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There is overwhelming evidence to show that achieving full remission in depression is important — especially in reducing the indirect costs of depression. Evidence further demonstrates that in primary care, clinicians are not optimising treatments for depression in a timely way —resulting in them not being able to achieve early remission for their clients experiencing depression. Presently, secondary care is unable to provide specialist input for this client cohort.
This project is implementing a model which extends specialist care to primary care. This project assists GP’s through optimising treatments for clients presenting with moderate to severe depression This model uses nurse practitioner led care, with ‘Psynary’, an online system which optimises treatments for moderate to severe depression.
Mixed methods pilot service implementation study, utilising: literature review of published service implementation models; service data gap analysis; qualitative interviews and focus group methodology.
GP and client focus group outcomes, as well as client remission rates in the OptiMA2 trial demonstrate that this healthcare pathway is effective.
The OptiMA2 trial focused on the qualitative analysis of the co-design process to implement the initial care pathway.The OptiMA3 trial will examine the cumulative clinical outcomes to consider if increased rates of remission are achieved and identify potential predictive factors. The long term goal for the system is to support the development of community based care-extender models, including specialist nurses, pharmacists and GPs, to extend specialist mental health expertise to larger primary care populations where the greatest burden of mental illness occurs.
Chapter 4 is dedicated to a full description of ancient stone tool technologies, explaining how they evolved into human culture. It discusses how these early technologies evolved, eventually carving out the first notions of identity and belonging to a specific territorial range. Lower Paleolithic cultural complexes of the Oldowan and the Acheulian are presented using examples from some of the most pertinent discoveries made so far in Africa and Eurasia.
This essay explores the intersecting socio-material and ethical demands that engineers confront in adapting sea defenses to climate change in Guyana. It focuses on the tensions in climate adaptation that create the possibilities for theorizing innovation as a key theme of counter-modernities in the Anthropocene. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork, oral histories, and archival research, I show that engineers’ decision-making regarding whether or not to innovate sea defenses is a fraught process dependent upon processes of erosion and the ontological (in)stability of specific infrastructures known as groynes. To cope, engineers produce what I call “innovation narratives” to describe how obstacles to climate adaptation are created by combinations of neocolonial empire, shapeshifting ecologies, inconsistent maintenance programs, and fiscal debt. At the same time, their efforts signal an emerging global politics of credibility that is reinforced by desires for more inclusive forms of governance rather than brute power or capitalization.
One of my favourite memories is taking a road trip with friends to watch four games of the FIFA World Cup in 2010. We started in Cape Town, drove to Johannesburg to watch David Villas score two goals for Spain against Honduras, and on the way back stopped in Bloemfontein to watch South Africa’s Bafana Bafana beat a hapless France. The World Cup was a moment that brought South Africans together as only sport can do. Indeed, as Nelson Mandela said, sport ‘has the power to unite people in a way that little else does’. I experienced it very vividly that day in the City of Roses.
Throughout the road trip, though, I was thinking of a question that a visiting geography professor – whose name I, sadly, forget – had asked at a University of Cape Town seminar only a few months earlier: How do you win a World Cup?
This chapter considers the close relationship between child rulership and innovative political and administrative adaptation between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries. Cases of child kingship prompted adaptations to some of the tools of governance, but the boy king’s presence and active contribution were often still crucial. The chapter turns first to the documentary evidence and the diversity of administrative experimentation before focusing on the enduring significance of children’s participation in rule. The third and final section examines practical adjustments to and contemporary representations of counsel, a fundamental instrument of royal rule which could be even more crucial when a boy was king. Overall, the chapter presents an alternative narrative of child rulership which stresses aspects of innovation, adaptation and co-operation. Considering shifts in documentary culture, royal government and consilium by the thirteenth century also reveals the extent to which many of the practical solutions adopted during a period of child kingship differed much more profoundly across time than they did geographically.
There was nothing special about James Hargreaves. Born in 1721 near Blackburn in Lancashire, he never learned to read. As he grew to adulthood his only job prospect was that open to other Blackburn men of his standing: he became a hand-loom weaver who turned yarn into fabric to make a living. From his meagre salary he supported his wife and thirteen children.
Eighteenth-century England was an important textile producer. To produce fabric from wool or cotton requires three steps: carding, spinning and then weaving. At the time, it usually took three carders to provide the roving for one spinner, and three spinners to provide the yarn for one weaver. To increase the amount of fabric, one needed to speed up the process early in the chain of production. And so, in 1764, the story goes, Hargreaves was working with a one-thread spinning wheel when it accidentally fell over.
