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Two types of mentalization-based treatment (MBT), day hospital MBT (MBT-DH) and intensive outpatient MBT (MBT-IOP), have been shown to be effective in treating patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). This study evaluated trajectories of change in a multi-site trial of MBT-DH and MBT-IOP at 36 months after the start of treatment.
All 114 patients (MBT-DH n = 70, MBT-IOP n = 44) from the original multicentre trial were assessed at 24, 30 and 36 months after the start of treatment. The primary outcome was symptom severity measured with the Brief Symptom Inventory. Secondary outcome measures included borderline symptomatology, personality and interpersonal functioning, quality of life and self-harm. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling and the intention-to-treat principle.
Patients in both MBT-DH and MBT-IOP maintained the substantial improvements made during the intensive treatment phase and showed further gains during follow-up. Across both conditions, 83% of patients improved in terms of symptom severity, and 97% improved on borderline symptomatology. No significant differences were found between MBT-DH and MBT-IOP at 36 months after the start of treatment. However, trajectories of change were different. Whereas patients in MBT-DH showed greater improvement during the intensive treatment phase, patients in MBT-IOP showed greater continuing improvement during follow-up.
Patients in both conditions showed similar large improvements over the course of 36 months, despite large differences in treatment intensity. MBT-DH and MBT-IOP were associated with different trajectories of change. Cost-effectiveness considerations and predictors of differential treatment outcome may further inform optimal treatment selection.
There are widespread concerns about the quality of mental health care for ethnic minority groups. This is supported mainly by studies from the U.S. and Great-Britain, raising doubts about the generalisability to (other) European countries. This study investigates ethnic differences in quality of care (QoC) for common mental disorders (CMD) in primary and outpatient mental health care in the Netherlands.
Data from electronic records of 89 primary care practices in 2007 (6,246 cases), and longitudinal data (2001 - 2005) from a nationwide psychiatric case register (17,270 cases). Quality of primary care indicators were ‘detection of CMD’, ‘adequate follow-up’, ‘adequate prescription of psychotropics’ and ‘referral to specialised mental health care’. Outpatient mental health care indicators were ‘waiting times’, ‘treatment intensity’, ‘early dropout’ and ‘early re-registration.
Compared with ethnic Dutch, quality of primary care was less for Turkish clients (CMD less likely to be detected) and Surinamese/Antillean clients (less than adequate prescription of psychotropics). Outpatient mental health treatment was less favourable for Moroccan and Turkish clients (longer waiting times and lower treatment intensity), but more favourable for Surinamese/Antillean clients (shorter waiting times and lower dropout).
The data do not provide sufficient support for a generalising statement that quality of CMD treatment is less favourable for ethnic minority clients. Though negative findings are not to be disregarded, positive findings - which may be related to the promotion of culturally sensitive care approaches in mainstream mental health services - deserve attention as well.
Reviews of the relative efficacy of psychotherapy and combined therapy (psychotherapy with pharmacotherapy) for depression have yielded contradicting conclusions. This may be explained by the clinical heterogeneity of the studies reviewed.
To conduct a meta-analysis with an acceptable level of homogeneity in order to investigate the relative efficacy of psychotherapy and combined therapy in the acute treatment of depression.
A systematic search was performed for RCTs published between 1980 and 2005 comparing psychotherapy and combined therapy in adult psychiatric outpatients with non-psychotic unipolar major depressive disorder. The studies were classified according to the chronicity and severity of the depression. Data were pooled by means of meta-analysis and statistical tests were conducted to measure heterogeneity.
