participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003–2016) were included in the cross-sectional study. Energy, macronutrients and food consumption at breakfast, dinner and the difference at dinner v. breakfast (Δratio) were calculated. Multiple logistic regression models and substitution effects of foods at dinner with breakfast were also performed. After adjustment for potential covariates, compared with the lowest quintile, participants in the highest quintile of Δratio in terms of energy had a higher risk of prevalent hypercholesterolaemia (ORΔratio of energy 1·16, 95 % CI (1·01, 1·33)) mainly due to Δratio of low-quality carbohydrates and plant protein (ORΔratio of low-quality carbohydrates 1·19; 95 % CI (1·05, 1·35)); ORΔratio of plant protein 1·13; 95 % CI (1·01, 1·28)). ΔAdded sugars and Δnuts were associated with hypercholesterolaemia (ORΔadded sugars 1·01; 95 % CI (1·00, 1·02)); ORΔnuts 1·08; 95 % CI (1·01, 1·16)). Furthermore, the substitution of added sugars, nuts and processed meat at dinner with breakfast could reduce the OR of hypercholesterolaemia. This study indicated that among US adults, overconsumption of energy, macronutrients including low-quality carbohydrates and plant protein at dinner than breakfast was significantly associated with a higher risk of prevalent hypercholesterolaemia. The replacing of added sugar, nuts and processed meat at dinner with breakfast reduced the risk of prevalent hypercholesterolaemia. This study emphasised the importance of meal timing in the prevention of hypercholesterolaemia.
A four-fold classification of emotions with respect to their functions in decision making is proposed. It is argued that emotions are not homogenous concerning their role in decision making, but that four distinct functions can be distinguished concerning emotional phenomena. One function is to provide information about pleasure and pain for preference construction, a second function is to enable rapid choices under time pressure, a third function is to focus attention on relevant aspects of a decision problem, and a fourth function is to generate commitment concerning morally and socially significant decisions. The pertinent literature on the relationship between emotion and decision making is reviewed, and it is concluded that most approaches fit into the proposed framework. We argue that a precise conceptualization of emotional phenomena is required to advance our understanding of the complex role of emotions in decision making.
Meat quality is not only influenced by breed but also rearing environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different housing environments on growth performance, carcase traits, meat quality, physiological response pre-slaughter and fatty acid composition in two pig breeds. A total of 120 growing pigs at 60-70 days of age were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design with the breeds (Duroc × Landrace × Large White [D × L × LW] and Duroc × Landrace × Min pig [D × L × M]) and environmental enrichment (barren concrete floor or enriched with straw bedding) as factors. Each treatment was performed in triplicate with ten pigs per replicate. The pigs housed in the enriched environment exhibited a higher average daily gain, average daily feed intake, saturated fatty acid percentage and backfat depth than the pigs reared in the barren environment. Plasma cortisol levels were lower and growth hormone higher in enriched compared to barren pens. The D × L × M pigs showed lower cooking loss compared with the D × L × LW pigs. Moreover, the D × L × M pigs exhibited poor growth performance but had a better water-holding capacity. Only carcase traits and meat quality interaction effects were observed. We concluded that an enriched environment can reduce preslaughter stress and improve the growth performance of pigs and modulate the fatty acid composition of pork products.
We propose a new method to facilitate comparison of aggregated forecasts based on different aggregation, elicitation and calibration methods. Aggregates are evaluated by their relative position on the cumulative distribution of the corresponding individual scores. This allows one to compare methods using different measures of quality that use different scales. We illustrate the use of the method by re-analyzing various estimates from Budescu and Du (Management Science, 2007).
Affective forecasting with respect to two environmental risks (ozone depletion, air pollution) was investigated by studying tourists who travelled to either Australia or Bangkok and were thus confronted with one of these risks. We measured anticipated outcome and anticipated emotions before the journey, actually experienced outcome and actually experienced emotions during the journey, and anticipated outcome and emotions concerning a future encounter with the same risk after the journey. Results indicate that tourists underestimate (air pollution) or correctly predict (ozone depletion) both the seriousness of the outcome and their emotional reactions. The relationship between actual outcome and actual emotions is stronger than that between anticipated outcome and anticipated emotions. Furthermore, tourists learn from their travel experience and adjust their anticipations concerning future encounters with the environmental risk. Findings suggest that the domain of environmental risks differs from personal outcomes with respect to the process of affective forecasting.
The accuracy of human forecasters is often reduced because of incomplete information and cognitive biases that affect the judges. One approach to improve the accuracy of the forecasts is to recalibrate them by means of non-linear transformations that are sensitive to the direction and the magnitude of the biases. Previous work on recalibration has focused on binary forecasts. We propose an extension of this approach by developing an algorithm that uses a single free parameter to recalibrate complete subjective probability distributions. We illustrate the approach with data from the quarterly Survey of Professional Forecasters (SPF) conducted by the European Central Bank (ECB), document the potential benefits of this approach, and show how it can be used in practical applications.
Eyal, T., Liberman, N., & Trope, Y., (2008). Judging near and distant virtue and vice. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1204–1209, explored how psychological distance influences moral judgment and found that more extreme moral appraisals were given to distal behaviors rather than proximal behaviors. Contrary to Eyal et al., the current paper presents converging evidence showing that moral judgments become more extreme at lower-level construals compared to higher-level construals. In four experiments using two different priming techniques, we manipulated construal levels and assessed their effects on moral judgment. High-level consturals elicited less moral outrage toward transgressions and less positive ratings of virtuous behaviors than low-level construals. A replication study was also conducted to reconcile the inconsistencies between the current results and those of Eyal et al. Possible explanations for the different results between two studies are discussed.
Often research in judgment and decision making requires comparison of multiple competing models. Researchers invoke global measures such as the rate of correct predictions or the sum of squared (or absolute) deviations of the various models as part of this evaluation process. Reliance on such measures hides the (often very high) level of agreement between the predictions of the various models and does not highlight properly the relative performance of the competing models in those critical cases where they make distinct predictions. To address this important problem we propose the use of pair-wise comparisons of models to produce more informative and targeted comparisons of their performance, and we illustrate this procedure with data from two recently published papers. We use Multidimensional Scaling of these comparisons to map the competing models. We also demonstrate how intransitive cycles of pair-wise model performance can signal that certain models perform better for a given subset of decision problems.
Doyle’s (2013) theoretical survey of discount functions criticizes two parametric families abbreviated as CRDI and CADI families. We show that Doyle’s criticisms are based on a mathematical mistake and are incorrect.