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Previous research has shown that in a minority–majority language context, the quantity of language input at home is more important for the development of the minority language than for the development of the majority language. In the current study, we examined whether the same holds true for the frequency of specific language activities at home. In a group of five- and six-year-old Frisian–Dutch bilingual children (n = 120), we investigated to what extent vocabulary and morphology knowledge were predicted by reading activities, watching TV, and story-telling activities in both languages. The results showed that reading in Frisian predicted both Frisian vocabulary and morphology, while reading in Dutch only predicted Dutch vocabulary. This shows that reading at home is most important for the development of the minority language. This especially holds true for the acquisition of Frisian morphology, a domain that is known to be vulnerable in language acquisition.
The essays in this volume provide a new perspective on the history of convicts and penal colonies. They demonstrate that the nineteenth and twentieth centuries were a critical period in the reconfiguration of empires, imperial governmentality, and punishment, including through extensive punitive relocation and associated extractive labour. Ranging across the global contexts of Africa, Asia, Australasia, Japan, the Americas, the Pacific, Russia, and Europe, and exploring issues of criminalization, political repression, and convict management alongside those of race, gender, space, and circulation, this collection offers a perspective from the colonies that radically transforms accepted narratives of the history of empire and the history of punishment. In this introduction, we argue that a colony-centred perspective reveals that, during a critical period in world history, convicts and penal colonies created new spatial hierarchies, enabled the incorporation of territories into spheres of imperial influence, and forged new connections and distinctions between “metropoles” and “colonies”. Convicts and penal colonies enabled the formation of expansive and networked global configurations and processes, a factor hitherto unappreciated in the literature.
Among the roughly 150,000 soldiers sent to the Dutch East Indies between 1815 and 1914, the Luxembourg contingent made up a tiny minority of just 1,075 men. Based upon extensive research into their careers, data on these soldiers provide further clues to understanding what drove Europe’s young men to become colonial soldiers. The results of this national case study will be compared with earlier investigations by Bossenbroek and Bosma on recruits for the Dutch colonial army. Similar to the Dutch soldiers, their Luxembourg counterparts had a predominantly urban provenance. However, in contrast to the Dutch, they did not have a strong military background, and it appears that fewer Luxembourgers stayed behind in the Dutch East Indies after their tour of duty. They were more attracted by the payments that the recruiters doled out in advance, particularly at a time of economic crisis, than in a career in the tropics.
The ability to predict upper respiratory infections (URI), lower respiratory infections (LRI), and gastrointestinal tract infections (GI) in independently living older persons would greatly benefit population and individual health. Social network parameters have so far not been included in prediction models. Data were obtained from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study (N = 3074, mean age (±s.d.) 59.8 ± 8.3, 48.8% women). We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to develop prediction models for self-reported symptomatic URI, LRI, and GI (past 2 months). We determined performance of the models by quantifying measures of discriminative ability and calibration. Overall, 953 individuals (31.0%) reported URI, 349 (11.4%) LRI, and 380 (12.4%) GI. The area under the curve was 64.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 62.6–66.8%) for URI, 71.1% (95% CI 68.4–73.8) for LRI, and 64.2% (95% CI 61.3–67.1%) for GI. All models had good calibration (based on visual inspection of calibration plot, and Hosmer–Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test). Social network parameters were strong predictors for URI, LRI, and GI. Using social network parameters in prediction models for URI, LRI, and GI seems highly promising. Such parameters may be used as potential determinants that can be addressed in a practical intervention in older persons, or in a predictive tool to compute an individual's probability of infections.
The 21.65-“law” for disk galaxies has been debated ever since Freeman's (1970) paper in which he found that for 28 out of 36 galaxies the extrapolated central surface brightness of the exponential disk component I0, follows this rule with little intrinsic scatter. Some people think it significant, while others invoke selection effects. Bosma and Freeman (1982) made a new attempt to clarify this problem by studying ratios of diameters of disk galaxies on the various Sky Surveys in a region of overlap. The limiting surface brightness levels were calibrated to be 24.6 and 25.6 magn/arcsec2 for the Palomar blue prints and the SRC J films, resp. The distribution of the ratio Γ = diameter (SRC) / diameter (PAL) gives a measure of the true distribution of Io if the galaxy has an exponential disk in the brightness interval 24.6 to 25.6; e.g. Io = 21.6 corresponds to Γ = 1.32, Io = 22.6 to Γ = 1.50 and Io = 23.6 to Γ = 1.90, etc.
We have made a rotation curve analysis of a sample of spiral galaxies for which both photometric and kinematical data of reasonable quality are available in the literature. From the photometric radial luminosity profile, assuming constant mass-to-light ratios for bulge and disk separately, we calculate a rotation curve due to the luminous mass in a galaxy. Comparison with the observed rotation velocities allows us to derive a halo rotation curve, which can be used to derive characteristic halo parameters. The decomposition into luminous and dark matter is not unique, with as extremes a “minimum” disk (M/L = 0) and a “maximum” disk (M/L as high as possible while requiring a realistic halo mass distribution without a hollow core).
Recent results on 21-cm line velocity fields of spiral galaxies are reviewed. Attention is drawn to the sometimes discrepant results on the spatial orientation of galaxies inferred from various methods. Major classes of deviations from circular, planar, motion of the neutral gas are discussed. Some comments are made about HI rotation curves.