The meta-analysis included seven studies looking at a total of 903 patients. None of the heterogeneity tests established significance. This indicates a lack of evidence for the heterogeneity of the results. The dropout rates did not differ significantly between the two treatment modalities (25% in combined therapy and 24% in psychotherapy, p = 0.77). At treatment termination, the intention-to-treat remission rate for combined therapy (46%) was better than for psychotherapy (34%) (p = 0.0007); Relative Risk 1.32 (95% CI: 1.12–1.56), Odds Ratio 1.59 (95% CI: 1.22–2.09). In moderate depression, the difference between the remission rate for combined therapy and psychotherapy was statistically significant (47% compared to 34% respectively, p = 0.001). This was not the case in mild major depression (42% compared to 37% respectively, p = 0.29). The difference was also statistically significant in chronic major depression (48% compared to 32%, p < 0.001), but not in non-chronic major depression (43% compared to 37%, p = 0.22). On a more specific level, no differences were found in the remission rates for the treatment modalities in mild or moderate non-chronic depression. Combined therapy led to significantly better results than psychotherapy in moderate chronic depression only (48% compared to 32%, p < 0.001).
In the acute treatment of adult psychiatric outpatients with major depressive disorder, patient compliance with combined therapy matches compliance with psychotherapy alone. Combined therapy is more efficacious than psychotherapy alone. However, these results depend on severity and chronicity. Combined therapy outperformed psychotherapy in moderate chronic depression only. No differences were found in mild and moderate non-chronic depression. No data were found for mild chronic depression and for severe depression.
People with severe mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia, depression or bipolar disorder, have worse physical health and reduced life expectancy compared to the general population. The excess cardiovascular mortality associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is attributed in part to an increased risk of the modifiable coronary heart disease risk factors; obesity, smoking, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Antipsychotic medication and possibly other psychotropic medication like antidepressants can induce weight gain or worsen other metabolic cardiovascular risk factors. Patients may have limited access to general healthcare with less opportunity for cardiovascular risk screening and prevention than would be expected in a non-psychiatric population. The European Psychiatric Association (EPA), supported by the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) and the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) published this statement with the aim of improving the care of patients suffering from severe mental illness. The intention is to initiate cooperation and shared care between the different healthcare professionals and to increase the awareness of psychiatrists and primary care physicians caring for patients with severe mental illness to screen and treat cardiovascular risk factors and diabetes.
There is strong research evidence to support the pharmacological treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a second line to trauma-focused psychological interventions. Fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline and venlafaxine are the best-evidenced drugs, with lower-level evidence for other medications. It is important that prescribing for PTSD is evidence-based.
Preeclampsia (PE) is now recognised as a cardiovascular risk factor for women. Emerging evidence suggests that children exposed to PE in utero may also be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in later life. Individuals exposed to PE in utero have higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and higher body mass index (BMI) compared to those not exposed to PE in utero. The aim of this review is to discuss the potential mechanisms driving the relationship between PE and offspring CVD. Exposure to an adverse intrauterine environment as a consequence of the pathophysiological changes that occur during a pregnancy complicated by PE is proposed as one mechanism that programs the fetus for future CVD risk. Consistent with this hypothesis, animal models of PE where progeny have been studied demonstrate causality for programming of offspring cardiovascular health by the preeclamptic environment. Shared alleles between mother and offspring, and shared lifestyle factors between mother and offspring provide alternate pathways explaining associations between PE and offspring CVD risk. In addition, adverse lifestyle habits can also act as second hits for those programmed for increased CVD risk. PE and CVD are both multifactorial diseases and, hence, identifying the relative contribution of PE to offspring risk for CVD is a very complex task. However, considering the emerging strong association between PE and CVD, those exposed to PE in utero may benefit from targeted primary CVD preventive strategies.
