To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Jean Nicod (1893–1924) is a French philosopher and logician who worked with Russell during the First World War. His PhD, with a preface from Russell, was published under the title La géométrie dans le monde sensible in 1924, the year of his untimely death. The book did not have the impact he deserved. In this paper, I discuss the methodological aspect of Nicod’s approach. My aim is twofold. I would first like to show that Nicod’s definition of various notions of equivalence between theories anticipates, in many respects, the (syntactic and semantic) model-theoretic notion of interpretation of a theory into another. I would secondly like to present the philosophical agenda that led Nicod to elaborate his logical framework: the defense of rationalism against Bergson’s attacks.
This chapter examines contemporary queer Asian American literature’s persistent and pervasive critiques of the Asian American family’s disciplining of nonnormative genders and sexualities, on the one hand, and mainstream LGBTQ formations’ anti-Asian racism, on the other. In tracking these dual modes of critique, the chapter suggests that the queer Asian American subject’s displacement from both model minority heteronormativity and queer liberal homonormativity implies that it cannot be enfolded into and conscripted to serve the ideology of US imperial sexual exceptionalism. In consequence, queer Asian American literature has had to imagine and lay claim to alternative forms of belonging, whether by documenting queer people of color spaces and socialities or by inserting queer presences into conventional Asian/American histories.
G. E. Hutchinson inimitable phrase “the ecological theater and evolutionary play” captures the indispensable contribution ecology and evolutionary science make to understanding the biological world. Both concern vast overlapping portions of that world, and alone neither supplies a complete accounting of it. Just as ecological and evolutionary sciences are at the core of biology, philosophy of evolutionary biology and ecology are at the core of philosophy of biology. This book introduces readers to the philosophically rich issues ecology poses. Ecology has also never been more important as a science, and its philosophy more important to society. Climate change, biodiversity loss, and other looming environmental challenges make ecology’s role in understanding such threats and identifying solutions all the more critical. When ecology is applied and its insights marshalled to address these problems and guide policy-formation interesting philosophical issues emerge. This book explores the often ethically charged dimensions of applied ecological science. Topics include: the ecological niche, whether there are distinctively ecological laws, the reality of biological communities, ecological stability and the balance of nature, ecological modeling and reduction, how biodiversity should be characterized, how scientific progress should be conceptualized when ecology is applied, and the fact/value distinction in applied ecology.
Ecology is indispensable to understanding the biological world and addressing the environmental problems humanity faces. Its philosophy has never been more important. In this book, James Justus introduces readers to the philosophically rich issues ecology poses. Besides its crucial role in biological science generally, climate change, biodiversity loss, and other looming environmental challenges make ecology's role in understanding such threats and identifying solutions to them all the more critical. When ecology is applied and its insights marshalled to address these problems and guide policy formation, interesting philosophical issues emerge. Justus sets them out in detail, and explores the often ethically charged dimensions of applied ecological science, using accessible language and a wealth of scientifically-informed examples.
This chapter reviews research examining the acquisition of English /r/ and /l/ by native Japanese (NJ) speakers from the perspective of the revised Speech Learning Model. The research shows that the English liquids can be learned after the end of the so-called critical period for speech learning, but that the two liquids are learned in different ways. This derives from the fact that the English /r/ is perceived to be more dissimilar phonetically from the Japanese liquid, /R/, than English /l/ is. NJ speakers who have received a substantial amount of English input produced and perceived English /r/ with high levels of accuracy due to the formation of a new phonetic category for English /r/. The lower level of accuracy observed for English /l/ is attributed to the formation of a composite Japanese /R/-English /l/ category based on the Japanese /R/ and English /l/ productions to which Japanese-English bilinguals have been exposed. The SLM-r predicts that bilinguals will continue to produce and perceive English /l/ less accurately than English /r/, regardless of how much English input they have received and that learning the English liquids will induce modifications in how NJ speakers will produce and perceive their native /R/.