We will briefly review the following questions: 1) is there compelling evidence for the existence of dark matter in individual disk galaxies?, 2) where is this dark material?, 3) how much of it is there?, and 4) what is its shape?
Relations between histories, sources and preservation problematics are explored by evaluating how Dutch electroacoustic musical life is discussed in international histories of electronic music. Some Dutch cases consisting of different generations of interdisciplinary, live, performance-based electroacoustic work are discussed: the work of Dick Raaijmakers, Michel Waisvisz and Huba de Graaff. These cases point to some important aspects of preservation and the formation of histories. An emphasis in electronic music histories on technology and on technological innovation comes at the expense of information on the musical and artistic aspects. For greater interest in musical aspects, it is crucial to have more access to the music itself. The works and practices of Dick Raaijmakers, Michel Waisvisz and Huba de Graaff seem to resist documentation, ontologically and practically but, on the other hand, there is a desire for its documentation and dissemination. For their work, preservation means: making something new while being faithful to the past. It is therefore that I propose to regard preservation as performance. This music only remains alive when we are not solely interested in linear innovation, but in a profound relation with the past, in reworking the past.
I review the observational side of the present state of the debate about the dark matter in galaxies, with emphasis on the core/cusp problem in low surface brightness galaxies, and the question of maximum/sub-maximum disks in spiral galaxies. Some remarks are made about the dwarf spheroidals around the Milky Way, and about elliptical galaxies.
NGC 7217 is an ordinary spiral galaxy with three rings whose size ratios are such that they can be associated with resonances, as for barred spirals. From 21-cm HI line data and BVRI CCD-images of this galaxy we find (cf. Verdes-Montenegro et al. 1995) : 1) a nuclear ring strong in Hα, 2) an inner ring seen clearly in a B - I colour map, and 3) an outer ring, with blue colours and strong HI-emission. After deprojection the disk has a mean ellipticity of 0.04 ± 0.01, while the position angle of the deprojected galaxy changes suddenly at 65″ radius, where the minor axis becomes major axis. Thus a very mild oval distortion could exist, with the outer ring perpendicular to the oval. Merrifield and Kuijken (1994) find from the stellar kinematics that about 20 – 30 % of the stars are in retrograde orbits.
Photometric observations of the zodiacal light performed by Pioneer 10 indicated that there may be very little scattering by dust in the outer solar system. To shed more light on this problem we formulate explicit expressions for interpreting the brightness observed by a spacecraft travelling inside or outside a finite homogeneous cloud of scattering particles. An application is made to the ecliptic zodiacal light brightness as observed by Pioneer 10 and tabulated by Toller and Weinberg (1985). A satisfactory interpretation of these data as well as earthbound observations can be given by means of a model having a particle density distribution or mean scattering cross section which vanishes beyond 2.8 - 3.7 AU. Some implications for the nature and spatial distribution of the interplanetary dust are discussed.
In this short write-up, I will concentrate on a few topics of interest. In the 1970s I found very extended HI disks in galaxies such as NGC 5055 and NGC 2841, out to 2 - 2.5 times the Holmberg radius. Since these galaxies are warped, a “tilted ring model” allows rotation curves to be derived, and evidence for dark matter to be found. The evaluation of the amount of dark matter is hampered by a disk-halo degeneracy, which can possibly be broken by observations of velocity dispersions in both the MgI region and the CaII region.
We present a pilot study on the nearby massive galaxy NGC 1291, in which we aim to constrain the dark matter in the inner regions, by obtaining a dynamical determination of the disc mass-to-light ratio (M/L). To this aim, we model the bar-induced dust lanes in the galaxy, using hydrodynamic gas response simulations. The models have three free parameters, the M/L of the disc, the bar pattern speed and the disc height function. We explore the parameter space to find the best fit models, i.e. those in which the morphology of the shocks in the gas simulations matches the observed dust lanes. The best-fit models suggest that the M/L of NGC 1291 agrees with that predicted by stellar population synthesis models in the near-infrared (≈ 0.6 M⊙/L⊙), which leads to a borderline maximum disc for this galaxy. The bar rotates fast, with corotation radius ⩽ 1.4 times the bar length. Additionally, we find that the height function has a significant effect on the results, and can bias them towards lower or higher M/L.
In this study, age of onset (AoO) was investigated in five- and six-year-old bilingual Frisian–Dutch children. AoO to Dutch ranged between zero and four and had a positive effect on Dutch receptive vocabulary size, but hardly influenced the children's accurate use of Dutch inflection. The influence of AoO on vocabulary was more prominent than the influence of exposure. Regarding inflection, the reverse was found. Accuracy at using Frisian inflection emerged as a significant predictor; this transfer effect was modulated by lexical overlap between the two languages. This study shows that ‘the sooner the better’ does not necessarily hold for language development. In fact, for the correct use of inflection, it does not matter whether children start at age zero or four. For rapidly learning words in a new language it may be helpful to first build a substantial vocabulary in the first language before learning a new language.
We briefly describe the performance and accuracy of the Marseille GRAPE-3 systems. We first give the description of the configurations. We then outline the modifications necessary to optimize the tree code for use on a GRAPE system, and discuss performance and accuracy issues. We summarize the results of several science projects executed with our hardware and software.