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People remember specific earlier events that happened to them by using episodic memory. Accordingly, researchers have sought to evaluate the hypothesis that nonhumans retrieve episodic memories. The central hypothesis of an animal model of episodic memory proposes that, at the moment of memory assessment, the animal retrieves a memory of the specific earlier event. Testing this hypothesis requires the elimination of the hypothesis that animals solve such problems by using non-episodic memory. Most of the research on event memory in nonhumans focuses on memory of a single event. Here, I describe approaches that we have used with rats to move from episodic memory of one event to two events, to many events, and to sequentially ordered events. These studies focus on source memory, binding of episodic memories, remembering items-in-context, and the replay of episodic memories. Connections between episodic memory and hippocampal replay are explored. These approaches may be used to explore the evolution of cognition.
This chapter and chapter 6 are about advertising, which is a paid form of communication by a sponsor. The aim of this chapter is to give the reader a better understanding of creativity and its importance to advertising. Although advertising is only one marcoms tool, it is the most important tool for brand (re)positioning. However, for advertising to be effective, it must possess the creative power to cut through the noise and clutter. The chapter explores the importance of advertising creativity and sets out how to get it right. This is a complex area because our processing of a creative ad can be completely hijacked by unintended associations, which are not uncommon when we attempt anything original. To minimise this, a marcoms manager needs to understand the theory of advertising creativity, as well as how to nurture the emergence of the creative idea, which must be guided by a creative strategy summarised in a creative brief.
Recent efforts for alternative non-pharmaceutical treatments for postmenopausal osteoporosis are focused on nutritional measures. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of table olive wastewater extract (OE) administration on bone mineral density (BMD) and biomechanical strength in ovariectomised rats. Thirty mature 9-month-old female Wistar rats were separated into three groups of ten: Control, Ovariectomised (OVX) and OVX + OE. BMD was measured before ovariectomy, 3 and 6 months afterwards. At the end of the study, blood, both femurs and tibias, internal organs and abdominal fat were collected. After 3 months, the percentage changes from baseline of the total and proximal tibial BMD of the OVX + OE group were both higher compared with the OVX group (P < 0·005). Similar results were found after 6 months, when the percentage changes from baseline of the total and proximal tibial BMD of the OVX + OE group were both higher compared with the OVX group (P < 0·005). Biomechanical testing of the femurs did not reveal any statistically significant difference between the groups. Body weights throughout the study, organs’ and abdominal fat ratios to final body weight and blood results (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, Ca and P) were within normal limits and did not show any significant difference between the treated and untreated groups. As a conclusion, the administration of OE for 6 months protected tibial BMD loss in comparison with the untreated OVX group without causing adverse effects.
The influence of an adrenal medullary transplant into the lumbar subarachnoid space on learned helplessness, an animal model of depression, was examined. The transplanted rats were found to be less susceptible than sham-operated animals to become helpless after administration of inescapable shocks. The effect was attributed to release of opioid peptides by chromaffin cells as it was reversed by naloxone. The viability of the transplanted tissue was verified by electron microscopy.
Treatment-resistance to antidepressants is a major problem in the pharmacotherapy of major depressive disorder (MDD). Unfortunately, only a few animal models are suitable for studying treatment-resistant depression, among them repeated treatment with Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) appears to be useful to mimic treatment-resistance to monoaminergic antidepressants. Therefore, the present work aimed to investigate the effectiveness of s-ketamine and rapastinel (formerly GLYX13), modulators of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in ACTH-treated animals.
Naïve male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to repeated subcutaneous injections with ACTH (100 µg/0.1 ml/rat/day) for 14 days and drug treatment on the test day (open field and forced swim test) with imipramine, s-ketamine or rapastinel. In addition, assessment of plasma levels of corticosterone and ACTH was carried out.
We found that rats repeatedly treated with ACTH for 14 days responded to single injections with s-ketamine (15 mg/kg) and rapastinel (10 mg/kg), but failed to respond to imipramine (15 mg/kg). In the plasma, the levels of corticosterone and ACTH were increased after 14 days of daily treatment with ACTH, independently of the treatment.
The present data confirm development of a resistance to treatment following chronic ACTH administration. In addition, the study confirms the possible effectiveness of s-ketamine and rapastinel as treatment options in treatment-resistant depression. Moreover, it highlights the importance of the glutamatergic system in the neurobiology of depression. Further studies are necessary to evaluate how repeated treatment with ACTH leads to a depressed condition resistant to monoaminergic antidepressants.