The main reason for the long-lasting popularity of Lego bricks is their versatility. A back-of-the-envelope calculation will reveal that six bricks of 2 x 4 studs can be combined in almost 1 billion ways. And because Lego bricks made today still interlock with those first made in 1958, the year the toy was first patented, the possibilities for creative play are, quite literally, innumerable.
Two years before the patent that would turn Lego into the world’s favourite toy company, a man called Malcom McLean made the same discovery as Ole Kirk Christiansen, the inventor of Lego. McLean was not in the business of making children’s toys, however, but of shipping goods. On 26 April 1956 he was watching his idea come to fruition: in Newark, New Jersey, a crane was lifting fifty-eight aluminium metal boxes into an old tanker ship.
Predicting the future is a perilous exercise. But that has not stopped us trying. Hunter-gatherers carefully studied their natural environment to predict food availability. The earliest farmers developed sophisticated ways to predict rain. In the eighth century BCE the oracle of Delphi attracted to her temple those who wanted to know the future. Others have searched for clues to future events in bones, marbles, cards and crystal balls. For a quick fix, just page to the horoscope section in your daily newspaper.
It makes sense to want to know the future. Knowledge is power. And power is money. Entrepreneurs must predict the future demands of their customers, the behaviour of their competitors, and the cost of their inputs. In more volatile environments, prediction is more difficult, which increases risk and requires higher reward. That is why it is so difficult to attract investment in unstable times.
Although significant progress has been made in dealing with ancient economies through the establishing of new methodological approaches (like the New Institutional Economics), old-school Political Economy still plays an important role. It endeavours among other things to describe and evaluate the causes which lead to economic growth, thereby including factors which cannot be subsumed under the category of ‘institutions’ (exclusively focused on by the NIE) like demography or climate. Recently, this traditional approach has been intensively adopted to explain and measure the growth of ancient Greek economies between the ninth and fourth centuries, today viewed as an established fact in contrast to the older consensus, which was characterised by scepticism regarding the capability of ancient societies to generate sustainable growth. This chapter presents the most important factors that were (supposedly) conducive to growth and describes and their mutual interplay and interferences. In a further section, some methodological and empirical problems of the way 'ancient growth' is quantified in contemporary research are discussed. In a final section, some thoughts are offered on geo-economic factors, assumed by the author to have had a decisive impact in bringing about 'growth' or concentrations of wealth in some areas and milieus.
You wouldn’t call it a classic joke. It’s more of a quip, to be honest; something you might hear at a computer-science convention. It is said that the number of people predicting the end of Moore’s law doubles every two years. Lol.
For the uninitiated, Moore’s law refers to Gordon Moore’s prediction, in 1965, that the number of transistors on a computer microchip would double every two years while the cost of computers would be halved. It was a brave prediction to make when microprocessors and home computers were still just a distant dream. But despite the countless experts predicting the demise of Moore’s law, as the quip insinuates, it has remained true for almost five decades, as Figure 31.1 demonstrates.
In April 1816 eighteen-year-old Mary Godwin travelled to Geneva with her lover, the poet Percy Shelley. (They had eloped and were to marry later in the year.) They stayed in Geneva for the summer with her half-sister, Claire, and another of England’s great poets, Lord Byron. But the weather was terrible. Instead of rowing on a calm and pleasant Lake Geneva, Mary wrote of a ‘wet, ungenial summer, and incessant rain [that] often confined us for days to the house’. It was during one such dark and stormy evening that a member of the travelling party suggested a game: each should write a ghost story. After several days of toying with different ideas, Mary Shelley conjured up the story of Victor Frankenstein, who creates a monster in a scientific experiment. Published in 1818, Frankenstein changed literary history and is today considered one of the first science fiction books. It still sells approximately 40,000 copies per year.
The extensive narrative of growth and development of the information and communication technologies (ICTs) in China by Jiang and Murmann (2022) and the discussion of Chinese strengths and weaknesses portray the remarkable progress that China has made, especially in technology relative to advances in the basic sciences. In our response, we situate their contribution in the larger context of Chinese economic growth and the challenges it faces in transforming these accomplishments into an embedded national capability to become a leading innovation economy and thereby deliver prosperity to its enormous but aging population. The contexts for the successes and weaknesses in ICT that Jiang and Murmann (2022) describe so admirably are vital for a more comprehensive understanding of their place in the overall development of China.
Over the last 40 years, spending on both hospital and physician services in the United States has inexorably increased, often faster than gross domestic product (GDP) or any other aggregate measure. In contrast to industries such as computer software, hospitality, sports and recreation – where spending has also grown faster than the economy – health care spending growth is not thought to be matched by increased customer or patient satisfaction or improved outcomes. For some groups, especially those that are socially disadvantaged or lower income, measures of health have remained stubbornly lower relative to the rest of the population. Despite continuous criticism of the status quo and calls for transformation, little has changed. Why has this sector of the economy uniquely resisted changes in products, productivity, and services aimed at improving consumer satisfaction or reducing spending growth?
