To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter shows how the British logic of “efficiencies and economies,” or fiscal austerity, limited healthcare provision for Palestinians in Mandate Palestine. Palestinian malnutrition and even starvation were widespread, predisposing them to illness and death. Despite acknowledging the structural production of hunger, poverty, and disease, British officials often culturally condemned Palestinians for ignorance, lack of maternal care, parental inefficiencies, and backward foodways. Rarely did British colonial authorities mention colonial extraction and austerity as causes of Palestinian poverty, hunger, or death. Even when they privately argued for more resources for Palestinians, they did so within a civilizational rhetorical frame. Not surprisingly, gendered-racialized dynamics and material tensions were prominent in the archives as colonial authorities governed Palestinian-serving Infant Welfare Centre nurses and midwives but provided little money for healthcare. Many scribbled notes in the archives related to policing the boundaries of registered Palestinian midwives who dared to use specula to examine pregnant women, give injections to the ill, or independently set up shop.
Indigenous infants are disproportionately more likely to have negative outcomes compared to non-Indigenous infants with sub-optimal nutrition in the first 1000 days playing a major role. This review aimed to systematically assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to optimise dietary intake and/or nutrition-related behaviours among Indigenous infants globally, and to identify whether Indigenous populations were involved in the co-design of the intervention.
Articles published before June 2020 that reported nutrition-related interventions and outcomes for Indigenous infants were identified from a database search. Data extracted included study aims and design, target population, geographical location, the health condition of the participants, intervention characteristics, and outcomes. A narrative synthesis consisting of effects and acceptability of the interventions and involvement of participants in the study design were highlighted.
Population-based intervention studies that focused on improving dietary intakes and/or nutrition-related behaviours of Indigenous infants in the first 1000 days of life were included in this review.
Of the 2784 studies identified, three studies met the inclusion criteria. These were conducted among two Indigenous tribes in Guatemala and the United States of America. Two studies reported the food and nutrient intake of participants with one study showing an improvement in dietary intake of the infants. Only one study reported community participation in the study design, intervention design and implementation, and acceptability of the intervention by the participants.
Engaging Indigenous communities throughout the entire process of nutrition interventions could have beneficial effects through improved outcomes in the first 1000 days of life.
There is growing recognition of the importance of dignity and support with eating as markers of high-quality and older-person-centred hospital services. We use data on these markers from the national Adult Inpatient Survey for England to build up statistical evidence on older people's experiences. We find that poor and inconsistent experiences of being treated with dignity and respect, and of receiving support with eating, affect a substantial proportion of inpatients across the vast majority of acute hospital trusts. There has been remarkably little change over time, although small improvements provide some grounds for optimism relating to policy developments in the period following the Francis Inquiry. Amongst people over 65, the prevalence of inconsistent and poor experiences of dignity and support with eating was higher amongst the ‘oldest of the old’ (inpatients aged over 80), individuals who experience a long-standing limiting illness or disability, and women. The highest rates of prevalence were observed amongst disabled women over 80. Perceptions of inadequate nursing quantity and quality, and lack of choice of food, stand out from logistic regression analysis as having consistent, large associations with lack of support with eating. These factors provide potential policy levers since they are within the control of hospitals to a certain extent. In drawing lessons from our analysis for inspection, regulation and monitoring, we highlight the importance of inequalities analysis – including systematic disaggregation and separate identification of at risk sub-groups (e.g. older disabled women) – rather than relying on a ‘population average approach’.
This study aimed to determine the depression and nutritional statuses of advanced stage cancer patients and investigate the relationship between depression and malnutrition.
The descriptive, cross-sectional, and correlational study was conducted with 245 patients with advanced cancer. The data were collected by using an Information Form, the Visual Analog Scale, the NRS-2002-Nutritional Risk Score, and the Beck Depression Inventory.
The mean NRS-2002 score of the patients was 2.22, and when the cutoff value was accepted as 3, it was determined that 39.2% of the patients had malnutrition. The mean Beck Depression Inventory score of the patients was 35.06, and they were found to experience severe depression. There was a positive and significant relationship between the NRS-2002 scores and the Beck Depression Inventory scores (r = 0.409; p < 0.001).
Significance of results
These results showed that there was a strong relationship between the depression and malnutrition levels of advanced stage cancer patients. Deterioration in the nutritional status of the advanced stage cancer patients was associated with a significant worsening effect in terms of depression and pain.
