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Geomechanics is the science of how rocks deform, sometimes to failure, due to changes in stress, temperature, and other environmental processes. Pore pressure is also very important, as it plays a significant role in these processes. Geopressure plays an important role in all aspects of geomechanics. Changes in pore pressure alter the state of effective stress acting on the subsurface formations. Increase in effective stress can cause failure by compaction or shearing. Therefore, the ability to model the stresses and their responses to different pore pressure scenarios is of importance for engineering projects associated with any subsurface infrastructure, including borehole design, hydrocarbon development, and production planning in the oil and gas industry. This chapter reviews the basic principles of petroleum geomechanics and discusses the use of mechanical earth modeling techniques to model stresses, strains, and borehole stability criteria.
In the present paper, the authors investigated the microstructures and mechanical properties of dual-phase Co–Ti–V-based superalloys with different additions of Ru. The results showed that with the increase of Ru contents, the size of γ′ precipitates of the alloy gradually raised, the volume fraction of γ′ phase slightly, and the lattice misfit between γ/γ′ phases increased. Ru was enriched in the γ′ phase, and the elemental partition coefficients (KX = Cγ′/Cγ) of Ti and V increased with the increment of Ru. The Ru contents have no remarkable influence on the solvus temperatures of γ′ in the Co–Ti–V alloys. The yield strength at 1000 °C of the Co–10Ti–11V–0.5Ru alloy was the highest, while the yield strength of the 1Ru alloy was the smallest. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations showed that the γ′ shape in the compressed specimen containing 0.5Ru remain integrated, while the γ′ in other alloys were cut into several parts.
In the present study, the effect of Al addition on microstructure evolution, mechanical properties, and wear performances of a newly developed Ni–Si-containing complex brass was studied. The results showed that with increasing Al content from 0 to 3 wt%, the corresponding strengthening phase evolves from δ-Ni2Si to [Ni(Al)]2Si phases. Simultaneously, it is of great interest that the increasing Al addition also brings about a remarkable change in morphology of the secondary strengthening phase from dendrite and thin rod to regular block. Additionally, the hardness, yield strength and tensile strength of complex brass effectively increase with increasing Al content, and the fracture mechanism transforms from cleavage failure and microvoids accumulation fracture to cleavage failure. It was also found that the brass with adding 3 wt% Al exhibits the solidification microstructure with the uniform distribution of the block-shaped strengthening phase and has the best wear resistance. This present study provides a potential strategy for further improving the comprehensive performance of existing complex brass.
Distinguished by a marked combination of high strength and high fracture toughness, 18Ni-300 maraging steel (MS) is widely used for intricate tool and die applications. MS is also amenable to the powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process, providing unique opportunities to make small features and incorporate cooling channels in molds. In this study, tensile test samples were fabricated using selective laser melting to investigate the effects of built height and orientations on the evolution of the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the samples. The microstructure of the as-fabricated samples consists of the primary α-martensite phase and fine cellular microstructure (~0.66–0.83 μm) with the retained austenite γ-phase aggregated at the boundaries of the cells, resulting in an enhanced mechanical performance compared with traditional counterparts under the same condition (without post-heat treatments). Random grain orientations with weak textures are revealed in all samples. The XY-built samples display better tensile performance when compared to the Z-built samples due to the fine grain sizes and the retained γ phase. The bottom of the Z-built sample exhibits a higher hardness than other parts of the sample, which could be attributed to its finer cellular structure.
Given the common view that pre-exercise nutrition/breakfast is important for performance, the present study investigated whether breakfast influences resistance exercise performance via a physiological or psychological effect. Twenty-two resistance-trained, breakfast-consuming men completed three experimental trials, consuming water-only (WAT), or semi-solid breakfasts containing 0 g/kg (PLA) or 1·5 g/kg (CHO) maltodextrin. PLA and CHO meals contained xanthan gum and low-energy flavouring (approximately 122 kJ), and subjects were told both ‘contained energy’. At 2 h post-meal, subjects completed four sets of back squat and bench press to failure at 90 % ten repetition maximum. Blood samples were taken pre-meal, 45 min and 105 min post-meal to measure serum/plasma glucose, insulin, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide tyrosine-tyrosine concentrations. Subjective hunger/fullness was also measured. Total back squat repetitions were greater in CHO (44 (sd 10) repetitions) and PLA (43 (sd 10) repetitions) than WAT (38 (sd 10) repetitions; P < 0·001). Total bench press repetitions were similar between trials (WAT 37 (sd 7) repetitions; CHO 39 (sd 7) repetitions; PLA 38 (sd 7) repetitions; P = 0·130). Performance was similar between CHO and PLA trials. Hunger was suppressed and fullness increased similarly in PLA and CHO, relative to WAT (P < 0·001). During CHO, plasma glucose was elevated at 45 min (P < 0·05), whilst serum insulin was elevated (P < 0·05) and plasma ghrelin suppressed at 45 and 105 min (P < 0·05). These results suggest that breakfast/pre-exercise nutrition enhances resistance exercise performance via a psychological effect, although a potential mediating role of hunger cannot be discounted.
