To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) is a statistical ordination technique commonly applied to morphology-based cladistic matrices to study macroevolutionary patterns, morphospace occupation, and disparity. However, PCoA-based morphospaces are dissociated from the original data; therefore, whether such morphospaces accurately reflect body-plan disparity or extrinsic factors, such as body size, remains uncertain. We collated nine character–taxon matrices of dinosaurs together with body-mass estimates for all taxa and tested for relationships between body size and both the principal axis of variation (i.e., PCo1) and the entire set of PCo scores. The possible effects of body size on macroevolutionary hypotheses derived from ordinated matrices were tested by reevaluating evidence for the accelerated accumulation of avian-type traits indicated by a strong directional shift in PCo1 scores in hypothetical ancestors of modern birds. Body mass significantly accounted for, on average, approximately 50% and 16% of the phylogenetically corrected variance in PCo1 and all PCo scores, respectively. Along the avian stem lineage, approximately 30% of the morphological variation is attributed to the reconstructed body masses of each ancestor. When the effects of body size are adjusted, the period of accelerated trait accumulation is replaced by a more gradual, additive process. Our results indicate that even at low proportions of variance, body size can noticeably affect macroevolutionary hypotheses generated from ordinated morphospaces. Future studies should thoroughly explore the nature of their character data in association with PCoA-based morphospaces and use a residual/covariate approach to account for potential correlations with body size.
The apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype has been found to affect the expression of several neuropsychiatric disorders. We determined ApoE genotype frequencies and their relationship to primary negative symptoms in 61 non-deficit and 45 deficit schizophrenic patients, and compared them with 98 control subjects. No difference was observed when genotype or allele frequencies were compared between the three groups. Our data do not support a role for ApoE in the phenotypic expression of schizophrenia.
Despite the number of rating scales for mood disorder and semi-structured interview in psychiatry, they are few evaluations focused on bipolar disorder. Here, we report the validation of the French version of the ADE used in STEP-BD (Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder) studies.
A total of 63 bipolar patients completed the ADE and French version of the DIGS (Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies). We compared the results between the two evaluations.
There was a very good concordance between the two interview for the diagnosis of the type of bipolar diagnosis (κ = 1) and non-significative difference between the age at onset. The concordance coefficient was weak for addictions: alcohol (κ = 0.22) and cannabis (κ = 0.16), for anxiety disorder: panic attacks (κ = 0.35), phobia (κ = 0.36), obsessive-compulsive disorder (κ = 0) and anorexia (κ = 0.04), but stronger for psychosis: delusion (κ = 0.78), hallucinations (κ = 0.69), suicidal attempts (κ = 0.97), violence (κ = 0.47) and bulimia (κ = 0.47).
The affective disorder evaluation seems to be a useful instrument in clinical practice and in psychopharmacological studies, but not when the diagnosis of comorbities is necessary.
The aim of this study was to test that deficit (D) schizophrenic patients as defined by Carpenter et al had a higher prevalence of family history of schizophrenia but less obstetric complications than non-deficit (ND) patients. A lower rate of obstetric complications but an excess of schizophrenic and a higher rate of alcoholism family antecedents in 18 D patients compared to 23 ND patients were found. These results could suggest that there is a different weight of genetic and early environmental factors in D and ND patients.
People with major mental disorders are more likely to be violent than other members of the general population. What is contoversial is the influence of the patients’ environnemental violence as regards their aggressive behaviors.
The aim of the study was to assess the violence of patients with psychotic disorders regarding the crime rate in the patients’ community.
We have led a prospective multicentre study in 9 French cities-each of them having different crime rates. Eligible patients were psychotic involuntary patients hospitalized in the cities’acute admission psychiatric wards. During their treatments, any kind of the patients’aggressive behavior has been reported by the OAS (Overt Aggresion Scale).
From June 2010 to May 2011, 95 patients have been included. Seventy-nine per cent of the patients were violent during their hospitalizations. The patients’violence was mostly verbal (65%). In a bivariate analysis, the patients’violence was significantly associated to different factors: male gender, the patients's violence history, substance abuse, manic or mixed disorder, the symptoms severity measured by the BPRS, the insight degree and the crime rate in the city. In a multivariate analysis, the only significant factors associated with the patients’violence were substance abuse, the symptoms severity and the patients’cities’crime rates.