Many persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) have one or more preventable chronic diseases related to excessive caloric intake, and poor eating patterns. Appropriate nutrient consumption relative to need becomes a concern despite authoritative dietary recommendations from around the world. These recommendations were developed for the nondisabled population and do not account for the injury-induced changes in body composition, hypometabolic rate, hormonal dysregulation, and nutrition status after SCI. Because evidence-based dietary reference intake values for SCI do not exist, ensuring appropriate consumption of macronutrient and micronutrients for their energy requirements becomes a challenge. In this compressive review, we briefly evaluate aspects of energy balance and appetite control relative to SCI. We report on the evidence regarding energy expenditure, nutrient intake, and their relationship after SCI. We compare this data to several established nutritional guidelines from American Heart Association, Australian Dietary Guidelines, Dietary Guidelines for Americans, Institute of Medicine Dietary Reference Intake, Public Health England Guidelines Government Dietary Recommendations, World Health Organization Healthy Diet, and the Paralyzed Veterans of America (PVA) Clinical Practice Guidelines. We also provide practical assessment and nutritional recommendations to facilitate a healthy dietary pattern after SCI. Because of a lack of strong SCI research, there are currently limited dietary recommendations outside of the PVA guidelines that capture the unique nutrient needs after SCI. Future multicenter clinical trials are needed to develop comprehensive, evidence-based dietary reference values specific for persons with SCI across the care continuum that rely on accurate, individual assessment of energy need.
Evidence of changes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic in food security and nutrition conditions, as well as in different food environments, has called researchers’ attention to substantial changes taking place in individuals’ dietary habits. The aim of this study is to present and address changes that have already happened in food environments, during the first COVID-19 pandemic year, in a middle-income country. Multiple changes were observed and had direct impact on the population, among them, worsened health and nutrition indicators and advanced dietary inequalities, as well as on its food profile in different life cycles, if one takes into consideration aspects such as food availability, financial access and dietary quality.
Individuals with discordantly high ApoB to LDL-C levels carry a higher risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease compared to those with average or discordantly low ApoB to LDL-C. We aimed to determine associations between ApoB and LDL-C discordance in relation to nutrient patterns (NPs) using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Participants were grouped by established LDL-C and ApoB cut-offs (Group 1: Low ApoB/Low LDL-C, Group 2: Low ApoB/High LDL-C, Group 3: High ApoB/Low LDL-C, Group 4: High ApoB/High LDL-C). Principle component analysis was used to define NPs. Machine learning (ML) and structural equation models were applied to assess associations of nutrient intake with ApoB/LDL-C discordance using the combined effects of ApoB and LDL-C. Three NPs explained 63.2% of variance in nutrient consumption. These consisted of NP1 rich in saturated fatty acids, carbohydrate and vitamins, NP2 high in fibre, minerals, vitamins and PUFA and NP3 rich in dietary cholesterol, protein, and sodium. The discordantly high ApoB to LDL-C group had the highest consumption of the NP1 and the lowest consumption of the NP2. ML showed nutrients which had the greatest unfavourable dietary contribution to individuals with discordantly high ApoB to LDL-C were total fat, saturated fatty acids and thiamine and the greatest favourable contributions were MUFA, folate, fibre and selenium. Individuals with discordantly high ApoB in relation to LDL-C had greater adherence to NP1, whereas those with lower levels of ApoB, irrespective of LDL-C, are more likely to consume NP3.
Studies have reported that nuts intake is potentially beneficial to cardiometabolic health. However, there have been heterogeneous results regarding the association between nut intake/consumption and the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM). Insulin resistance (IR) is a major pathophysiology of DM. Thus, this study was to assess the association between nuts consumption and IR.
A retrospective cross-sectional study.
Multivariable-adjusted OR and 95 % CI for increased IR (adjusted OR (95 % CI)) were calculated according to the frequency of consuming one serving dose (15 g) of nuts including peanut, pine nut and almond (< 1/month, 1/month–1/week, 1–3/week, 3–5/week, ≥ 5/week). Elevated IR was defined in homoeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance corresponding to the fourth quartile levels within each study group. Subgroup analysis was conducted for gender, glycaemic status (normal, prediabetes and DM) and age (≥ and < 40 years).
