1.Mueller, AR, Platz, KP, Krause, P, et al. Perioperative factors influencing patient outcome after liver transplantation. Transpl Int 2013; 13 Suppl 1: S158–61.
2.Gruenberger, T, Steininger, R, Sautner, T, et al. Influence of donor criteria on postoperative graft function after orthotopic liver transplantation. Transpl Int 1994; 7 Suppl 1: S672–4.
3.Blok, JJ, Putter, H, Rogiers, X, et al. Eurotransplant Liver Intestine Advisory Committee (ELIAC). Combined effect of donor and recipient risk on outcome after liver transplantation: Research of the Eurotransplant database. Liver Transpl 2015; 21: 1486–93. doi:10.1002/lt.24308.
4.Schiefer, J, Lebherz-Eichinger, D, Erdoes, G, et al. Alterations of endothelial glycocalyx during orthotopic liver transplantation in patients with end-stage liver disease. Transplantation 2015; 99: 2118–23.
5.Bukowicka, B, Akar, RA, Olszewska, A, et al. The occurrence of postreperfusion syndrome in orthotopic liver transplantation and its significance in terms of complications and short-term survival. Ann Transplant 2011; 16: 26–30.
6.Paugam-Burtz, C, Kavafyan, J, Merckx, P, et al. Postreperfusion syndrome during liver transplantation for cirrhosis: outcome and predictors. Liver Transpl 2009; 15: 522–9.
7.Sabate, A, Dalmau, A, Koo, M, et al. Coagulopathy management in liver transplantation. Transplant Proc 2012; 44: 1523–5.
8.Porte, RJ. Coagulation and fibrinolysis in orthotopic liver transplantation: current views and insights. Semin Thromb Hemost 1993; 19: 191–6.
9.Massicotte, L, Lenis, S, Thibeault, L, et al. Effect of low central venous pressure and phlebotomy on blood product transfusion requirements during liver transplantations. Liver Transpl 2006; 12: 117–23.
10.Sirivatanauksorn, Y, Parakonthun, T, Premasathian, N, et al. Renal dysfunction after orthotopic liver transplantation. Transplant Proc 2014; 46: 818–21.
11.Yalavarthy, R, Edelstein, CL, Teitelbaum, I. Acute renal failure and chronic kidney disease following liver transplantation. Hemodial Int 2007; 11 Suppl 3: S7–12.
12.Tinti, F, Umbro, I, Giannelli, V, et al. Acute renal failure in liver transplant recipients: role of pretransplantation renal function and 1-year follow-up. Transplant Proc 2011; 43: 1136–8.
13.Scheingraber, S, Rehm, M, Sehmisch, C, Finsterer, U. Rapid saline infusion produces hyperchloremic acidosis in patients undergoing gynecologic surgery. Anesthesiology 1999; 90: 1265–70.
14.Waters, JH, Miller, LR, Clack, S, Kim, JV. Cause of metabolic acidosis in prolonged surgery. Crit Care Med 1999; 27: 2142–6.
15.Prough, DS, Bidani, A. Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is a predictable consequence of intraoperative infusion of 0.9% saline. Anesthesiology 1999; 90: 1247–9.
16.Morgan, TJ. The ideal crystalloid – what is ‘balanced’? Curr Opin Crit Care 2013; 4: 299–307.
17.Morgan, TJ, Venkatesh, B. Designing ‘balanced’ crystalloids. Crit Care Resusc 2003; 5: 284–91.
18.Omron, EM. Omron RM. A physicochemical model of crystalloid infusion on acid–base status. J Intensive Care Med 2010; 25: 271–80.
20.Watanabe, I, Mayumi, T, Arishima, T, et al. Hyperlactaemia can predict the prognosis after liver resection. Shock 2007; 28: 35–8.
21.Jansen, TC, van Bommel, J, Bakker, J. Blood lactate monitoring in critically ill patients: a systematic health technology assessment. Crit Care Med 2009; 37: 2827–39.