Here we present the revised Speech Learning Model (SLM-r), an individual differences model that aims to account for how phonetic systems reorganize over the life-span in response to the phonetic input received during naturalistic second language (L2) learning. We first review research leading to the formulation of the Speech Learning Model, or SLM, before presenting a synthesis of that model and then its revision. The SLM-r proposes that the mechanisms and processes needed for native language (L1) acquisition remain accessible for use in L2 learning, without change or exception, across the life-span. By hypothesis, the formation or nonformation of new phonetic categories for L2 sounds will depend on the precision of L1 categories at the time L2 learning begins, the perceived phonetic dissimilarity of an L2 sound from the closest L1 sound, and the quantity and quality of L2 input that has been received. According to the SLM-r, the phonetic categories making up the L1 and L2 phonetic subsystems interact with one another dynamically and are updated whenever the statistical properties of the input distributions defining L1, L2, and composite L1-L2 categories (diaphones) change.
During each Heinrich stadial (HS), temperatures in southern Europe typically dropped several degrees during several hundred to few thousand years. We have developed a one-dimensional thermal conduction model that transfers the typical surface temperature anomaly of a HS to a series of hypothetical underlying caves. The results show that with increasing depth, the thermal anomaly is attenuated, the lag time increases, and the signal structure experiences larger modifications. The model suggests that in most cases, it is not acceptable to assume a synchronous thermal variability and similar average temperature values between the surface atmosphere and the cave interior at millennial timescales. We also simulated the thermal impact of the modeled HS on speleothem δ18O records. The outputs of most model scenarios suggest that temperature changes associated with the HS produce δ18O anomalies capable of contributing significantly or even decisively to the speleothem isotope variability. Therefore, despite controls other than temperature often being considered more important when interpreting Pleistocene speleothem δ18O records in temperate climates, this research suggests that temperature is expected to be one of the major controls of δ18O values in most cave sites outside the tropics and should be included as a significant parameter affecting Pleistocene speleothem δ18O records.
Chapter 4 examines the Encomium of Michael Hagiotheodorites and a series of letters preserved in the same manuscript. Taking its point of departure from Umberto Eco’s distinction between the empirical and the model author, the analysis focuses on the story of a writer in trouble that can be reconstructed based on the encomium and the letters. The encomium offers an elaborate praise of the learning of the addressee, but there is also a more urgent message: the writer is in trouble and he needs the help of the powerful Michael to explain to the emperor that he has been slandered by his enemies. The three letters offer further clues as to the social and historical circumstances of this situation, representing a writer who saves himself from a difficult situation by mobilizing a network of friends. Regardless of Manasses’ own experiences, that situation may well reflect the reality of a Komnenian writer on command.
Archaeological collections are foundational to the discipline. Yet, researchers who study curated assemblages can face challenges. Here, we show how experimental archaeology can play a vital role in the interpretation of old archaeological collections. The Welling site, in Coshocton County, Ohio, is a multicomponent, stratified site with a substantial Clovis component in its lower levels. Using experimental flaked stone replication, we create an analog model of a “pure” Clovis bifacial debitage assemblage, as might be found at a lithic workshop. We predicted that if the Welling Clovis debitage assemblage was representative of a lithic workshop, then it would be similar to the experimental model. If the debitage assemblage was representative of a base camp, however, then it would be significantly different from the model because Clovis people would have been using, transporting, resharpening, rejuvenating, and recycling the debitage—all activities that would modify a “pure” Clovis bifacial debitage assemblage. Our statistical analyses supported the latter prediction. Overall, our study illustrates how productive the integration of experimental and archaeological data can be, and it emphasizes how important the curation and accessibility of both archaeological and experimental collections are to the discipline.
“A City for Pigs” portrays Plato as a systems modeler of a sustainable society. Plato’s argumentative methods, in the Republic especially, are favorably compared to techniques of computer simulation and to the heuristic objectives of game theory. Plato’s views about social cooperation in the use of common-pool resources, for example, are shown to be strikingly similar to conclusions reached via field studies by Nobel laureate Elinor Ostrom in Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action (1990). Plato’s own homology, of city and soul, provides a compelling rationale for both individual and collective action vis-à-vis the environmental and social problems we still face today.
The UK is one of the epicenters of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the world. As of April 14, there have been 93 873 confirmed patients of COVID-19 in the UK and 12 107 deaths with confirmed infection. On April 14, it was reported that COVID-19 was the cause of more than half of the deaths in London.
The present paper addresses the modeling and forecasting of the outbreak of COVID-19 in the UK. This modeling must be accomplished through a 2-part time series model to study the number of confirmed cases and deaths. The period we aimed at a forecast was 46 days from April 15 to May 30, 2020. All the computations and simulations were conducted on Matlab R2015b, and the average curves and confidence intervals were calculated based on 100 simulations of the fitted models.