The decision by germ cells to differentiate and undergo either oogenesis or spermatogenesis takes place during embryonic development and Nanos plays an important role in this process. The present study was designed to investigate the expression patterns in rat of Nanos2-homologue protein in primordial germ cells (PGCs) over different embryonic developmental days as well as in spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Embryos from three different embryonic days (E8.5, E10.5, E11.5) and SSCs were isolated and used to detect Nanos2-homologue protein using immunocytochemistry, western blotting, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry. Interestingly, Nanos2 expression was detected in PGCs at day E11.5 onwards and up to colonization of PGCs in the genital ridge of fetal gonads. No Nanos2 expression was found in PGCs during early embryonic days (E8.5 and 10.5). Furthermore, immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence data revealed that Nanos2 expression was restricted within a subpopulation of undifferentiated spermatogonia (As, single type A SSCs and Apr, paired type A SSCs). The same results were confirmed by our western blot and RT-PCR data, as Nanos2 protein and transcripts were detected only in PGCs from day E11.5 and in undifferentiated spermatogonia (As and Apr). Furthermore, Nanos2-positive cells were also immunodetected and sorted using flow cytometry from the THY1-positive SSCs population, and this strengthened the idea that these cells are stem cells. Our findings suggested that stage-specific expression of Nanos2 occurred on different embryonic developmental days, while during the postnatal period Nanos2 expression is restricted to As and Apr SSCs.
Clinical depression is accompanied by changes in sleep patterning, which is controlled in a circadian fashion. It is thus desirable that animal models of depression mirror such diurnally-specific state alterations, along with other behavioral and physiological changes. We previously found several changes in behavior indicative of a depression-like phenotype in offspring of rats subjected to repeated, variable prenatal stress (PNS), including increased locomotor activity during specific periods of the circadian cycle. We, therefore, investigated whether PNS rats also exhibit alterations in sleep/wakefulness behavior around the change from light-to-dark phase. Control and PNS Sprague–Dawley rats were implanted with electrodes for continuous monitoring of electroencephalic activity used to determine behavioral state. The distribution of slow-wave sleep (SWS), rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and wakefulness was compared for periods before and after lights were turned off, between baseline conditions and after exposure to an acute stressor. Both REMS and SWS amounts were increased in PNS rats relative to control animals in the beginning of the dark phase. REMS changes were due to an increase in REMS bout number, rather than in bout duration. During this circadian time period, we did not find any sex differences in the state changes. These results indicate that PNS affects baseline sleep patterning in both male and female rats around active-phase onset.
The Subantarctic island of South Georgia lost most of its birds to predation by rodents introduced by people over 2 centuries. In 2011 a UK charity began to clear brown rats Rattus norvegicus and house mice Mus musculus from the 170 km long, 3,500 km2 island using helicopters to spread bait containing Brodifacoum as the active ingredient. South Georgia's larger glaciers were barriers to rodent movement, resulting in numerous independent sub-island populations. The eradication could therefore be spread over multiple seasons, giving time to evaluate results before recommencing, and also reducing the impact of non-target mortality across the island as a whole. Eradication success was achieved in the 128 km2 Phase 1 trial operation. Work in 2013 (Phase 2) and early 2015 (Phase 3) covered the remaining 940 km2 occupied by rodents. By July 2017, 28 months after baiting was concluded, there was no sign of surviving rodents, other than one apparently newly introduced by ship in October 2014. A survey using detection dogs and passive devices will search the Phase 2 and Phase 3 land for rodents in early 2018. Seven (of 30) species of breeding birds suffered losses from poisoning, but all populations appear to have recovered within 5 years. The endemic South Georgia pipit Anthus antarcticus was the first bird to breed in newly rat-free areas, but there were also signs that cavity-nesting seabirds were exploring scree habitat denied them for generations. Enhanced biosecurity measures on South Georgia are needed urgently to prevent rodents being reintroduced.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most efficient treatments for major depression. Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), the animal model of ECT, is widely used to study both mechanisms of action and adverse effects of ECT. As the treatment itself serves as an instant anaesthetic and anaesthetic agents may affect memory functions and behaviour, ECS is traditionally administered without muscle relaxation and anaesthesia. A major problem of unmodified ECS, which has only been addressed peripherally in the literature, is that some animals sustain spinal fractures and subsequent hind leg paralysis (paraplegia). This phenomenon leads to a higher degree of suffering and these animals need to be excluded from the studies. To reach sufficient statistical power, the group sizes are therefore often increased and this may lead to a pre-selected study group in risk of skewing the results. Moreover, the study design of the experiments do not comply with the 3R principles, which advocate for both refinement and reduction of animal experiments. The objective of this study is to systematically evaluate injuries caused by ECS.