22.Kveim, M, Nesbakken, R, Bakker, J, et al. Serial blood lactate levels can predict the development of multiple organ failure following septic shock. Am J Surg 1996; 171: 221–6.
23.Nakatani, T. Utilization of exogenous acetate during canine haemorrhagic shock. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1979; 39: 653–8.
24.Mudge, GH, Manning, JA, Gilman, A. Sodium acetate as a source of fixed base. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1949; 71: 136–8.
25.Hamada, T, Yamamoto, M, Nakamura, K, et al. The pharmacokinetics of D-lactate, L-lactate and acetate in humans. Masui 1997; 46: 229–36.
26.McCague, A, Dermendjieva, M, Hutchinson, R, Wong, DT, Dao, N. Sodium acetate infusion in critically ill trauma patients for hyperchloremic acidosis. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2011; 19: 24.
27.Skutches, CL, Holroyde, CP, Myers, RN, et al. Plasma acetate turnover and oxidation. J Clin Invest 1979; 64: 708–13.
28.Akanji, AO, Bruce, MA, Frayn, KN. Effect of acetate infusion on energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rates in non-diabetic and diabetic subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 1989; 43: 107–15.
29.Akanji, AO, Hockaday, TDR. Acetate tolerance and the kinetics of acetate utilization in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1990; 51: 112–18.
30.Thomas, DJ, Alberti, KG. Hyperglycaemic effects of Hartmann's solution during surgery in patients with maturity onset diabetes. Br J Anaesth 1978; 50: 185–8.
31.Arai, K, Mukaida, K, Fujioka, Y, et al. A comparative study of acetated Ringer's solution and lactated Ringer's solution as intraoperative fluids. Hiroshima J Anesth 1989; 25: 357–63.
32.Naylor, JM, Forsyth, GW. The alkalinizing effects of metabolizable bases in the healthy calf. Can J Vet Res 1986; 50: 509–16.
33.Kirkendol, PL, Starrs, J, Gonzalez, FM. The effect of acetate, lactate, succinate and gluconate on plasma pH and electrolytes in dogs. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 1980; 26: 323–7.
34.Coll, E, Perez-Garcia, R, Rodriguez-Benitez, P, et al. Clinical and analytical changes in hemodialysis without acetate. Nefrologia 2007; 27: 742–8.
35.Bottger, I, Deuticke, U, Evertz-Prusse, E, Ross, BD, Wieland, O. On the behavior of the free acetate in the miniature pig. Acetate metabolism in the miniature pig. Z Gesamte Exp Med 1968; 145: 346–52.
36.Fournier, G, Potier, J, Thebaud, HE, et al. Substitution of acetic acid for hydrochloric acid in the bicarbonate buffered dialysate. Artif Organs 1998; 22: 608–13.
37.Kirkendol, NW, Gonzalez, FM, Devia, CJ. Cardiac and vascular effects of infused sodium acetate in dogs. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 1978; 24: 714–18.
38.Thaha, M, Yogiantoro, M, Soewanto, P. Correlation between intradialytic hypotension in patients undergoing routine hemodialysis and use of acetate compared in bicarbonate dialysate. Acta Med Indones 2005; 37: 145–8.
39.Veech, RL, Gitomer, WL. The medical and metabolic consequences of administration of sodium acetate. Adv Enzyme Regul 1988; 27: 313–43.
40.Quebbeman, EJ, Maierhofer, WJ, Piering, WF. Mechanisms producing hypoxemia during hemodialysis. Crit Care Med 1984; 12: 359–63.
41.Selby, NM, Fluck, RJ, Taal, MW, McIntyre, CW. Effects of acetate-free double-chamber hemodiafiltration and standard dialysis on systemic hemodynamics and troponin T levels. ASAIO J 2006; 52: 62–9.
42.Jacob, AD, Elkins, N, Reiss, OK, Chan, L, Shapiro, JI. Effects of acetate on energy metabolism and function in the isolated perfused rat heart. Kidney Int 1997; 52: 755–60.