Nutrition strongly impacts the incidence and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recently, reduced rank regression (RRR) has emerged as a method that identifies dietary patterns in an exploratory way while using prior knowledge to select a set of response variables. The aim of this study was to identify a specific dietary pattern associated with renal function using RRR, and to evaluate its association with CKD incidence. We included 78,350 participants from the LifeLines population-based cohort in the Northern Netherlands. All participants were free of CKD (defined as eGFRCKD-EPI < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) at baseline and completed a second visit four years later. Dietary intake was ascertained with a 110-item food frequency questionnaire. The dietary pattern, stratified by sex, was constructed cross-sectionally by RRR, with eGFR as a response variable. Multivariable logistic regression was used to study the association between dietary patterns score and CKD incidence or an eGFR decline of ≥ 20%, adjusted for potential confounders. Among women, the eGFR-associated dietary pattern was characterized by high intake of eggs, low-fat and high-fat cheese, and legumes and low consumption of sweetened dairy drinks, desserts, cake and cookies, sweet sandwich toppings, white meat, and commercially prepared dishes. The male dietary pattern was characterized by high consumption of high-fat and low-fat cheese, bread, full-fat milk, fruits, vegetables, beer, and low consumption of white and red meat. After a mean follow-up of 3.9 years, 7,612 participants experienced a > 20% eGFR decline and 2,072 participants developed CKD. The eGFR-based diet was associated with a lower risk of eGFR decline (OR 4th vs 1st quartile, women: 0.84 [95% CI 0.76–0.92]; men: 0.74 [0.65–0.84] and of incident CKD (women: 0.60 [0.50–0.73] ; men: 0.52 [0.41–0.66]). The results provide support for potential diet interventions to prevent renal function decline and CKD. RRR may be a useful tool to identify dietary patterns that affect renal function loss and CKD development.
This paper proposes that common measures for network transitivity, based on the enumeration of transitive triples, do not reflect the theoretical statements about transitivity they aim to describe. These statements are often formulated as comparative conditional probabilities, but these are not directly reflected by simple functions of enumerations. We think that a better approach is obtained by considering the probability of a tie between two randomly drawn nodes, conditional on selected features of the network. Two measures of transitivity based on correlation coefficients between the existence of a tie and the existence, or the number, of two-paths between the nodes are developed, and called “Transitivity Phi” and “Transitivity Correlation.” Some desirable properties for these measures are studied and compared to existing clustering coefficients, in both random (Erdös–Renyi) and in stylized networks (windmills). Furthermore, it is shown that in a directed graph, under the condition of zero Transitivity Correlation, the total number of transitive triples is determined by four underlying features: size, density, reciprocity, and the covariance between in- and outdegrees. Also, it is demonstrated that plotting conditional probability of ties, given the number of two-paths, provides valuable insights into empirical regularities and irregularities of transitivity patterns.
Time-limited psychotherapy for depression is effective. However, comorbid personality disorders affect therapy outcomes negatively. Studies of follow-up effects and results relating to the influence of comorbid personality disorder and treatment modality are scarce.
To determine the influence of comorbid personality disorder and treatment modality on outcomes after cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) or short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy (SPSP) for depression.
This study draws on data from a previously published randomised clinical trial contrasting SPSP and CBT for depression (both 16 sessions). We compared the effectiveness of these psychotherapies for patients with and without personality disorder (n = 196). The primary measure was depression outcome; the secondary measurements were interpersonal functioning and quality of life. Collected data were analysed using multilevel analysis. Trial registration: ISRCTN31263312 (http://www.controlled-trials.com).
Although participants with and without comorbid personality disorder improved at treatment termination (d = 1.04, 95% CI 0.77–1.31 and d = 1.36, 95% CI 0.97–1.76, respectively) and at follow-up (d = 1.15, 95% CI 0.87–1.43 and d = 2.12, 95% CI 1.65–2.59 respectively), personality disorder had a negative effect on depression outcome at both measurement points (P < 0.05). A similar negative effect on interpersonal functioning was no longer apparent at follow-up. Comorbid personality disorder had no influence on social functioning or quality of life outcomes, irrespective of treatment modality.
CBT and SPSP contribute to the improvement of depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems in depressed patients with and without comorbid personality disorder. Both treatments are an effective first step in a stepped care approach, but – given remaining levels of depression in patients with personality disorder – they are probably inadequate for large numbers of patients with this comorbidity.
Loneliness and social isolation have negative health consequences and are associated with depression. Personality characteristics are important when studying persons at risk for loneliness and social isolation. The objective of this study was to clarify the association between personality factors, loneliness and social network, taking into account diagnosis of depression, partner status and gender.
Cross-sectional data of an ongoing prospective cohort study, the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO), were used.
Setting and participants:
474 participants were recruited from mental health care institutions and general practitioners in five different regions in the Netherlands.
NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) personality factors and loneliness and social network were measured as well as possible confounders. Multinominal logistic regression analyses were performed to analyse the associations between NEO-FFI factors and loneliness and social network. Interaction terms were investigated for depression, partner status and gender.
Higher neuroticism and lower extraversion in women and lower agreeableness in both men and women were associated with loneliness but not with social network size irrespective of the presence of depression. In the non-depressed group only, lower openness was associated with loneliness. Interaction terms with partner status were not significant.
Personality factors are associated with loneliness especially in women. In men lower agreeableness contributes to higher loneliness. In non-depressed men and women, lower openness is associated with loneliness. Personality factors are not associated with social network size.
We assessed whether paternal demographic, anthropometric and clinical factors influence the risk of an infant being born large-for-gestational-age (LGA). We examined the data on 3659 fathers of term offspring (including 662 LGA infants) born to primiparous women from Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE). LGA was defined as birth weight >90th centile as per INTERGROWTH 21st standards, with reference group being infants ⩽90th centile. Associations between paternal factors and likelihood of an LGA infant were examined using univariable and multivariable models. Men who fathered LGA babies were 180 g heavier at birth (P<0.001) and were more likely to have been born macrosomic (P<0.001) than those whose infants were not LGA. Fathers of LGA infants were 2.1 cm taller (P<0.001), 2.8 kg heavier (P<0.001) and had similar body mass index (BMI). In multivariable models, increasing paternal birth weight and height were independently associated with greater odds of having an LGA infant, irrespective of maternal factors. One unit increase in paternal BMI was associated with 2.9% greater odds of having an LGA boy but not girl; however, this association disappeared after adjustment for maternal BMI. There were no associations between paternal demographic factors or clinical history and infant LGA. In conclusion, fathers who were heavier at birth and were taller were more likely to have an LGA infant, but maternal BMI had a dominant influence on LGA.
Two types of mentalisation-based treatment (MBT) have been developed and empirically evaluated for borderline personality disorder (BPD): day hospital MBT (MBT-DH) and intensive out-patient MBT (MBT-IOP). No trial has yet compared their efficacy.
To compare the efficacy of MBT-DH and MBT-IOP 18 months after start of treatment. MBT-DH was hypothesised to be superior to MBT-IOP because of its higher treatment intensity.
In a multicentre randomised controlled trial (Nederlands Trial Register: NTR2292) conducted at three sites in the Netherlands, patients with BPD were randomly assigned to MBT-DH (n = 70) or MBT-IOP (n = 44). The primary outcome was symptom severity (Brief Symptom Inventory). Secondary outcome measures included borderline symptomatology, personality functioning, interpersonal functioning, quality of life and self-harm. Patients were assessed every 6 months from baseline to 18 months after start of treatment. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling based on intention-to-treat principles.
Significant improvements were found on all outcome measures, with moderate to very large effect sizes for both groups. MBT-DH was not superior to MBT-IOP on the primary outcome measure, but MBT-DH showed a clear tendency towards superiority on secondary outcomes.
Although MBT-DH was not superior to MBT-IOP on the primary outcome measure despite its greater treatment intensity, MBT-DH showed a tendency to be more effective on secondary outcomes, particularly in terms of relational functioning. Patients receiving MBT-DH and MBT-IOP, thus, seem to follow different trajectories of change, which may have important implications for clinical decision-making. Longer-term follow-up and cost-effectiveness considerations may ultimately determine the optimal intensity of specialised treatments such as MBT for patients with BPD.
The aetiology of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) is multifactorial, but the relative contribution of biological and psychological determinants is insufficiently understood. We examined the association of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), thyroid hormones (thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroxin) and psychological factors with NVP.
Blood chemistry and psychological measures were obtained in 1682 pregnant women participating in the Holistic Approach to Pregnancy and the first Postpartum Year (HAPPY) study between 12 and 14 weeks of gestation. The presence of NVP was measured using the Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis scale. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Depression Scale. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the independent role of hCG, thyroid hormones and depression as related to NVP, adjusting for age, body mass index, education, parity, smoking status, unplanned pregnancy and history of depression.