Following the seminal work of Lévi-Strauss, developed by Baker and Nelson and Duymedjian and Rüling, this paper analyzes the role that entrepreneurial bricolage played as an innovation tool in the origins and growth of four important Spanish tourism companies: Meliá, Barceló, Iberostar, and Riu. Their development has been deeply embedded in the island of Majorca (Spain), whose historical market conditions shaped and drove the companies’ bricolage actions. Entrepreneurial bricolage has generally been studied from a short-term perspective; however, this work adopts a dynamic approach that, instead of focusing on the concept of bricolage, aims to explain its evolution over time. To this end, four historical and qualitative case studies are used. The main contribution made by this paper is that the four companies did not limit their bricolage actions to contexts of scarcity but made this type of entrepreneurship a regular mechanism in their business practices, as the island’s tourism context thrived. However, the resulting innovations, as well as their main drivers, did indeed change over time.
The development of salient ideas and publications on dynamic capabilities is given, extended by ideas outside the literature of strategic management. Dynamic capability is presented as an interdisciplinary subject to which knowledge is central. Diversity of knowledge is treated in terms of cognitive distance, limited through organisational focus. To deal with diversity, development and uncertainty, evolutionary theory and the notion of entropy are used. The relation between individual and organisational knowledge is modelled with the notion of a script and linguistic ideas. The governance of collaborative relations for innovation is discussed, including trust, which are also dynamic capabilities.
Creativity, the generation of novel and useful ideas, and innovation, the transformation of these ideas into new products, processes, and services, are both critical for the long-term viability, profitability, and growth of organizations. Moreover, the complex, risky, and uncertain nature of innovative efforts demonstrates the importance of organizational leaders to effectively manage the innovative process. In this element, we discuss the role of leaders in effectively facilitating the creative problem-solving process that gives rise to innovative products, processes, and services. More specifically, we highlight the knowledge, skills, and behaviors needed to effectively lead across three integrated facets of this process-leading the people, leading the work, and leading the firm. This discussion promotes an understanding of how leaders manage those asked to engage in innovative efforts and, moreover, how leaders systematically integrate creative ideas within the organization to ensure the development and success of innovative products, processes, or services.
This paper examines professional and organizational-level antecedents of public sector innovation using findings from a 9-month ethnography conducted within the marketing department of a large UK postal organization. The analysis centres on vignettes of two cross-functional projects to develop product and service innovations that involved external design agencies. The data are based on observation of the marketing teams, semi-structured interviews, and documentary analysis. The study highlights that social practices characteristic of communities of practice are antecedent to the generation of absorptive capacity, but also shows that the learning produced by communities of practice is mediated by relations of power associated with these groups and interaction with organizational absorptive capacity. This paper develops the theory of absorptive capacity by shifting attention away from ‘prior knowledge’ in enabling acquisition of external knowledge to highlighting the role of intensive interaction, organizational context, and power relations in shaping knowledge creation for learning and innovation.
Student undergraduate research experience is a priority for higher education in Russia. The national long-term social and economic development document states that project-based learning is central to preparing students for the realities of the professional world. New government educational standards were developed to provide universities with the flexibility to introduce key undergraduate research activities to their curricula. This chapter gives a brief overview of the national higher education system in Russia, describes the administrative and cultural framework for undergraduate research, presents best practice examples, and provides an outlook on possibilities for future development.
In this chapter, we briefly discuss the higher education system in Israel, its various types, and the settings of undergraduate studies at its universities. We then explain why we focus on universities with strong emphasis on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) teaching and learning of undergraduate students. Finally, we explore several large-scale undergraduate research studies conducted at the Technion, the Israel Institute of Technology.
This chapter discusses – in the general problematics of languages in contact – Jewish languages and languages of the Diaspora. It intends to study from a comparative perspective especially the diachrony of Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish, two diasporic languages with similar developments and destinies. After a short presentation of the two languages, we examine successively: 1) the creation of Judaeo-languages in Diaspora, 2) the Diaspora versus migration, 3) the Judaeo-calque languages, 4) the common dynamics of Jewish languages, and 5) the diachrony of Jewish languages. The conclusion focuses on the successful innovations appearing in a Jewish language. It points out the important role of the Hebrew component (its direct and indirect influence), as well as the broad interlinguistic competence of Yiddish and Judaeo-Spanish speakers in the process of evolution of the languages considered.