We summarise the incidence of spinal fractures from 24 studies conducted during 2009–2015 in six different rat strains and report preliminary findings on scapular fractures following auricular ECS.
In total, 12.8% of all tested animals suffered from spinal fractures and we find an increase in spinal fracture incidence over time. Furthermore, X-ray analyses revealed that some animals displayed scapular fractures.
We discuss consequences of and possible explanations for ECS-induced fractures. Modifications of the method are highly warranted and we furthermore suggest that all animals are thoroughly examined for discrete fractures.
Adenosine is a neuromodulator present in various areas of the central nervous system, including the retina. Adenosine may serve a neuroprotective role in the retina, based on electroretinogram (ERG) recordings from the rat retina. Our purpose was to assess the role of A2A and A3 adenosine receptors in the generation and modulation of the rat ERG. The flash ERG was recorded with corneal electrodes from Sprague Dawley rats. Agonists and antagonists for A2A and A3 receptors, and adenosine were injected (5 µl) into the vitreous. The effects on the components of the single flash scotopic and photopic ERGs were examined, and ERG flicker. Adenosine (0.5 mM) increased the mean amplitudes of the scotopic ERG a-waves (68 ± 8 to 97 ± 14 µV, P = 0.042), and b-waves (236 ± 38 µV to 305 ± 42 µV). A2A agonist CGS21680 (2 mM) reduced the mean amplitude of the ERG b-wave, from 298 ± 21 µV in response to the brightest stimulus to 212 ± 19 µV (P = 0.005), and mean scotopic oscillatory potentials (OPs) from 100 ± 9 µV to 47 ± 11 µV (P = 0.023). ZM241385 [4 mM], an A2A antagonist, decreased the scotopic b-wave of the ERG. A3 agonist 2-CI-IB-MECA (0.5 mM) increased the a-wave, while decreasing the scotopic and photopic ERG b-waves, and the scotopic OPs. A3 antagonist VUF5574 (1 mM) increased the mean amplitude of the scotopic a-wave (66 ± 8 to 140 ± 29 µV, P = 0.046) and b-wave (224 ± 20 to 312 ± 39 µV, P = 0.0037). No significant effects on ERG flicker were found. We conclude that retinal neurons containing A2A and/or A3 adenosine receptors contribute to the generation of the ERG a- and b-waves and OPs.
Consumption of chicken meat enriched with bioactive compounds such as n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAn-3), vitamin E (vE) and selenium (Se) can help prevent many diseases and can be used to deliver those substances to humans. This might be of importance as chicken meat consumption is increasing worldwide. The effects of enriching chicken meat with PUFAn-3, vE and Se through dietary interventions were studied in rats. Four groups of Ross 308 female broilers from day 22 to day 35 of age were fed control diet (L) that contained lard and 80 mg vE and 0.3 mg Se/kg, or diets that contained rape seeds and fish oil with the same level of Se and vE as in the control diet, the same level of Se as in the control and 150 mg vE/kg, or 150 mg of vE and 0.7 mg Se/kg. Broiler carcasses were boiled, deboned, lyophilized and pooled by group. Boiled edible components of chicken carcass (BECC) were included (240 g/kg) in the diets fed to four groups of ten 10-week-old Wistar male rats for 8 weeks. Inclusion of BECCs modulated dietary fatty acid profile in the rat diets. Feeding these diets did not influence parameters related to growth or relative weights of internal organs in the rats. Feeding BECCs with lower PUFAn-6/n-3 decreased the n-6/n-3 ratio in the rat brain and liver, and increased the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid in the brain lipids. Liver cholesterol level was similar among the experimental groups, whereas the concentration of vE in the liver of rats fed BECC with increased vE levels was higher than that in the rats fed BECC with the basal vE level. Haematological and biochemical parameters in blood were within the normal range for rats, but a few rats showed a tendency towards increased levels because of the higher vE and Se level. The health-promoting effect of feeding rats PUFAn-3 enriched BECC was more pronounced when an increased dietary level of vE was used, but the increased level of Se did not provide the rats with additional benefits. Thus, the findings indicate that BECC enriched with PUFAn-3 and vE by a dietary intervention is a functional food with great potential of implementation.