Elevated levels of NVP were observed in 318 (18.9%) participants. High hCG levels [odds ratio (OR) = 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11–1.95], elevated depressive symptoms in the first trimester (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.15–2.43) and a history of depression (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.11–2.11) were independently related to high NVP. Multiparity (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.12–1.92) and younger age (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.87–0.94) were also associated with high NVP, whereas (sub)clinical hyperthyroidism was not related to high NVP.
The current study is the first to demonstrate that a combination of hCG hormone and psychological factors are independently related to nausea and vomiting during early pregnancy.
Psychiatric patients are at increased risk to become victim of violence. It remains unknown whether subjects of the general population with mental disorders are at risk of victimisation as well. In addition, it remains unclear whether the risk of victimisation differs across specific disorders. This study aimed to determine whether a broad range of mood, anxiety and substance use disorders at baseline predict adult violent (physical and/or sexual) and psychological victimisation at 3-year follow-up, also after adjustment for childhood trauma. Furthermore, this study aimed to examine whether specific types of childhood trauma predict violent and psychological victimisation at follow-up, after adjustment for mental disorder. Finally, this study aimed to examine whether the co-occurrence of childhood trauma and any baseline mental disorder leads to an incrementally increased risk of future victimisation.
Data were derived from the first two waves of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2): a psychiatric epidemiological cohort study among a nationally representative adult population. Mental disorders were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0. Longitudinal associations between 12 mental disorders at baseline and violent and psychological victimisation at 3-year follow-up (n = 5303) were studied using logistic regression analyses, with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and childhood trauma. Furthermore, the moderating effect of childhood trauma on these associations was examined.
Associations with victimisation varied considerably across specific mental disorders. Only alcohol dependence predicted both violent and psychological victimisation after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and childhood trauma. Depression, panic disorder, social phobia, generalised anxiety disorder and alcohol dependence predicted subsequent psychological victimisation in the fully adjusted models. All types of childhood trauma independently predicted violent and psychological victimisation after adjustment for any mental disorder. The presence of any childhood trauma moderated the association between any anxiety disorder and psychological victimisation, whereas no interaction between mental disorder and childhood trauma on violent victimisation existed.
The current study shows that members of the general population with mental disorders are at increased risk of future victimisation. However, the associations with violent and psychological victimisation vary considerably across specific disorders. Clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of violent and psychological victimisation in individuals with these mental disorders – especially those with alcohol dependence – and individuals with a history of childhood trauma. Violence prevention programmes should be developed for people at risk. These programmes should not only address violent victimisation, but also psychological victimisation.
As depression has a recurrent course, relapse and recurrence prevention is essential.
In our randomised controlled trial (registered with the Nederlands trial register, identifier: NTR1907), we found that adding preventive cognitive therapy (PCT) to maintenance antidepressants (PCT+AD) yielded substantial protective effects versus antidepressants only in individuals with recurrent depression. Antidepressants were not superior to PCT while tapering antidepressants (PCT/−AD). To inform decision-makers on treatment allocation, we present the corresponding cost-effectiveness, cost-utility and budget impact.
Data were analysed (n = 289) using a societal perspective with 24-months of follow-up, with depression-free days and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) as health outcomes. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated and cost-effectiveness planes and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves were derived to provide information about cost-effectiveness. The budget impact was examined with a health economic simulation model.
Mean total costs over 24 months were €6814, €10 264 and €13 282 for AD+PCT, antidepressants only and PCT/−AD, respectively. Compared with antidepressants only, PCT+AD resulted in significant improvements in depression-free days but not QALYs. Health gains did not significantly favour antidepressants only versus PCT/−AD. High probabilities were found that PCT+AD versus antidepressants only and antidepressants only versus PCT/−AD were dominant with low willingness-to-pay thresholds. The budget impact analysis showed decreased societal costs for PCT+AD versus antidepressants only and for antidepressants only versus PCT/−AD.
Adding PCT to antidepressants is cost-effective over 24 months and PCT with guided tapering of antidepressants in long-term users might result in extra costs. Future studies examining costs and effects of antidepressants versus psychological interventions over a longer period may identify a break-even point where PCT/−AD will become cost-effective.