According to the obtained model, we expect that the cumulative number of confirmed cases will reach 282 000 with an 80% confidence interval (242 000 to 316 500) on May 30, from 93 873 on April 14. In addition, it is expected that, over this period, the number of daily new confirmed cases will fall to the interval 1330 to 6450 with the probability of 0.80 by the point estimation around 3100. Regarding death, our model establishes that the real case fatality rate of the pandemic in the UK approaches 11% (80% confidence interval: 8%–15%). Accordingly, we forecast that the total death in the UK will rise to 35 000 (28 000–50 000 with the probability of 80%).
The drawback of this study is the shortage of observations. Also, to conduct a more exact study, it is possible to take the number of the tests into account as an explanatory variable besides time.
Northern Australia is a region where limited information exists on environments at the last glacial maximum (LGM). Girraween Lagoon is located on the central northern coast of Australia and is a site representative of regional tropical savanna woodlands. Girraween Lagoon remained a perennial waterbody throughout the LGM, and as a result retains a complete proxy record of last-glacial climate, vegetation and fire. This study combines independent palynological and geochemical analyses to demonstrate a dramatic reduction in both tree cover and woody richness, and an expansion of grassland, relative to current vegetation at the site. The process of tree decline was primarily controlled by the cool-dry glacial climate and CO2 effects, though more localised site characteristics restricted wetland-associated vegetation. Fire processes played less of a role in determining vegetation than during the Holocene and modern day, with reduced fire activity consistent with significantly lower biomass available to burn. Girraween Lagoon's unique and detailed palaeoecological record provides the opportunity to explore and assess modelling studies of vegetation distribution during the LGM, particularly where a number of different global vegetation and/or climate simulations are inconsistent for northern Australia, and at a range of resolutions.
Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient in livestock feed but can pollute waterways. In order for pig production to become less of a threat to the environment, excreta must contain as little P as possible or be efficiently used by plants. This must be achieved without decreasing the livestock performance. Phosphorus and calcium (Ca) deposition in the bones of growing pigs must be optimised without affecting the muscle gain. This requires precision feeding based on cutting-edge techniques of diet formulation throughout the animal growth phase. Modelling and data mining have become important tools in this quest. In this study, a mechanistic model taking into account the distribution of P between bone and soft tissues was compared to the established factorial models (INRA (Jondreville and Dourmad, 2005) and NRC (National Research Council, 2012)) that predict P (apparent total tract digestible, ATTD-P; or standardised total tract digestible, STTD-P) and Ca (total and STTD) requirements as a function of BW and protein deposition. The requirements for different bone mineralisation scenarios, namely, 100% and 85% of the genetic potential, were compared with these two models. Sobol indices were used to estimate the relative impact of growth-related parameters on mineral requirements at 30, 60 and 120 kg of BW. The INRA showed the highest value of ATTD-P requirement between 29 and 103 kg of BW (6%) and lower for lighter and higher BW. Similarly, the model for 85% bone mineralisation showed lower STTD-P requirement than NRC between 29 and 93 kg of BW (7%) and higher for lighter and higher BW. Contrary to other models, the Ca requirement of the proposed model is not fixed in relation to P. It increases from 95 kg of BW while the others decrease. The INRA showed the highest Ca requirements. The model Ca requirements for 100% bone mineralisation are higher than NRC from 20 to 38 kg of BW similar until 70 kg of BW and then higher again. For 85% objective, the model showed lower Ca requirements from 25 to 82 kg of BW and higher for lighter and higher BW. The potential Ca deposition in bones is the most sensitive parameter (84% to 100% of the variance) of both ATTD-P and Ca at 30, 60 and 120 kg. The second most sensitive parameter is the protein deposition, explaining 1% to 15% of the ATTD-P variance. Studies such as this one will help to usher in a new era of sustainable and eco-friendly livestock production.
The history of Maya research is a relatively short yet eventful one, peppered with field-changing discoveries and spirited theoretical debates. To fully appreciate what is at stake in deciding on a model for Classic Maya politics, and how we reached the point we now have, it is necessary to retrace the development of interpretation through time, isolating the contested questions and explaining how scholars have marshalled evidence to support one position or another. Since data and analysis are intrinsically entwined they are here treated within a common narrative, stretching from the period of first European encounters to the state of the field today. The division into eras, latterly 20-year spans, is patently arbitrary, but it does allow section titles to capture the general character of their times.