379 310 Koreans who received health check-up.
Compared with nut consumption < 1/month (reference), nuts consumption ≥ 1/month had the lower OR and 95 % CI for elevated IR (1/month–1/week: 0·90 (95 % CI 0·89, 0·92), 1–3/week: 0·90 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·92), 3–5/week: 0·94 (95 % CI 0·89, 0·98) and ≥ 5/week: 0·90 (95 % CI 0·86, 0·94)). This association was more remarkable in women, normal glycaemic group and young age group (< 40 years). However, men, prediabetes, DM and old age group did not show the significant association.
Nuts consumption ≥ 1/month was less associated with elevated IR. Increased nuts consumption may have a favourable effect on IR.
This study aims to investigate the association between iron body status and postpartum depression (PPD) among mothers during the postpartum period.
This is a Case-Control study.
Governmental primary health care centers in the Gaza Strip, Palestine.
This study involved 300 mothers a month after delivery, with one 150 mothers that were recruited in the Cases group who were diagnosed with PPD based on Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) ≥10. The Control group included 150 mothers did not have PPD (EPDS <10). Body iron status represented by the index of sTfR/log Ferritin.
Among PPD mothers, 43.3% had low ferritin level vs. 15.3% for controls (P<0.001) and cases vs. controls difference in mean hemoglobin level was -0.61 (95% C.I -0.86, -0.35). The results of the Multiple Logistic Regression reported that there is a statistically significant association between PPD and the body iron status existed, as mothers who suffered from iron deficiency (ID) were three times more likely to have PPD (ORadj 3.25; p = 0.015). Furthermore, the results of the final regression model showed that the other factors that can lead to PPD are; absence of psychological guidance services (ORadj 8.54; p = 0.001), suffering from undesired feeling in the last pregnancy (ORadj 1.77; p = 0.034), in addition to having one of the mental health disorders in the last pregnancy (p = 0.001).
Body iron status might be a risk factor for postpartum depression and other possibilities of. reverse causality may worsen the condition.
The impact of change in socio-economic status (SES) from childhood to adulthood (SES mobility) on adult diet is not well understood. This study examined associations between three SES mobility variables (area disadvantage, education, occupation) and adult diet quality. 1482 Australian participants reported childhood area-level SES in 1985 (aged 10–15 years) and retrospectively reported highest parental education and main occupation (until participant age 12) and own area-level SES, education, occupation and dietary intake in 2004–2006 (aged 26–36 years). A Dietary Guidelines Index (DGI) was calculated from food frequency and habit questionnaires. A higher score (range 0–100) indicated better diet quality. Sex-stratified linear regression models adjusted for confounders. Area-level SES mobility was not associated with diet quality. Compared with stable high (university) education, stable low (school only) was associated with lower DGI scores (males: β = –5·5, 95 % CI: −8·9, –2·1; females: β = –6·3, 95 % CI: −9·3, –3·4), as was downward educational mobility (participant’s education lower than their parents) (males: β = –5·3, 95 % CI: −8·5, –2·0; females: β = –4·5, 95 % CI: −7·2, –1·7) and stable intermediate (vocational) education among males (β = –3·9, 95 % CI: −7·0, −0·7). Compared with stable high (professional/managerial) occupation, stable low (manual/out of workforce) males (β = –4·9, 95 % CI: −7·6, –2·2), and participants with downward occupation mobility (males: β = –3·2, 95 % CI: −5·3, –1·1; females: β = –2·8, 95 % CI: −4·8, –0·8) had lower DGI scores. In this cohort, intergenerational low education and occupation, and downward educational and occupational mobility, were associated with poor adult diet quality.