The present approach estimates the strength of intensifiers in Dutch by computing their information values in a language corpus, that is, contextual information content (Cohen Priva, 2008; Piantadosi, Tily, & Gibson, 2011) and Shannon Information (Shannon & Weaver, 1948), to respectively explain the use value and the expressive value of intensifiers when they intensify a predicative adjective. Conflicting strength values help in understanding the high number of intensifiers commonly available in particular languages and the constant need for adding new ones. Our approach underlines the relevance of two measures of information content (IC) for ranking intensifiers: (i) IC in context: the more combinatorial or transitional options an intensifier has, the higher its contextual information content and consequently its use value; and (ii) IC in relation to all alternative intensifiers: the higher the surprisal value that the occurrence of an intensifier evokes, the higher its expressive value. We shall investigate the validity of these two measures by researching a large corpus of Dutch tweets and shall test whether the values of these two measures can predict the stacking order in sequences of intensifiers.
The effects of stress-free and stress-assisted pretreatments at a relatively high temperature on the creep properties of  and  oriented Ni-based single-crystal superalloys are investigated in this article. The results show that the creep life of the pretreated samples is shorter than that of the original samples. The variation of the γ/γ′ morphology during the creep process is characterized by the microstructure period. Based on the interaction between the dislocations in the γ matrix channel and the γ′ phase, the difference in creep properties of the two oriented alloys after pretreatment is analyzed. Combined with the crystal plasticity theory and the number of activated slip systems observed in the experiments, it can be concluded that the two oriented alloys after pretreatment show obvious creep anisotropy and that the creep life increases with the number of activated slip system.
Pop-in during indentation testing is a term used to indicate the sudden displacement burst during loading. Experimental data are measured during an indentation pop-in event, using displacement sensors with 20 μs time constant at 100 kHz data acquisition rate. The load–depth response during the pop-in event that occurs within 160 μs is determined after accounting for the instruments' dynamic response. Unlike the response reported in the literature for force-controlled tests, wherein the load on the sample remains constant during the pop-in, a steep load drop is observed after the onset of pop-in, followed by a significant increase in the load well beyond the load at the onset of pop-in. A model for the material and instrument's dynamic response is presented that agrees well with the experimental observations. The implications of these findings for determination of pop-in length or velocity and for performing displacement-controlled testing involving closed loop control are discussed.
The tensile yield strength of high-density polyethylene using instrumented indentation tests with a flat-ended cylindrical indenter was evaluated. The variation in the field expressed by stress and strain beneath the flat-ended cylindrical indenter is investigated using a new expanding cavity model to study the relation between tension and indentation. This model starts from the separation of forces into the compressive force on the material and the frictional one, which is generated during indentation on the sides of indenter. The authors propose a method to correct the frictional force based on the saturation of indentation hardening and obtain load–depth curve with compressive component only. For conversion of indentation force and displacement, our new representation model is applied. By modifying Johnson's model, the new assumption of conservation of indentation plastic volume is suggested. This model proves and supports conventional relations of the strain rates between indentation and tension theoretically. These are verified through the experiments: instrumented indentation and uniaxial tensile test. The authors find a good agreement between the tensile yield strengths at various strain rates.
This paper presents a recent study on recycling poly-ethylene-tetraphylate (PET), known as plastic waste material in Ghana, to wealth. Composites were produced by heating aggregates together with shredded PET plastic waste material, while bitumen was added to the plastic-coated aggregates. The composites produced were reinforced with 4.5 wt%, 9.0 wt%, 13.6 wt%, and 18.0 wt% PET. Mechanical properties of the fabricated composite samples were studied with a Universal testing machine for optimization. The work demonstrated that shredded PET plastic waste material acts as a strong binding agent for bitumen that can improve on the shelf life of the asphalt. From the results, 13.6 wt% concentration of PET was shown to experience the maximum compressive strength and flexural strength. Besides, water resistance was shown to increase with PET concentrations/weight fraction. From the data characterized 13.6 wt% of PET plastic gives the optimum plastic concentration that enhances the rheological properties of bitumen. The implications of the result are therefore discussed for the use of 13.6 wt% PET in road construction.