Declaration of interest
C.L.H.B. is co-editor of PLOS One and receives no honorarium for this role. She is also co-developer of the Dutch multidisciplinary clinical guideline for anxiety and depression, for which she receives no remuneration. She is a member of the scientific advisory board of the National Insure Institute, for which she receives an honorarium, although this role has no direct relation to this study. C.L.H.B. has presented keynote addresses at conferences, such as the European Psychiatry Association and the European Conference Association, for which she sometimes receives an honorarium. She has presented clinical training workshops, some including a fee. She receives royalties from her books and co-edited books and she developed preventive cognitive therapy on the basis of the cognitive model of A. T. Beck. W.A.N. has received grants from the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development and the European Union and honoraria and speakers' fees from Lundbeck and Aristo Pharma, and has served as a consultant for Daleco Pharma.
This study used a single case experimental design to investigate the use of the Unified Protocol for Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders (UP) among a sample of individuals with depression and anxiety who also presented with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Eight women received individual treatment with the UP over the course of 14–16 treatment sessions, and were assessed for anxiety and depression severity on a weekly basis over a 2–6 week baseline period and throughout treatment. Three of the eight participants demonstrated reliable pre- to post-treatment clinical improvements on depression and stress scales, and one participant demonstrated a reliable reduction on an anxiety scale. Two participants demonstrated a reliable improvement in overall anxiety. The results indicate that the UP applied to individuals diagnosed with primary BPD may lead to clinical improvement in depression, stress and anxiety for some individuals. However, the majority of individuals with BPD in our sample did not show strong improvement, and this suggests the need for additional sessions of UP or an intervention that focuses on the symptoms of BPD specifically for some women.
Key learning aims
(1)To describe the applicability of the Unified Protocol in the treatment of individuals with borderline personality and co-occurring anxiety or depression.
(2)To understand the value of utilizing a transdiagnostic approach as an alternative to diagnosis-specific approaches to treatment.
(3)To identify the four core modules of the Unified Protocol and describe the general format for individual treatment.
Growth rate is a major component of feed efficiency when estimating residual feed intake (RFI). Quantile regression (QR) methodology can be used to identify animals with different growth trajectories. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of QR to identify phenotypic and genetic differences in pigs selected for low RFI. Using performance data on 750 Yorkshire pigs selected for low RFI, individual average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), RFI and Gompertz growth curve parameters (asymptotic weight (a), inflection point (b) and decay parameter (c)) were estimated for each pig. Using QR methodology, three Gompertz growth curves were estimated for the whole population for three quantiles (0.1, 0.5 and 0.9) of the BW data. Each animal was classified into one of the quantile regression groups (QRG) based on their overall Euclidian distance between each observed and estimated BW from the quantile growth curves. These three curves were also estimated using only part of the data (generations −1 to 3, and −1 to 4) in order to evaluate the agreement classification rate of animals from later generations into QRGs. We evaluated the effect of QRG on growth parameters and performance traits. Genetic parameters were estimated for these traits, as well as for QRG. In addition, genetic trends for each QRG were estimated. Three distinct growth curves were observed for animals classified into either quantiles 0.1 (QRG0.1), 0.5 (QRG0.5) or 0.9 (QRG0.9). When only part of the data was used to estimate quantile growth curves, all animals from QRG0.1 were correctly classified in their group. Animals in QRG0.1 had significantly lower ADFI, ADG and RFI, and greater a, b and c than animals in the other groups. Quantile regression groups analysed as a trait was highly heritable (0.41) and had high (0.8) and moderate (0.46) genetic correlations with ADG and RFI, respectively. Selection for reduced RFI increased the number of animals classified as QRG0.1 in the population. Overall, downward genetic trends were observed for all traits as a function of selection for reduced RFI. However, QRG0.1 was the only group that had a positive genetic trend for ADG. Altogether, these results indicate that selection for reduced RFI changes the shape of growth curves in Yorkshire in pigs, and that QR methodology was able to identify animals having different genetic potential for feed efficiency, bringing a new opportunity to improve selection for reduced RFI.