Flavonoids have shown anti-hypertensive and anti-atherosclerotic properties: the impact of habitual flavonoid intake on vascular function, central haemodynamics and arterial stiffness may be important. We investigated the relationship between habitual flavonoid consumption and measures of central blood pressure and arterial stiffness. We performed cross-sectional analysis of 381 non-smoking healthy older adults (mean age 66·0 (sd 4·1) years; BMI, 26·4 (sd 4·41) kg/m2; 41 % male) recruited as part of the Australian Research Council Longevity Intervention study. Flavonoid intake (i.e. flavonols, flavones, flavanones, anthocyanins, isoflavones, flavan-3-ol monomers, proanthocyanidins, theaflavins/thearubigins and total consumption) was estimated from FFQ using the US Department of Agriculture food composition databases. Measures of central haemodynamics and arterial stiffness included systolic blood pressure (cSBP), diastolic blood pressure (cDBP), mean arterial pressure (cMAP) and augmentation index (cAIx). After adjusting for demographic and lifestyle confounders, each sd/d higher intake of anthocyanins ((sd 44·3) mg/d) was associated with significantly lower cDBP (−1·56 mmHg, 95 % CI −2·65, −0·48) and cMAP (−1·62 mmHg, 95 % CI −2·82, −0·41). Similarly, each sd/d higher intake of flavanones ((sd 19·5) mg/d) was associated with ~1 % lower cAIx (−0·93 %, 95 % CI −1·77, −0·09). These associations remained signiﬁcant after additional adjustment for (1) a dietary quality score and (2) other major nutrients that may affect blood pressure or arterial stiffness (i.e. Na, K, Ca, Mg, n-3, total protein and fibre). This study suggests a possible benefit of dietary anthocyanin and flavanone intake on central haemodynamics and arterial stiffness; these findings require corroboration in further research.
Chefs have the potential to influence diet quality and food systems sustainability through their work. We aimed to assess the attitudes and perceptions of culinary students about nutrition and sustainability as part of their roles, responsibilities and future work as chefs.
We surveyed students attending the Culinary Institute of America (CIA) in the fall of 2019 (n 546). Descriptive statistics compared food priority rankings and Likert-scale distributions of nutrition and sustainability attitudes and beliefs. Adjusted generalised linear models were used to evaluate whether there were differences in attitudes and beliefs across demographic groups.
The CIA, a private, not-for-profit college and culinary school with US campuses in New York, California and Texas.
Students >18 years old currently enrolled in any of the school’s associate’s or bachelor’s degree programs.
Students agreed that chefs should be knowledgeable about nutrition (96·0 %) and the environmental impact of their ingredients (90·8 %) but fewer considered healthfulness (57·8 %) and environmental impact (60·2 %) of their food to be primary considerations in their career as a chef. Taste was the primary factor influencing culinary students’ food choices but food priorities differed by race/ethnicity.
Culinary students believe nutrition and sustainability are important. Opportunities exist to empower them with knowledge and skills for promoting public health and sustainable food systems in their future work as chefs.
The effects of early thiamine use on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between early thiamine administration and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with AKI. The data of critically ill patients with AKI within 48 h after ICU admission were extracted from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC III) database. PSM was used to match patients early receiving thiamine treatment to those not early receiving thiamine treatment. The association between early thiamine use and in-hospital mortality due to AKI was determined using a logistic regression model. A total of 15 066 AKI patients were eligible for study inclusion. After propensity score matching (PSM), 734 pairs of patients who did and did not receive thiamine treatment in the early stage were established. Early thiamine use was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (OR 0·65; 95 % CI 0·49, 0·87; P < 0·001) and 90-d mortality (OR 0·58; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·74; P < 0·001), and it was also associated with the recovery of renal function (OR 1·26; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·36; P < 0·001). In the subgroup analysis, early thiamine administration was associated with lower in-hospital mortality in patients with stages 1 to 2 AKI. Early thiamine use was associated with improved short-term survival in critically ill patients with AKI. It was possible beneficial role in patients with stages 1 to 2 AKI according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes criteria.
To determine the impact of a healthy food and drink policy on hospital staff and visitors’ food purchasing behaviours, and their awareness and support for the changes introduced.
Two repeated cross-sectional surveys, consisting of intercept interviews and observations of food items purchased, were conducted before (March–July 2018) and after (April–June 2019) the target date for implementation of thirteen food and drink practices (31 December 2018). Food purchases were coded as ‘Everyday’ (healthy) or ‘Occasional’ (unhealthy).
Ten randomly selected New South Wales public hospitals, collection sites including hospital entrances and thirteen hospital cafés/cafeterias.
Surveys were completed by 4808 hospital staff and visitors (response rate 85 %). The majority were female (63 %), spoke English at home (85 %) and just over half had completed tertiary education (55 %).