The results are in accordance with the literature on the risk factors of violent behaviors.The environnemental factor-wich was until now not so much studied-also appears highly associated to this risk.
These results suggest that the violence within the psychotic patients’environnement could represent a risk of violence during the treatment.
There is considerable evidence that various psychiatric conditions can be prevented through the implementation of effective evidence-based interventions. Since a large proportion of lifetime mental illness starts before adulthood, such interventions are particularly important during childhood and adolescence. Prevention is important for the sustainable reduction of the burden of mental disorder since once it has arisen, treatment can only reduce a relatively small proportion of such burden. The challenge for clinicians is to incorporate such interventions into non-clinical and clinical practice as well as engaging with a range of other service providers including public health. Similar strategies can be employed in both the European and global contexts. Promotion of mental well-being can prevent mental disorder but is also important in the recovery from mental disorder. This guidance should be read in conjunction with the EPA Guidance on Mental Health Promotion. This guidance draws on preparatory work for the development of England policy on prevention of mental disorder which used a wide range of sources.
The role of doctors is commonly limited to prescribing medications. However, formulating the psychological component of an elderly patient’s presentation remains of crucial importance. This chapter explores common potential psychological sources of treatment-resistant symptoms through a clinical vignette. The literature is reviewed regarding the combination of medication management and psychotherapy for depression and anxiety.
Public mental health involves a population approach to mental health, and includes treatment of mental disorder, prevention of associated impacts, prevention of mental disorder and promotion of mental well-being, including for those people recovering from mental disorder. Such interventions can result in a broad range of impacts and associated economic savings even in the short term. However, even in high-income countries only a minority of people with mental disorder receive any treatment, while provision is far less in low- and middle-income countries. Coverage of interventions to prevent mental disorder and promote mental well-being is far less even in high-income countries, despite such interventions being required for sustainable reduction in the burden of mental disorder. This implementation gap results in a broad set of impacts and associated economic costs. Mental health needs assessments represent an important framework and mechanism to address this implementation gap – in low- and middle-income as well as high-income countries. Training and support to perform mental health needs assessments is important, as is the use of information derived from such assessments to more effectively advocate for the required level of resources to address the implementation gap. Such a public health approach to mental health represents an opportunity for psychiatrists to advocate more effectively for resources at both the local and national level. This can improve the coverage and outcomes of a range of public mental health interventions that result in broad impacts and associated economic savings, which can be estimated.
Big data and its applicability to talent management (TM) as defined by Rotolo et al. (2018) has already been recognized by many outside the field of I-O psychology. The market is beginning to include offerings from vendors for products that use some combination of big data techniques to process vast amounts of data or previously unanalyzable data, which they claim will improve components of TM for organizations. Unfortunately, as noted in the focal article, this “frontier” issue makes it difficult for organizations to separate the wheat from the chaff. Further, with few exceptions, I-O psychology is just beginning to inform organizations about whether and how big data can be used for the purposes of TM.
This article discusses the inclusion of concrete informative elements within acousmatic music, in an attempt to mix acousmatic music and sound documentary into a form of socially engaged sound art. Inspired by existing sound practices that make strong use of the sonic reality, such as soundscape composition or radiophonic art, the authors explain how they aim to address socially relevant topics within pieces where music and information are considered of equal importance. To that end, they give a detailed description of their approach through the analysis of the composition process behind Archipel (Côté and Campion 2016), a 29-minute piece focused on the access to the waterfront in the city of Montréal, Québec. Through an alloy of interviews, sound recordings gathered on the shores of Montréal and typically acousmatic sound-processing and synthesis, the piece attempts to portray the challenges and opportunities encompassed by this topic. Having found the need to go beyond the acousmatic concert format for this kind of work, the authors also briefly discuss how they are currently expanding the project to include an interactive website and a mobile application that will complement the initial concert piece.