The feasibility of using kimberlite tailings as aggregates in concrete was assessed. Compressive strength and selected durability tests were carried out on concretes made using various replacement levels (0, 40, 60 and 100%) fine and/or coarse blended crushed andesite and kimberlite tailings as aggregates. A w/b ratio of 0.50 and a CEM I 52.5R were used. The results show that the kimberlite tailings as aggregates have a relatively high water demand which was manifested as a reduction in workability of the fresh concretes with kimberlite tailings as a proportion of either fine and/or coarse aggregates. The results also showed that the use of the kimberlite tailings as a proportion of either fine or coarse aggregates in concrete resulted in a decrease in both compressive strength and durability properties viz water sorptivity and oxygen permeability. This was partly attributed to the low workability of the concretes which is known to limit the degree of compaction of fresh concrete. It is envisaged that careful concrete mix proportioning including the use of admixtures and pre-wetting of the aggregates can be used to offset the negative effects of high water demand of the kimberlite aggregates.
The effect of the combined chemical treatment of sisal fibres through the subsequent processes of mercerisation (alkali-treatment), then silane treatment and eventually acid hydrolysis, on sisal fibre were investigated. The effect of the treated fibres on the tensile strength and stiffness, flexural strength and stiffness, compression strength and shear strength of their composites with epoxy resin were also studied. Scanning electron microscopy studies of the surfaces of the treated and untreated fibres showed that the chemical treatment processes enhanced the removal of surface extractives and therefore increased the roughness of the surfaces of the fibres in the range of 20 % - 70 %. This avails an increased reinforcement surface area for interlocking with matrix and is, therefore, expected to enhance adhesion of the two. The treated fibre reinforced composites were observed to have higher values of tensile strength and stiffness, flexural strength and stiffness, compression strength and shear strength than the un-treated fibre reinforced composites. These higher values were attributed to better interfacial bonding due to better mechanical interlocking between the treated fibres and epoxy resin arising from the increased roughness of the treated fibres.
The influence of low curing temperatures (5, 10 and 15 ± 2 °C) on the strength and durability properties of ground granulated blastfurnace slag (GGBS) and ground granulated Corex slag (GGCS) concretes was studied. A standard curing temperature of 23 ± 2 °C) was also used for comparative purposes. Test specimens were cast using 100% CEM I 52.5N (PC), and three PC/Slag (GGBS or GGCS) replacement ratios of 50/50, 65/35 and 80/20, and a w/b ratio of 0.40. The specimens were cured for 28 days by submersion in water at the respective curing temperatures and then tested for durability. Durability was assessed using oxygen permeability, water sorptivity and chloride conductivity tests. The results showed that durability of the concretes decreased as the curing temperature decreased – gas permeability and water sorptivity increased while chloride resistance decreased. It was also observed that at a given curing temperature, the slag blended concretes showed superior durability performance than the plain PC concretes.
This work reports on the use of diatomaceous earth (DE) waste and organic binder derived from Corchorus olitorius, locally known as “Mrenda” in the design of an efficient water filtration membranes. Charcoal powder was incorporated to enhance the porosity of the membrane. The firing was done at temperatures varying from 700.0 °C to 1150.0 °C. The DE waste samples comprised 79.0% silica (by mass) and 11.0% total flux content compared to porter’s clay that had 50.0% silica, 28.8% AL2O3 and 7.0% total flux content. On the other hand, the “Mrenda” binder contained 6.5% total organic matter. The use of the plant-derived binder enhanced the mechanical strength of the greenware by 52.7% and the fired membranes by 152.2%. The fabricated DE waste-based membranes were 15.0% stronger than clay-based ceramic membranes prepared under similar conditions. A sintering temperature of 900.0 °C was optimal in producing porous membranes for filtering of 4.1 liters of water per hour. The pore diameter of the membranes fabricated from DE waste only ranged between 2.0 nm – 99.0 nm. On micro-organisms filtering efficacy, the DE waste-based membranes and those fabricated with 5.0% charcoal were 99.9% and 88.4% effective in the removal of E. coli and Rotavirus respectively.