Although the rat model of mammary tumors chemically induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) has been frequently used by several research teams, there is a lack of ultrastructural studies in this field. The main aim of this work was to perform an ultrastructural characterization of MNU-induced mammary tumors in female rats. Some alterations previously reported in human mammary tumors, such as nucleus size and shape, accumulation of heterochromatin in the perinuclear region, and interdigitating cytoplasmic processes between cancer cells were also observed in MNU-induced mammary tumors. Although a low number of samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy in the present study, we consider that it may contribute to a better understanding of MNU-induced mammary carcinogenesis in a rat model. The ultrastructural characteristics of the two most frequently diagnosed mammary carcinomas described in the present work can be useful to differentiate them from other histological patterns. In addition, the loss of cytoplasm in neoplastic cells and formation of vacuoles were described.
Neuroimaging studies of depression considered as a stress-related disorder have shown uncoupling in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc). We hypothesised that the mismatch change of rCBF and rCMRglc could be a stress-related phenomenon.
We exposed male rats to 15-min period of forced swim (FS), followed by the measurement of rCBF using N-isopropyl-4-[123I] iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) and rCMRglc using 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG).
The uptake rate of 18F-FDG in the FS group showed a significant decrease in the prefrontal cortex (0.86±0.20%ID/g, p<0.01) and thalamus (0.77±0.17%ID/g, p<0.05) and tended to be lower in the hippocampus (0.58±0.13%ID/g) and cerebellum (0.59±0.13%ID/g) without overt alteration in the uptake rate of 123I-IMP.
The FS stress can cause mismatch change of rCBF and rCMRglc, which reflect a stress-related phenomenon.
Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a metastrongyloid nematode found widely in the Asia-Pacific region, and the aetiological agent of angiostrongyliasis; a disease characterized by eosinophilic meningitis. Rattus rats are definitive hosts of A. cantonensis, while intermediate hosts include terrestrial and aquatic molluscs. Humans are dead-end hosts that usually become infected upon ingestion of infected molluscs. A presumptive diagnosis is often made based on clinical features, a history of mollusc consumption, eosinophilic pleocytosis in cerebral spinal fluid, and advanced imaging such as computed tomography. Serological tests are available for angiostrongyliasis, though many tests are still under development. While there is no treatment consensus, therapy often includes a combination of anthelmintics and corticosteroids. Angiostrongyliasis is relatively rare, but is often associated with morbidity and sometimes mortality. Recent reports suggest the parasites’ range is increasing, leading to fatalities in regions previously considered Angiostrongylus-free, and sometimes, delayed diagnosis in newly invaded regions. Increased awareness of angiostrongyliasis would facilitate rapid diagnosis and improved clinical outcomes. This paper summarizes knowledge on the parasites’ life cycle, clinical aspects and epidemiology. The molecular biology of Angiostrongylus spp. is also discussed. Attention is paid to the significance of angiostrongyliasis in Australia, given the recent severe cases reported from the Sydney region.
Susceptibility/resistance to larval Echinococcus multilocularis infection varies greatly depending on host species and strains. Whereas several mice strains and non-human primates are highly susceptible to alveolar echinococcosis, rats and most of humans are considered as more resistant. In this study, we aimed to elucidate factors responsible for host resistance in rats (Experiments A–D). (A) The parasite establishment was not observed in immunocompetent Wistar rats orally inoculated with sodium hypochlorite resistant eggs with/without pig bile, or activated/non-activated oncospheres (NAO). Peritoneal inoculation with NAO or metacestode tissue allowed the parasite establishment in rats. (B) T-cell-deficient athymic nude rats showed complete resistance against the metacestode establishment after oral inoculation with parasite eggs. This finding suggests that T-cell-independent parasite clearance occurred in the animals during early phase of the parasite invasion. Finally, Wistar rats that received pharmacological immunosuppression using either dexamethasone (DMS) alone or methotrexate (MTX) i.p. alone or a combination of these compounds were orally inoculated with the parasite's eggs. As a result (D), successful establishment of metacestode with protoscoleces was observed in all 3 rats treated with DMS (s.c.) alone or in all 6 rats treated with DMS (s.c.) plus MTX but not in 8 rats with MTX alone, suggesting that factors affected by DMS treatment are responsible to regulate the parasite invasion and establishment.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the most efficient treatments for severe major depression, but some patients suffer from retrograde memory loss after treatment. Electroconvulsive seizures (ECS), an animal model of ECT, have repeatedly been shown to increase hippocampal neurogenesis, and multiple ECS treatments cause retrograde amnesia in hippocampus-dependent memory tasks. Since recent studies propose that addition of newborn hippocampal neurons might degrade existing memories, we investigated whether the memory impairment after multiple ECS treatments is a cumulative effect of repeated treatments, or if it is the result of a delayed effect after a single ECS.