43.Nitenberg, A, Huyghebaert, MF, Blanchet, F, Amiel, C. Analysis of increased myocardial contractility during sodium acetate infusion in humans. Kidney Int 1984; 26: 744–51.
44.McCluskey, SA, Karkouti, K, Wijeysundera, D, et al. Hyperchloremia after noncardiac surgery is independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality: a propensity-matched cohort study. Anesth Analg 2013; 117: 412–21.
45.Yunos, NM, Bellomo, R, Hegarty, C, et al. Association between a chloride-liberal vs. chloride-restrictive intravenous fluid administration strategy and kidney injury in critically ill adults. JAMA 2012; 308: 1566–72.
46.Krajewski, ML, Raghunathan, K, Paluszkiewicz, SM, Schermer, CR, Shaw, AD. Meta-analysis of high- versus low-chloride content in perioperative and critical care fluid resuscitation. Br J Surg 2015; 102: 24–36.
47.Wilcox, CS. Regulation of renal blood flow by plasma chloride. J Clin Invest 1983; 71: 726–35.
48.Salomonsson, M, Gonzalez, E, Kornfeld, M, Persson, AE. The cytosolic chloride concentration in macula densa and cortical thick ascending limb cells. Acta Physiol Scand 1993; 147: 305–13.
49.Hashimoto, S, Kawata, T, Schnermann, J, Koike, T. Chloride channel blockade attenuates the effect of angiotensin II on tubuloglomerular feedback in WKY but not spontaneously hypertensive rats. Kidney Blood Press Res 2004; 27: 35–42.
50.Bullivant, EM, Wilcox, CS, Welch, WJ. Intrarenal vasoconstriction during hyperchloremia: role of thromboxane. Am J Physiol 1989; 256: F152–7.
51.Zhou, F, Peng, ZY, Bishop, JV, et al. Effects of fluid resuscitation with 0.9% saline versus a balanced electrolyte solution on acute kidney injury in a rat model of sepsis. Crit Care Med 2014; 42: e270–8.
52.Guidet, B, Soni, N, Della Rocca, G, et al. A balanced view of balanced solutions. Crit Care 2010; 14: 325.
53.McCloughlin, PD, Bell, DA. Hartmann's Solution – osmolality and lactate. Anaesth Intensive Care 2010; 38: 1135–6.
54.Schumann, R, Mandell, S, Michaels, MD, Klinck, J, Walia, A. Intraoperative fluid and pharmacologic management and the anesthesiologist's supervisory role for nontraditional technologies during liver transplantation: a survey of US academic centers. Transplant Proc 2013; 45: 2258–62.
55.Mukhtar, A, Aboulfetouh, F, Obayah, G, et al. The safety of modern hydroxyethyl starch in living donor liver transplantation: a comparison with human albumin. Anesth Analg 2009; 109: 924–30.
56.Zhou, ZB, Shao, XX, Yang, XY, et al. Influence of hydroxyethyl starch on renal function after orthotopic liver transplantation. Transplant Proc 2015; 47: 1616–19.
57.Hand, WR, Whiteley, JR, Epperson, TI, et al. Hydroxyethyl starch and acute kidney injury in orthotopic liver transplantation: a single-center retrospective review. Anesth Analg 2015; 120: 619–26.
58.Bagshaw, SM, Chawla, LS. Hydroxyethyl starch for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. Can J Anaesth 2013; 60: 709–13.
59.Haase, N, Perner, A. Hydroxyethyl starch for resuscitation. Curr Opin Crit Care 2013; 19: 321–5.
60.Myburgh, JA, Finfer, S, Bellomo, R, et al. Hydroxyethyl starch or saline for fluid resuscitation in intensive care. N Engl J Med 2012; 367: 1901–11.
61.Perner, A, Haase, N, Guttormsen, AB, et al. Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.42 versus Ringer's acetate in severe sepsis. N Engl J Med 2012; 367: 124–34.