Recovery is a key goal for individuals, and services’ recovery orientation can facilitate this process. The independent mental health sector is increasingly important in Ireland, particularly in counselling and suicide prevention. We aimed to evaluate Pieta House as a recovery-oriented service through clients’ self-rated recovery; and clients’ and therapists’ evaluation of the service.
Clients completing therapy over a 3-month period were invited to complete the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) and the Recovery Self Assessment-Revised (RSA-R). Therapists completed the RSA-R staff version.
Response rate was 36.7% for clients (n=88), 98% for therapists (n=49). Personal recovery was endorsed by 73.8% of clients, with highest agreement for factors ‘Willingness to Ask for Help’ (84.5%), and ‘Reliance on Others’ (82.1%). A smaller number agreed with factors ‘Personal Confidence and Hope’ (61.3%) and ‘No Domination by Symptoms’ (66.6%). Clients’ and therapists’ evaluation of the service showed high levels of agreement with factors of ‘Choice’ (90.9% clients, 100% therapists); ‘Life Goals’ (84.1% clients, 98% therapists) and ‘Individually Tailored Services’ (80.6% clients, 79.6% therapists). Client involvement in service management had the lowest level of agreement (36.4% clients, 30.6% therapists). Clients’ self-rated recovery correlated with their rating of the service (correlation value 0.993, p=0.01).
Clients’ self-rated recovery and the recovery orientation of Pieta House were rated highly, with areas for improvement in service user involvement, peer support and advocacy. The correlation of personal recovery and recovery orientation of the service may merit further study.
Despite more than a century of interest, body-mass estimation in the fossil record remains contentious, particularly when estimating the body mass of taxa outside the size scope of living animals. One estimation approach uses humeral and femoral (stylopodial) circumferences collected from extant (living) terrestrial vertebrates to infer the body masses of extinct tetrapods through scaling models. When applied to very large extinct taxa, extant-based scaling approaches incur obvious methodological extrapolations leading some to suggest that they may overestimate the body masses of large terrestrial vertebrates. Here, I test the implicit assumption of such assertions: that a quadratic model provides a better fit to the combined humeral and femoral circumferences-to-body mass relationship. I then examine the extrapolation potential of these models through a series of subsetting exercises in which lower body-mass sets are used to estimate larger sets. Model fitting recovered greater support for the original linear model, and a nonsignificant second-degree term indicates that the quadratic relationship is statistically linear. Nevertheless, some statistical support was obtained for the quadratic model, and application of the quadratic model to a series of dinosaurs provides lower mass estimates at larger sizes that are more consistent with recent estimates using a minimum convex-hull (MCH) approach. Given this consistency, a quadratic model may be preferred at this time. Still, caution is advised; extrapolations of quadratic functions are unpredictable compared with linear functions. Further research testing the MCH approach (e.g., the use of a universal upscaling factor) may shed light on the linear versus quadratic nature of the relationship between the combined femoral and humeral circumferences and body mass.
An experiment was conducted to determine: (1) the effect of excess maternal I supplementation on the thyroid hormone status of the ewe and her progeny; (2) potential mechanisms underpinning the failure of passive transfer associated with excess I and (3) the growing lambs’ response to natural gastrointestinal infection. Twin-bearing ewes received one of two treatments (n 32/treatment group): basal diet (C) or C plus 26·6 mg of iodine/ewe per d (I), supplied as calcium iodate. Ewes were individually fed from day 119 of gestation to parturition. Progeny of I ewes had lower (P<0·01) serum IgG concentrations from 24 h to 28 d postpartum but higher serum IgG concentrations at day 70 postpartum (P<0·05). I supplementation increased the relative expression of Fc receptor, IgA, IgM high affinity and polymeric Ig receptor in the ileum of the lamb at 24 h postpartum; however, thyroid hormone receptor-β (THRB) and β-2-microglobulin (B2M) expression declined (P<0·05). Progeny of I ewes had higher growth rates to weaning (P<0·05) and lower faecal egg count (FEC) for Nematodirus battus (P<0·05) between weeks 6 and 10 postpartum. In conclusion, excess maternal I supplementation negatively affected the thyroid hormone status, serum IgG concentration, ileal morphology and the gene expression of THRB and B2M in the ileum and ras-related protein (RAB) RAB25 and the mucin gene (MUC) MUC1 in the duodenum of the lamb postpartum. These effects were followed by an enhancement of average daily gain and lower N. battus FEC in the pre-weaning period of I-supplemented lambs.