Significant increases from before to after the implementation target date were found for policy awareness (23 to 42 %; P < 0·0001) and support (89 to 92 %; P = 0·01). The proportion of ‘Everyday’ food purchases increased, but not significantly (56 to 59 %; P = 0·22); with significant heterogeneity between outlets (P = 0·0008). Overall, younger, non-tertiary-educated adults, visitors and those that spoke English at home were significantly less likely to purchase ‘Everyday’ food items. Support was also significantly lower in males.
The findings provide evidence of strong policy support, an increasing awareness of related changes and a trend towards increased ‘Everyday’ food purchasing. Given the relatively early phase of policy implementation, and the complexity of individual food purchasing decisions, longer-term follow-up of purchasing behaviour is recommended following ongoing implementation efforts.
Several ADHD teenagers had difficult behavioral problems during countries closing down due to Covid-19 pandemic. One of these negative outcomes that parents cannot control children’s behavior toward desired unhealthy food and the impulsive consequences. It was a great opportunity to convention a teletherapy program as a tool of intervention seeking for help to reduce uncontrolled self- management and nutrition, which may affect all sorts of childhood growth, development, health and behavior. Furthermore, it can affects daily life and academic success.
We tried through our study to enhance the teletherapy as a therapeutic tool, during the first and second phase of Covid-19 pandemic, trying to help parents and patient to overcome the impulsive behavior by using a specific therapy technique based on nutrition and behavioral therapy
Our case study is a young girl aged 12:4 Yrs. In middle bilingual Arabic/ American School. The therapeutic program designed via teletherapy program using multi-media and thru multi phases sessions, to increase focus attention, emotional control and reduce impulsivity.
The outcomes of the enhancing nutrition and behavior teletherapy program, showed significant improvement for the specific goal. Sensible change in the girl’s impulsive behavior, more focusing, emotional control and more accepting about health nutrition habits.
The important finding that intensive, focused nutation and self-management techniques provided via teletherapy as solitary program brought benefits to individual’s, family and reduced impulsivity outcomes. In addition, family education to become an expert at learning simple techniques in daily life can brining a sense of pleasure for long life wellbeing.
Brainfood cluster The mission of EBRA brainfood is to increase awareness of the importance of research exploring the bidirectional links between brain health and nutrition, including the mediating systems, and to use this knowledge to identify novel nutritional, neuropsychological and neuropharmacological intervention strategies. The BRAINFOOD cluster builds new bridges across research disciplines and strengthens links to relevant stakeholders across Europe, including those involved in health and food policy. It gathers experts on brain health and nutrition that by combining and integrating strengths and complimentary expertise has the volume and capacity to develop novel intervention strategies that improve brain health of European citizens, working together with public health and the food industry. BRAINFOOD is built upon an existing network that includes: 1 Discovery, with expertise in human genetics, metabolomics, nutrition, the microbiome and brain health that utilizes existing data from a variety of population and disease cohorts across the lifespan and aims to propose testable hypotheses; 2 Mechanism, with expertise in animal models, metabolomics, the microbiome and neuroscience that tests hypothesis of how the microbiome and nutrients impact on performance in different behavioral domains; 3 Experimental medicine, with expertise in psychiatry, neurology and nutrition with capacity to run randomized controlled trials; 4 Implementation, with expertise in dissemination and policy making and behavior change, to ensure that EU citizens benefit from novel insights gained in the project.
Blood pressure (BP) is a known cardiovascular risk factor that is hypothesised to be inversely related to choline intake. A previous study suggested that this association may be more apparent in older adults and may differ according to demographic and health characteristics. The primary study objectives are to investigate the cross-sectional associations of total choline intake with BP (n 843) and prevalent hypertension (n 2113) among USA adults aged ≥ 65 years using the sample from the 2011 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Logistic and multiple linear regression models for complex surveys were employed for hypertension status and BP, respectively. Effect modification by sex, race, BMI and comorbidity status were separately investigated using an interaction term. Choline intake interacted with BMI (P–interaction = 0·04) such that choline intake tended to be associated with lower odds of hypertension among people with BMI < 18·5 kg/m2 (OR (95 % CI): 0·64 (0·4, 1·00); P = 0·052). Choline intake was not associated with systolic BP (mean ± sem change per 100 mg of choline: −1·03 ± 0·74 mmHg; P = 0·16). In contrast, its relation to diastolic BP differed by cardiovascular comorbidity (P–interaction = 0·03) with a non-significant (P = 0·13) negative direction of association observed among those who were free of comorbidities and a non-significant (P = 0·26) positive direction observed among those with comorbidities. Collectively, these results suggested that the associations of choline intake with BP levels and hypertension risk among older adults are dependent on other risk factors.