We used the hippocampus-dependent memory task Morris water maze (MWM) to evaluate spatial memory. Rats were exposed to an 8-day training paradigm before receiving either a single ECS or sham treatment and tested in the MWM 24 h, 72 h, or 7 days after this treatment, or multiple (four) ECS or sham treatments and tested 7 days after the first treatment.
A single ECS treatment was not sufficient to cause retrograde amnesia whereas multiple ECS treatments strongly disrupted spatial memory in the MWM.
The retrograde amnesia after multiple ECS is a cumulative effect of repeated treatments rather than a delayed effect after a single ECS.
Obesity and osteoporosis may have their origins in early postnatal life. This study was designed to evaluate whether flaxseed flour use during lactation period bears effect on body adiposity and skeletal structure of male rat pups at weaning. At birth, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to control and experimental (FF) groups, whose dams were treated with control or flaxseed flour diet, respectively, during lactation. At 21 days of age, pups were weaned to assess body mass, length and composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The animals were then sacrificed to carry out analysis of serum profile, intra-abdominal adipocyte morphology and femur characteristics. Differences were considered significant when P<0.05. The FF group displayed the following characteristics (P<0.05): higher body mass, length, bone mineral content, bone area and concentrations of osteoprotegerin, osteocalcin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; higher levels of stearic, α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids and lower levels of arachidonic acid and cholesterol; smaller adipocyte area; and higher mass, epiphysis distance, diaphysis width, maximal load, break load, resilience and stiffness of femur. Flaxseed flour intake during lactation period promoted adipocyte hypertrophy down-regulation and contributed to pup bone quality at weaning.
The aim of this study was analyzed if the flour or flaxseed oil treatment contributes to body composition in male rats subjected to early weaning. Pups were weaned for separation from mother at 14 (early weaning, EW) and 21 days (control, C). At 21 days, part of the pups was evaluated (C21 v. EW21). After 21 days, control (C60) was fed with control diet. EW was divided in control (EWC60); flaxseed flour (EWFF60); flaxseed oil (EWFO60) diets until 60 days. Body mass, length and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were determined. EW21 (v. C21) and EWC60 (v. C60 and EWFF60) showed lower (P<0.05) mass, length and body composition. EWFO60 (v. C60 and EWFF60) showed lower (P<0.05) body mass and length, body and trunk lean mass, bone mineral density and content and bone area. Flaxseed flour, in comparison with flaxseed oil, contributes to recovery of body composition after early weaning.
The precocious interruption of lactation is a prime factor for developmental plasticity. Here we analyzed whether flour or flaxseed oil treatment contributes to body and brain mass in male rats subjected to early weaning. Pups were weaned for separation from their mother at 14 (early weaning, EW) and 21 days (control, C). At 21 days, some of the pups were evaluated (C21 v. EW21). After 21 days, control pups (C60) were fed a control diet. EW pups were divided into those fed a control diet (EWC60), those given flaxseed flour (EWFF60), and those given flaxseed oil (EWFO60) until 60 days. EW21 showed lower body and absolute brain mass and higher relative brain mass. At 60 days, EWC60 and EWFO60 had lower body mass. With regard to relative brain mass, EWC60 was heavier; EWFO60 had lower values compared with EWC60 and higher values compared with C60 and EWFF60. These results indicated that flaxseed flour, in comparison with flaxseed oil, contributes to brain development after EW.
The nucleoredoxin-like gene Nxnl1 (Txnl6) and
its paralogue Nxnl2 encode the rod-derived cone viability
factors (RdCVF and RdCVF2), which increase the resistance to photooxidative
damage and have therapeutic potential for the survival of cones in retinitis
pigmentosa. In this study, the transcription of Nxnl genes was
investigated as a function of the day/night cycle in rats. The transcript levels
of Nxnl1 and Nxnl2 were seen to display daily
rhythms with steadily increasing values during the light phase and peak
expression around dark onset in preparations of whole retina, photoreceptor
cells and—but only in regard to Nxnl1—in
photoreceptor-related pinealocytes. The cycling of Nxnl1 but
not that of Nxnl2 persisted in constant darkness in the retina.
This suggests that daily regulation of Nxnl1 is driven by a
circadian clock, whereas that of Nxnl2 is promoted by
environmental light. The present data indicate clock- and light-dependent
regulations of nucleoredoxin-like genes that may be part of a protective shield
against photooxidative damage.