The Canada Warbler Cardellina canadensis is a steeply declining Neotropical migratory bird and > 50% of its non-breeding range is within the Colombian Andes. Despite being an abundant migrant in Andean forests, the species’ elevational distribution and non-breeding ecology have yet to be studied, thereby precluding the design of effective conservation actions. During four non-breeding periods (2012–2016), we surveyed Colombia’s three Andean ranges, carrying out passive 5-minute point counts between 700 and 3,150 m asl in five habitats (mature forest, secondary growth, forest edges/riparian forest, shade coffee, sun coffee), recording the perpendicular distance, sex, foraging height, and association with mixed species flocks of Canada Warbler. Habitat variables were recorded at each point. Based on 819 passive point counts, Canada Warblers occupied elevations between 750 and 2,300 m, being more abundant between 1,000 and 2,200 m. Relative densities were higher in mature forest compared to shade coffee and secondary forest, and accordingly abundance increased with canopy height. There was no evidence for a difference in elevation or habitat use by males and females. Within forests, birds foraged at mid-levels, 5–15 m above the ground, and the probability of Canada Warblers occurring in mixed species flocks increased with elevation. Models of variation in relative density throughout the Eastern Andes showed a positive relation with cloud cover and above-ground forest biomass, implying a preference for humid, forested regions. Of the areas in the Eastern Andes with high predicted relative density, ∼ 14% overlapped with protected areas and we identify priority areas where protective measures could benefit the conservation status of the species. For maximum effectiveness, conservation actions should focus on protecting forest fragments and initiating reforestation projects at mid-elevations (1,000–2,200 m), as well as supporting agroforestry practices in humid regions of the Colombian Andes.