62.Haase, N, Perner, A, Hennings, LI, et al. Hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.38–0.45 versus crystalloid or albumin in patients with sepsis: systematic review with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis. BMJ 2013; 346: 839.
63.Zarychanski, R, Abou-Setta, AM, Turgeon, AF, et al. Association of hydroxyethyl starch administration with mortality and acute kidney injury in critically ill patients requiring volume resuscitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2013; 309: 678–88.
64.Perel, P, Roberts, I, Ker, K. Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 28: CD000567.
65.Ma, PL, Peng, XX, Du, B, et al. Sources of heterogeneity in trials reporting hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 or 0.42 associated excess mortality in septic patients: a systematic review and meta-regression. Chin Med J 2015; 128: 2374–82.
66.Dart, AB, Mutter, TC, Ruth, CA, Taback, SP. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) versus other fluid therapies: effects on kidney function. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; 20: CD007594.
67.Mutter, TC, Ruth, CA, Dart, AB. Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) versus other fluid therapies: effects on kidney function. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 7: CD007594.
68.Niemi, TT, Suojaranta-Ylinen, RT, Kukkonen, SI, Kuitunen, AH. Gelatin and hydroxyethyl starch, but not albumin, impair hemostasis after cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 2006; 102: 998–1006.
69.Konrad, C, Markl, T, Schuepfer, G, Gerber, H, Tschopp, M. The effects of in vitro hemodilution with gelatin, hydroxyethyl starch, and lactated Ringer's solution on markers of coagulation: an analysis using SONOCLOT. Anesth Analg 1999; 88: 483–8.
70.Hartog, CS, Reuter, D, Loesche, W, Hofmann, M, Reinhart, K. Influence of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 on hemostasis as measured by viscoelastic device analysis: a systematic review. Intensive Care Med 2011; 37: 1725–37.
71.Casutt, M, Kristoffy, A, Schuepfer, G, Spahn, DR, Konrad, C. Effects on coagulation of balanced (130/0.42) and non-balanced (130/0.4) hydroxyethyl starch or gelatin compared with balanced Ringer's solution: an in vitro study using two different viscoelastic coagulation tests ROTEM™ and SONOCLOT™. Br J Anaesth 2010; 105: 273–81.
72.Demir, A, Aydınlı, B, Toprak, HI, et al. Impact of 6% starch 130/0.4 and 4% gelatin infusion on kidney function in living-donor liver transplantation. Transplant Proc 2015; 47: 1883–9.
73.Thomas-Rueddel, DO, Vlasakov, V, Reinhart, K, et al. Safety of gelatin for volume resuscitation – a systematic review and meta-analysis. Intensive Care Med 2012; 38: 1134–42.
74.Victorian Consultative Council on Anaesthetic Mortality and Morbidity. 10th Report of the Victorian Consultative Council on Anaesthetic Mortality and Morbidity, May 2011, Melbourne, Victoria: Department of Health. http://www.health.vic.gov.au/vccamm/vccamm-reports.htm (accessed 21 June 2015).
75.Jacob, M, Paul, O, Mehringer, L, et al. Albumin augmentation improves condition of guinea pig hearts after 4 hr of cold ischemia. Transplantation 2009; 87: 956–65.
76.Kozar, RA, Peng, Z, Zhang, R, et al. Plasma restoration of endothelial glycocalyx in a rodent model of hemorrhagic shock. Anesth Analg 2011; 112: 1289–95.
77.Dawidson, IJ, Sandor, ZF, Coorpender, J, et al. Intraoperative albumin administration affects the outcome of cadaver renal transplantation. Transplantation 1992; 53: 774–82.
78.Pockaj, BA, Yang, JC, Lotze, MT, et al. A prospective randomized trial evaluating colloid versus crystalloid resuscitation in the treatment of the vascular leak syndrome associated with interleukin-2 therapy. J Immunother Tumor Immunol 1994; 15: 22–8.
