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The Dutch Termination of Life on Request and Assisted Suicide (Review Procedure) Act (euthanasia law) came into force in 2002. The goals of the euthanasia law are to provide legal security for all involved in physician-assistance in dying, to assure prudent practice, and to provide a framework for physicians to be accountable and thus enable transparency and societal control. Every five years the law is evaluated to examine whether its objectives are (still) being met. In 2015–2017, this was done for the third time, by studying current practices, identifying new developments in the interpretation and conceptualisation of the legal criteria, which are formulated rather openly in the law, and analysing potential complexities of the review system. This chapter outlines the role of this evaluation in keeping the existing law under review. It is part of the ongoing examination of the operation, scope and effectiveness of the laws and so these findings contribute to deliberations about whether to change the law or not. The chapter also comments on the evaluation’s function in advising on suggested changes to the law.
We experimentally, numerically and theoretically investigate the nonlinear interaction between a cavitation bubble and the interface of two immiscible fluids (oil and water) on multiple time scales. The underwater electric discharge method is utilized to generate a cavitation bubble near or at the interface. Both the bubble dynamics on a short time scale and the interface evolution on a much longer time scale are recorded via high-speed photography. Two mechanisms are found to contribute to the fluid mixing in our system. First, when a bubble is initiated in the oil phase or at the interface, an inertia-dominated high-speed liquid jet generated from the collapsing bubble penetrates the water–oil interface, and consequently transports fine oil droplets into the water. The critical standoff parameter for jet penetration is found to be highly dependent on the density ratio of the two fluids. Furthermore, the pinch-off of an interface jet produced long after the bubble dynamics stage is reckoned as the second mechanism, carrying water droplets into the oil bulk. The dependence of the bubble jetting behaviours and interface jet dynamics on the governing parameters is systematically studied via experiments and boundary integral simulations. Particularly, we quantitatively demonstrate the respective roles of surface tension and viscosity in interface jet dynamics. As for a bubble initiated at the interface, an extended Rayleigh–Plesset model is proposed that well predicts the asymmetric dynamics of the bubble, which accounts for a faster contraction of the bubble top and a downward liquid jet.
Are tech giants responsible for their actions along Global Value Chains (GVC) down to the ‘Global South’? The responsibilities of private actors, companies evolving in the algorithmic society do not mean there is no responsibility for national states. Stressing private responsibilities below the surface of the constitution directs the attention to the bulk of national, European and international rules that are and that have been developed in the last decades and that in one way or the other are dealing with responsibility or perhaps even better responsibilities of private and public actors. From the discussions on ‘double standards’ to the recent Recommendation of the European Parliament, it is not only the behavior of companies but of their commercial partners along the GVC are at the heart of the debate. From the 1970s sector-specific or product-specific rules were adopted. Today, it is a holistic approach reflecting the globalization of supply chains that are needed. Recent initiatives on the due diligence of large companies seem to go in this direction. Many of the puzzling aspects are discussed in this chapter.
Technologies have always challenged, if not disrupted, the social, economic legal, and to an extent, the ideological status quo. Such transformations impact constitutional law, as the State formulates its legal response to the new technologies being developed and applied by the market, and as it considers its own use of the technologies. The development of data collection, mining, and algorithmic analysis, resulting in predictive profiling – with or without the subsequent potential manipulation of attitudes and behaviors of users – presents unique challenges to constitutional law at the doctrinal as well as theoretical levels.
Diseases in the oral cavity affecting the periodontal connective tissue are summarized under the term periodontal diseases. Periodontitis, the most relevant periodontal disease, is caused by a bacterial inflammation of the tissues supporting the teeth. Periodontal diseases are highly prevalent. Relevant risk factors are diabetes, smoking and stress.
The flow-induced vibration of square cylinders under flow is known to be caused by two distinct mechanisms of interaction: vortex-induced vibrations and galloping. In the present paper we address the issue of the apparent suppression of galloping when the mass ratio between the solid and the fluid is low enough. By using a reduced-order model that we validate on pre-existing results, we show that galloping is actually not suppressed, but delayed to higher values of the flow velocity. This is explained using a linear stability analysis where the competition between unstable modes is related to the transition between vortex-induced vibration and galloping. Direct numerical simulations coupled with a moving square cylinder confirm that galloping can be found even at very low mass ratios.