Because of to its exceptional resolving power, Gaia should detect a few thousands gravitational lensed systems. These consist in multiple images of background quasars. The estimated number of lens phenomena in the sky, however, depends on the cosmological model considered. By taking into account the observational bias that will restrict the detection of lensed quasars, identification of these up to a given limiting magnitude will constrain the cosmological parameters.
We have investigated the known gravitationally lensed quasars present in the Gaia DR1, and found that a significant number of components of these systems have been measured and are present in the Gaia DR1 catalogue although quasi none of them have all their components detected. We additionally examined the immediate surroundings of QSOs from the large Quasar catalogue, LQAC3, and detected several configurations compatible with gravitational lensing phenomena. A more global strategy to systematically detect the potential candidates in the various releases of the Gaia catalogue is presented.
Rejecting information-processing-based theory permits the merging of a top-down analysis of visual search tasks with a bottom-up analysis of brain structure and function. This reveals the true nature of the functional visual field and its precise role in the conduct of visual search tasks. The merits of such analyses over the traditional methods of the authors are described.
Despite years of research and practice, dissatisfaction with performance appraisal is at an all-time high. Organizations are contemplating changes to their performance management systems, the most controversial of which is whether to eliminate performance ratings. The pros and cons of retaining performance ratings were the subject of a lively, standing-room-only debate at the 2015 Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology conference in Philadelphia (Adler, 2015). Given the high interest in this topic, this article recaps the points made by the panelists who participated in the debate. The arguments for eliminating ratings include these: (a) the disappointing interventions, (b) the disagreement when multiple raters evaluate the same performance, (c) the failure to develop adequate criteria for evaluating ratings, (d) the weak relationship between the performance of ratees and the ratings they receive, (e) the conflicting purposes of performance ratings in organizations, (f) the inconsistent effects of performance feedback on subsequent performance, and (g) the weak relationship between performance rating research and practice in organizations. The arguments for retaining ratings include (a) the recognition that changing the rating process is likely to have minimal effect on the performance management process as a whole, (b) performance is always evaluated in some manner, (c) “too hard” is no excuse for industrial–organizational (I-O) psychology, (d) ratings and differentiated evaluations have many merits for improving organizations, (e) artificial tradeoffs are driving organizations to inappropriately abandon ratings, (f) the alternatives to ratings may be worse, and (g) the better questions are these: How could performance ratings be improved, and are we conducting the entire performance management process properly? The article closes with questions organizational members have found useful for driving effective performance management reform.
Not all patients referred for evaluation of multiple sclerosis (MS) meet criteria required for MS or related entities. Identification of markers to exclude demyelinating disease may help detect patients whose presenting symptoms are inconsistent with MS. In this study, we evaluate whether patients who present a self-prepared list of symptoms during an initial visit are less likely to have demyelinating disease and whether this action, which we term the “list sign,” may help exclude demyelinating disease.
Using chart review, 300 consecutive new patients who presented for evaluation to a neurologist at a tertiary MS referral center were identified retrospectively. Patients were defined as having demyelinating disease if diagnosed with MS or a related demyelinating condition.
Of the 233 enrolled subjects, 157 were diagnosed with demyelinating disease and 74 did not meet criteria for demyelinating disease. Fifteen (8.4%) subjects had a positive list sign, of which 1 patient had demyelinating disease. The 15 subjects described a mean of 12.07 symptoms, and 8 of these patients met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for somatic symptom disorder. The specificity and positive predictive value of the list sign for non-demyelinating disease were 0.99 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96–0.99) and 0.93 (95% CI 0.66–0.99), respectively.
A positive list sign may be useful to exclude demyelinating disease and to guide diagnostic evaluations for other conditions. Patients with a positive list sign also have a high incidence of somatic symptom disorder.