79.Stevens, AP, Hlady, V, Dull, RO. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy can probe albumin dynamics inside lung endothelial glycocalyx. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2007; 293: L328–35.
80.Wiedermann, CJ, Joannidis, M. Nephroprotective potential of human albumin infusion: a narrative review. Gastroenterol Res Pract 2015; 2015: 912839.
81.Finfer, S. Reappraising the role of albumin for resuscitation. Curr Opin Crit Care 2013; 19: 315–20.
82.The SAFE Study Investigators. Saline or albumin for fluid resuscitation in patients with traumatic brain injury. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 874–84.
83.Caironi, P, Tognoni, G, Masson, S, et al. Albumin replacement in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. N Engl J Med 2014; 370: 1412–21.
84.Patel, A, Laffan, MA, Waheed, U, Brett, SJ. Randomised trials of human albumin for adults with sepsis: systematic review and meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis of all-cause mortality. BMJ 2014; 349: g4561.
85.Raghunathan, K, Shaw, A, Nathanson, B, et al. Association between the choice of IV crystalloid and in-hospital mortality among critically ill adults with sepsis. Crit Care Med 2014; 42: 1585–91.
86.Shaw, AD, Perner, SM, Goldstein, SL, et al. Major complications, mortality, and resource utilization after open abdominal surgery: 0.9% saline compared to Plasma-Lyte. Ann Surg 2012; 255: 821–9.
87.Orbegozo Cortés, D, Rayo Bonor, A, Vincent, JL. Isotonic crystalloid solutions: a structured review of the literature. Br J Anaesth 2014; 112: 968–81.
88.O'Malley, CM, Frumento, RJ, Hardy, MA, et al. A randomized, double-blind comparison of lactated Ringer's solution and 0.9% NaCl during renal transplantation. Anesth Analg 2005; 100: 1518–24.
89.Hadimioglu, N, Saadawy, I, Saglam, T, Ertug, Z, Dinckan, A. The effect of different crystalloid solutions on acid–base balance and early kidney function after kidney transplantation. Anesth Analg 2008; 107: 264–9.
90.Khajavi, MR, Etezadi, F, Moharari, RS, et al. Effects of normal saline vs. lactated Ringer's during renal transplantation. Ren Fail 2008; 30: 535–9.
91.Kim, SY, Huh, KH, Lee, JR, et al. Comparison of the effects of normal saline versus Plasmalyte on acid–base balance during living donor kidney transplantation using the Stewart and base excess methods. Transplant Proc 2013; 45: 2191–6.
92.Potura, E, Lindner, G, Biesenbach, P, et al. An acetate-buffered balanced crystalloid versus 0.9% saline in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing cadaveric renal transplantation: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Anesth Analg 2015; 120: 123–9.
93.Schnuelle, P, Johannes van der Woude, F. Perioperative fluid management in renal transplantation: a narrative review of the literature. Transpl Int 2006; 19: 947–59.
94.Legendre, C, Thervet, E, Page, B, et al. Hydroxyethylstarch and osmotic-nephrosis-like lesions in kidney transplantation. Lancet 1993; 342: 248–9.
95.Cittanova, ML, Leblanc, I, Legendre, C, et al. Effect of hydroxyethylstarch in brain-dead kidney donors on renal function in kidney-transplant recipients. Lancet 1996; 348: 1620.
96.Bernard, C, Alain, M, Simone, C, Xavier, M, Jean-Francois, M. Hydroxyethylstarch and osmotic nephrosis-like lesions in kidney transplants. Lancet 1996; 348: 1595.
97.Baron, JF. Adverse effects of colloids on renal function. In: Vincent, JL, ed. Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine. Berlin: Springer, 2000: 486–93.
98.Patel, MS, Niemann, CU, Sally, MB, et al. The impact of hydroxyethyl starch use in deceased organ donors on the development of delayed graft function in kidney transplant recipients: a propensity-adjusted analysis. Am J Transplant 2015; 15: 2152–8.