As part of a long-term experiment to determine the impacts of composted manure and straw amendments (replacing 50% of chemical fertilizer with composted pig manure, wheat straw return combined with chemical fertilizer, and setting no fertilizer and chemical fertilizer-only as controls) on rice-associated weeds in a rice (Oryza sativa L.) - wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation system, species richness, abundance, density, and biomass of weeds were assessed during years eight and nine. Fertilization decreased the species richness and total density of rice-associated weeds but increased their total biomass. The species richness and densities of broadleaf and sedge weeds decreased with fertilization, while species richness grass weeds increased only with straw return and density was not significantly affected. The shoot biomass per square meter of grass and broadleaf weeds were significantly higher with fertilization treatments than with the no fertilizer control, while that of sedge weeds declined with fertilizer application. With fertilization, the densities of monarch redstem (Ammannia baccifera L.) and smallflower umbrella sedge (Cyperus difformis L.) decreased, that of Chinese sprangletop [Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees] increased, and those of barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.] and monochoria [Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. f.) C. Presl ex Kunth] were not significantly affected. Ammannia baccifera was the most abundant weed species in all treatments. Whereas composted pig manure plus fertilizer resulted in higher density of A. baccifera and lower shoot biomass per plant than chemical fertilizer only; wheat straw return plus chemical fertilizer caused lower density and shoot biomass of A. baccifera. Therefore, it may be possible that fertilization strategies that suppress specific weeds could be used as improved weed management program components in rice production systems.
Social services in China nowadays are increasingly coproduced by both government and non-profit organizations (NPOs). However, we still know little about how NPOs perceive their government partners in social service delivery. Using a Q methodology, this study remedies this gap and identifies three profiles – namely, government as a distant facilitator, government as a hands-off collaborator, and government as a prudent principal. Also, it has been found that two conditions – namely, NPOs’ development stage and funding resources – influence their perceptions on government in social service delivery. These three profiles provide new insights into NPOs’ perceptions of their government partners in social service delivery, and they add new building blocks to existing literature, specifically on the government–NPO relationship in China.
A classical result for the simple symmetric random walk with 2n steps is that the number of steps above the origin, the time of the last visit to the origin, and the time of the maximum height all have exactly the same distribution and converge when scaled to the arcsine law. Motivated by applications in genomics, we study the distributions of these statistics for the non-Markovian random walk generated from the ascents and descents of a uniform random permutation and a Mallows(q) permutation and show that they have the same asymptotic distributions as for the simple random walk. We also give an unexpected conjecture, along with numerical evidence and a partial proof in special cases, for the result that the number of steps above the origin by step 2n for the uniform permutation generated walk has exactly the same discrete arcsine distribution as for the simple random walk, even though the other statistics for these walks have very different laws. We also give explicit error bounds to the limit theorems using Stein’s method for the arcsine distribution, as well as functional central limit theorems and a strong embedding of the Mallows(q) permutation which is of independent interest.
Evidence suggests a link between smaller hippocampal volume (HV) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there has been little prospective research testing this question directly and it remains unclear whether smaller HV confers risk or is a consequence of traumatization and PTSD.
U.S. soldiers (N = 107) completed a battery of clinical assessments, including structural magnetic resonance imaging pre-deployment. Once deployed they completed monthly assessments of traumatic-stressors and symptoms. We hypothesized that smaller HV would potentiate the effects of traumatic stressors on PTSD symptoms in theater. Analyses evaluated whether total HV, lateral (right v. left) HV, or HV asymmetry (right – left) moderated the effects of stressor-exposure during deployment on PTSD symptoms.
Findings revealed no interaction between total HV and average monthly traumatic-stressors on PTSD symptoms b = −0.028, p = 0.681 [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.167 to 0.100]. However, in the context of greater exposure to average monthly traumatic stressors, greater right HV was associated with fewer PTSD symptoms b = −0.467, p = 0.023 (95% CI −0.786 to −0.013), whereas greater left HV was unexpectedly associated with greater PTSD symptoms b = 0.435, p = 0.024 (95% CI 0.028–0.715).
Our findings highlight the importance of considering the complex role of HV, in particular HV asymmetry, in predicting the emergence of PTSD symptoms in response to war-zone trauma.
Risk factors for depressive disorders (DD) change substantially over time, but the prognostic value of these changes remains unclear. Two basic types of dynamic effects are possible. The ‘Risk Escalation hypothesis’ posits that worsening of risk levels predicts DD onset above average level of risk factors. Alternatively, the ‘Chronic Risk hypothesis’ posits that the average level rather than change predicts first-onset DD.
We utilized data from the ADEPT project, a cohort of 496 girls (baseline age 13.5–15.5 years) from the community followed for 3 years. Participants underwent five waves of assessments for risk factors and diagnostic interviews for DD. For illustration purposes, we selected 16 well-established dynamic risk factors for adolescent depression, such as depressive and anxiety symptoms, personality traits, clinical traits, and social risk factors. We conducted Cox regression analyses with time-varying covariates to predict first DD onset.
Consistently elevated risk factors (i.e. the mean of multiple waves), but not recent escalation, predicted first-onset DD, consistent with the Chronic Risk hypothesis. This hypothesis was supported across all 16 risk factors.
Across a range of risk factors, girls who had first-onset DD generally did not experience a sharp increase in risk level shortly before the onset of disorder; rather, for years before onset, they exhibited elevated levels of risk. Our findings suggest that chronicity of risk should be a particular focus in screening high-risk populations to prevent the onset of DDs. In particular, regular monitoring of risk factors in school settings is highly informative.