This study investigated the effect of production and curing parameters on the mechanical performance of compressed earth blocks (CEBs) stabilized with 0-20 wt % CCR (calcium carbide residue). Kaolinite (K) and quartz (Q)-rich earthen materials were mixed with the CCR and used to mould CEBs at optimum moisture content (OMC) and OMC+2 % of the dry mixtures, cured at 20 °C, ambient temperature in the lab (30±5 °C) and 40 °C for 0-90 days. After curing, the reactivity of the materials and compressive strength of dry CEBs were tested. Increasing the moulding moisture from OMC to OMC+2 decreased the compressive strength 0.3 times (4.4 to 3.3 MPa) for the CEBs stabilized with 20 % CCR cured at 30±5 °C for 45 days. Similarly, the compressive strength (4.4 MPa) was reached by CEBs stabilized with 10 and 20 % CCR after 28 and 45 days of curing, respectively. At 40 °C, the compressive strength increased 3.3 times (1.1 to 4.7 MPa with 0 to 20 % CCR) for K-rich and 2.5 times (2 to 7.1 MPa) for Q˗rich materials. At 20 °C, the compressive strength increased only 1.3 times (1.1 to 2.5 MPa) for K˗rich and barely 0.7 times (2 to 3.4 MPa) for Q-rich materials. These suggest that CCR is useful for stabilization and improving the performances of CEBs in hot regions.
Plasma incineration might be a promising technique for the conditioning of various radioactive waste streams. Assessing the long-term durability of the plasma slag is essential to predict its performance during long-term disposal. In this paper, the stability of six plasma treated surrogate cemented concentrates or resins in a high pH environment is investigated. The slags were crushed (2 different granulometries) and immobilized in a cement matrix, after which samples were submitted to long-term durability tests (stability under water at 20 °C; stability in a high relative humidity environment at 38 °C) and to an accelerated Alkali-Silica-Reaction (ASR) test (1 M NaOH at 80 °C). The first results show that the expansion and strength loss of the cement-slag mixtures remain limited in the test conditions, although differences between the different materials and granulometries could be perceived. No visual damage was observed. Some tests are still ongoing and will last 2 years.
A thin-walled copper (Cu)–tin (Sn) alloy cylinder was treated after spinning at 200–400°C for 0.5 h. The characteristics of the alloy microstructure under different temperatures were analyzed through electron back-scattered diffraction. The results were as follows. The grain size at 200–300°C decreases as the heat treatment temperature rises, but the grain size at 400°C increases. At 200–300°C, the microstructure primarily consists of deformed grains. It is found that the main reason for the formation of high-angle grain boundaries (HAGBs) is static recrystallization. For the grain boundary orientation differential, the low-angle sub-grain boundary gradually grows into the HAGB, and multiple annealing twin Σ9 boundaries appear. Grain orientation is generally random at any temperature range. The mechanical property test indicated that, at the upper critical recrystallization temperature of 300°C, the elongation of the Cu–Sn alloy gradually increases, and its yield strength and ultimate tensile strength rapidly decrease.
The effect of length scale on mechanical strength is a significant consideration for semiconductor materials. In III-V semiconductors, such as InSb, a transition from partial to perfect dislocations occurs at the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature (~150 °C for InSb). High temperature micro-compression reveals InSb to show a small size effect below the transition, similar to ceramics, while in the ductile regime it shows a size effect consistent with fcc metals. The source truncation model is found to agree with the observed trends in strength with size once the change in Burgers vector and bulk strength are taken into account.
The effect of off-stoichiometry on the microstructures and tensile properties of Ni3Al–Ni3V pseudo-binary alloys was investigated by a scanning electron microscope, a transmission electron microscope, Vickers hardness test, and high-temperature tensile test. As the alloy deviates from a just-stoichiometric composition toward Ni-rich one, the microstructures constituted by two ordered phases, Ni3Al and Ni3V changed to those constituted by two ordered phases, Ni3Al and Ni3V, and one disordered phase, Ni solid solution. Also, the deviation from the stoichiometric composition resulted in a decrease in flow strength as well as Vickers hardness and conversely increase in tensile elongation. Higher tensile elongation in the off-stoichiometric alloys was induced by the transition from intergranular fracturing to transgranular fracturing. The trade-off relation in the yield strength (or hardness) versus tensile elongation curve, which was drawn plotting the data obtained from the alloys with different off-stoichiometric compositions, was most excellent at 600 °C but rapidly became worse at high temperatures beyond 600 °C. It was demonstrated that the deviation to the off-stoichiometric composition in the two-phase Ni3Al–Ni3V pseudo-binary alloy system was a useful alloying parameter to improve the balance of the flow strength and tensile ductility.
Advanced lightweight materials, including high-strength steels, aluminum, magnesium, plastics, and reinforced polymer composites, are increasingly used in industry. Combinations of mixed materials are becoming commonplace in the design of structures. Adhesives can be used to join a wide range and combinations of materials. However, joining of materials depends on their specific characteristics. The choice of adherend material is one particular and important parameter that influences adhesively bonded joint performance, and its effect should be taken into consideration in the design of adhesive joints. This article overviews experimental and modeling investigations on the influence of adherend properties on the strength of adhesively bonded joints.