The objective of the present study was to explore the level of intestinal endotoxemia (IETM) in the model of Alzheimer disease's rats which were established by D-galactose and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3).
Adult Wistar rats were subjected to 90 days of intraperitoneal injection with D-galactose and AlCl3 to establish the Alzheimer disease's model. After the administration, the study and memory ability of the Alzheimer disease's rats were observed by Morris water maze; The level of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the sera of Alzheimer disease's rats was determined by tachypleus amebocyte lysate method; The level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) in the sera of Alzheimer disease's rats were determined by radioimmunity method;
Compared with the normal control, the level of LPS, TNF-α and IL-1 in the sera of Alzheimer disease's rats were markedly increased (P< 0.01).
The model of Alzheimer disease's rats which were established by D-galactose and AlCl3 is accompanied IETM.
The objective of the present study was to explore the intestinal endotoxemia (IETM) in the cell apoptosis of Alzheimer disease's rats which were established by D-galactose and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3).
Adult wistar rats were subjected to 90 days of intraperitoneal injection with D-galactose and AlCl3 to establish the Alzheimer disease's model. After the administration, the study and memory ability of the Alzheimer disease's rats were observed by Morris water maze; The level of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the sera of Alzheimer disease's rats was determined by tachypleus amebocyte lysate method; The level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) in the sera of Alzheimer disease's rats were determined by radioimmunity method; The apoptotic neuron was detected by TdT-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL).
Compared with the normal control, the level of LPS, TNF-αin the sera and PD in the brine of Alzheimer disease's rats were markedly increased (P< 0.01).
The level of LPS, TNF-αin the sera and PD in the brine of Alzheimer disease's rats were markedly increased, IETM maybe an important reason of the apoptotic in Alzheimer disease.
Clear scientific recommendations based on the best evidence available are essential in making decisions using all areas of applied science, including conservation. Unfortunately, ecological systems are enormously variable at all scales, and this variability drives uncertainty in predictions and recommendations. In this chapter different sources of variability are reviewed. It is crucial that sources of uncertainty are understood and tackled where possible. Ignoring uncertainty potentially leads to overconfident estimates of effectiveness, or biased outcomes if uncertainty is non-randomly distributed. Examples are given, and techniques for dealing with uncertainty are discussed, including new statistical and analytical techniques that can deal with uncertainties resulting from, for example, lack of information or missing data. The value of collating data across multiple sites or studies is also highlighted, and examples given of how this can help overcome the limitations of lack of information.
The aim of the current study was to explore the changing interrelationships among clinical variables through the stages of schizophrenia in order to assemble a comprehensive and meaningful disease model.
Twenty-nine centers from 25 countries participated and included 2358 patients aged 37.21 ± 11.87 years with schizophrenia. Multiple linear regression analysis and visual inspection of plots were performed.
The results suggest that with progression stages, there are changing correlations among Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale factors at each stage and each factor correlates with all the others in that particular stage, in which this factor is dominant. This internal structure further supports the validity of an already proposed four stages model, with positive symptoms dominating the first stage, excitement/hostility the second, depression the third, and neurocognitive decline the last stage.
The current study investigated the mental organization and functioning in patients with schizophrenia in relation to different stages of illness progression. It revealed two distinct “cores” of schizophrenia, the “Positive” and the “Negative,” while neurocognitive decline escalates during the later stages. Future research should focus on the therapeutic implications of such a model. Stopping the progress of the illness could demand to stop the succession of stages. This could be achieved not only by both halting the triggering effect of positive and negative symptoms, but also by stopping the sensitization effect on the neural pathways responsible for the development of hostility, excitement, anxiety, and depression as well as the deleterious effect on neural networks responsible for neurocognition.
This introductory chapter presents a definition of a formal scientific model. The definition is by Baumgärtner et al. (2008) in ecological economics and includes three properties: abstracting from reality, being designed for a certain purpose and being formulated within the concepts of the respective scientific discipline. These three criteria are explained and discussed along everyday examples, in particular a street map.
Lagrangian discrete models are the most ancient and still most effective models used in mechanics to predict the behavior of complex systems. Their structure is presented here, in a very classical way, which follows the classical presentation given by Levi-Civita. Their flexibility is highlighted, together with their capacity to be used in very efficient numerical codes. They must be regarded as a preferred tool also in the formulation of problems in the theory of metamaterials.