Few studies have assessed the association between sodium (Na) and potassium (K) and migraine headaches. In this study, we aimed to examine the relationship between 24-hour urine Na and K intakes and clinical findings of migraine in an Iranian sample. In this cross-sectional study, 262 participants, aged 20–50 years, were included with a body mass index (BMI) of 18·5–30 kg/m2 and a diagnosis of migraine. One 24-hour urine sample was collected from each subject to estimate the Na and K intakes. The clinical features of migraine, including frequency, duration, severity, Migraine Headache Index Score (MHIS), and Headache Impact Test (HIT) score, were assessed. Besides, a multiple linear regression analysis was performed, and beta estimates and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. Overall, 224 women and 38 men, with a mean age of 36·10 years and BMI of 25·55 kg/m2 comprised our study population. After controlling for potential confounders, the 24-hour urine Na was positively associated with a longer headache duration (β = 0·29; 95% CI: 0·06, 0·53) in the group with the highest urine Na levels as compared to the group with the lowest levels. After adjustments for potential confounders, an increase of 13·05 in the MHIS was observed when the 24-hour urine Na level increased from the first to the third tertile (β = 13·05; 95% CI: 1·70, 24·41). Our findings suggested that a higher 24-hour urine Na level was positively associated with a longer duration of migraine headaches and a higher MHIS.
During COVID-19, the Internet was a prime source for getting relevant updates on guidelines and desirable information. The objective of the present study was to determine the nutritional immunity information-seeking behaviour during COVID-19 in India.
Google Trends (GTs) data on relevant COVID-19 and nutritional topics were systematically selected and retrieved. Data on newly reported COVID-19 cases were also examined on a daily basis. The cross-correlation method was used to determine the correlation coefficient between the selected terms and daily new COVID-19 cases, and the joinpoint regression models were utilised to measure monthly percent change (MPC) in relative search volumes (RSV).
People using Google search during the period 1 January 2020–31 August 2020 in India.
The date of peak searches can be attributed to the COVID-19 guidelines announcement dates. All the nutritional terms showed a significant increase in average monthly percentage change. The higher than the average daily rise in COVID-19 cases leads to a higher than average increase in RSV of nutritional terms with the greatest association after 14–27 d. The highest mean relative search volume for nutritional terms was from Southern India (49·34 ± 7·43), and the lowest was from Western India (31·10 ± 6·30).
There was a significant rise in the Google searches of nutritional immunity topics during COVID-19 in India. The local/regional terms can be considered for better outreach of public health guidelines or recommendations. Further automation of Google Trends using programming languages can help in real-time monitoring and planning various health/nutritional events.
Few studies have examined the healthy eating environments within the Australian out of school hours care (OSHC) setting. This study aims to describe healthy eating environments, consisting of: (a) the alignment of provided food and beverages to Australian Dietary Guidelines; (b) healthy eating promotion practices; (c) nutrition education through cooking experiences; (d) staff role modelling healthy eating and (e) regular water availability.
A cross-sectional study was conducted using direct observations and the validated System for Observing Staff Promotion of Activity and Nutrition (SOSPAN) tool.
OSHC located in urban and semi-rural regions of NSW, Australia.
Staff (151) and children (1549) attending twelve OSHC services operating in the hours after school.
Fifty per cent (50 %) of services offered fruits and 100 % offered water as a part of the afternoon snack on all four observation days. Discretionary foods were offered on more days compared to vegetables (+1·9/d, P = 0·009), lean meats (+2·7/d, P =·0 004) and wholegrains (+2·8/d, P = 0 002). Staff promoted healthy eating on 15 % of days, sat and ate with children 52 %, consumed high sugar drinks 15 % and ate discretionary foods in front of children 8 % of days, respectively. No opportunities for cooking or nutrition education were observed.
Afternoon snacks regularly contained fruits and water. Opportunities exist to improve the frequency by which vegetables, wholegrains and lean meats are offered in addition to staff healthy eating promotion behaviours. Future research is warranted to further explore healthy eating behaviours, practices and policies within the after-school sector.