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There are tendencies either to exaggerate China’s innovative capacity and its threat to Western technological supremacy, or to dismiss it and attribute its technological progress to imitation, or worse, to the theft of foreign technologies. Chapter 6 addresses the role of technological progress and innovation in China’s rapid rise and evaluates its changing ability to innovate by using common indicators like the number of patent applications or grants, the number of scientific publications, and the amount of R&D expenditure. On a per capita basis, the gap between China’s level of innovation and that of the most developed countries such as the United States is still large. However, for a country that is still some distance from the technological frontier, the key question is not how big its innovation gap is, but whether the gap is narrowing and whether it is narrowing quickly enough. By this criterion, China has been by far the best performer among all developing countries. As technological innovation requires both physical and human capital input, the Confucian culture of thrift and education may have been the differentiating factor behind China’s rapid progress in science and technology.
By examining musical theatre icons and their major collaborations starting from Oklahoma! (1943) and ending with Waitress (2016), this chapter chronicles the evolution of the American musical, as practitioners assembled creative teams in response to shifting economics and the rise of mediated popular culture on television and the internet. Film studios and corporations such as Disney now develop and produce their own musicals, bringing new resources and structures that both support and expand the collaborative creation of musical theatre. At the same time, regional theatres and not-for-profit venues developed new models of their own for participating in musical theatre collaboration. Whether conceived in consultation with a corporate producer or tested through a low-budget laboratory process, what's inside twenty-first-century American musicals remains the product of creative, collaborative relationships.
China's rapid rise is doubtless the most significant economic and geopolitical event in the 21st century. What has led to its rise? What does it mean for the rest of the world? When will China overtake the US? Will the conflict between the two superpowers derail its further rise? Can China's development experience be emulated by other countries? These are some of the important questions addressed in this jargon-free, yet rigorous book. It debunks many popular explanations of China's rapid economic growth ranging from abundance of cheap labor, export promotion, demographic dividend, strong government, to mercantilist policies and IP theft. Taking a global comparative approach, this book demonstrates convincingly that the true differentiating factor making China grow faster than other developing countries over the past four decades is the Confucian culture of savings and education. This cultural perspective yields powerful new insights into many questions regarding China's rise.
uses the biopolitical and socio-environmental perspectives on health constructed in the previous chapters to reinterpret municipal responses to plague. This chapter argues that when Netherlandish cities took action against epidemic spread, they applied pre-existing health policies. It challenges two scholarly biases, namely of crisis and of government. First, actions to prevent spread of the plague are often interpreted as radical innovations, yet many subjects targeted in plague ordinances were usual suspects and recurring problems; already regulated outside the context of plague because they were perceived as posing a (combined) threat to physical and moral communal well-being. Cities employed various strategies, from quarantine and street sanitation to spiritual measures and culling dogs. Secondly, there is a clear need to move beyond a top-down perspective and complicate the playing field of daily dealings with an epidemic through networks of plague care, which are discussed here by focusing on the role of hospitals, medical officials and confraternal caregivers, especially the Cellites.
In the world of medical education, there is generally a lot of emphasis on following procedure and tradition, and a reluctance to challenge the norm. It takes insight and courage to question traditional approaches and paradigms: why are psychiatric training programs done the way that they are? Reverse engineering involves taking something apart and analysing its workings to figure out how it does what it does and how it can be improved. In education, reverse engineering implies one determines learning outcomes upfront and then works back from them. Applied to postgraduate psychiatric training, it requires us to determine the basic principles or core concepts resulting in the successful formation of a well-rounded psychiatrist. In times of crisis there usually is more leeway to challenge the status-quo – hence the saying “never waste a good crisis”. Indeed, if the COVID-19 crisis has taught us anything, it is that education should be meeting learners where their attention is at, and that any healthcare organisation can be transformed within weeks when given the right incentives. In this workshop, Dr. De Picker will reflect on how post-COVID European psychiatric training can reinvent itself to address long-standing concerns and unmet needs. Innovative approaches will be needed to start shaping the psychiatrists of the future.
Since computers entered the mainstream in the 1960s, the efficiency with which data can be processed has raised regulatory questions. This is well understood with respect to privacy. Data that was notionally public – divorce proceedings, say – had long been protected through the ‘practical obscurity’ of paper records. When such material was available in a single hard copy in a government office, the chances of one’s acquaintances or employer finding it were remote. Yet when it was computerized and made searchable through what ultimately became the Internet, practical obscurity disappeared. Today, high-speed computing poses comparable threats to existing regulatory models in areas from securities regulation to competition law, merely by enabling lawful activities – trading in stocks, or comparing and adjusting prices, say – to be undertaken more quickly than previously conceived possible. Many of these questions are practical rather than conceptual and apply to technologies other than AI. Nevertheless, current approaches to slowing down decision-making – through circuit-breakers to stop trading, for example – will not address all of the problems raised by the speed of AI systems.
This article examines a patenting conflict between the Halliburton Oil Well and Cementing Company and an independent inventor named Cranford Walker. It argues that Halliburton’s effort to lower the barriers to entry into the oil well depth measurement industry facilitated the re-emergence of materiality as a pre-condition for the patent eligibility of inventive processes. In 1941, Walker sued Halliburton for infringement of three of his patents, and Halliburton responded with an aggressive defense aimed at invalidating them. Over the next five years, the courts handling this conflict adopted very narrow legal theories developed during the Second Industrial Revolution to assess the patent eligibility of inventions that involved mental steps—processes such as mathematical computations, which people can perform in their minds. The resulting legal precedent cleared the path for Halliburton’s short-term industrial goals and continued to shape patent law for the rest of the century.
Customer centricity is described as placing value creation for customers at the core of business decisions and organizational practices and is progressively regarded as a foundation of sustainable competitive advantage by companies. Hence in recent years, there is a shift from companies being product-centric to them adapting customer-centric practices as a practice to create balanced and sustainable businesses. Although there are several methods and processes that can help companies become customer-centric; Design Thinking (DT) is championed by many practitioners and academics alike as being effective in introducing customer-centricity in organizations. Despite being a highly researched topic in the last decade, the bulk of the research is focused on success stories or one-off cases of using design thinking in Business to Customer (B2C) environments. This paper is based on a qualitative study performed at a high-tech Swedish electronics company and focuses on highlighting the barriers and opportunities of adapting DT in Business to Business (B2B) companies with established product development processes. The barriers we identified can help companies to address the impediments and will make the DT implementation easier for companies
Organizational competences are one of the main assets of companies. Models of these competences would allow for systematic reasoning for exploring technological innovations, enabled by combining and transposing organizational competences. Today, the literature linking organizational competencies to engineering design and systems engineering remains limited. In particular, a generic modelling approach for organizational competencies for engineering design and systems engineering seems to be missing, although first frameworks have been proposed for specific purposes. This paper presents a generic conceptual model of organizational competences. The objective is to link technology, product, and systems development with the corresponding organizational competencies and their future evolution in order to allow for a joint design of competencies and technologies, products, or systems. The conceptual model provides the basis for a competence combination framework which allows for modeling competence combinations in an organization. Finally, we validate our conceptual model using a case study from the automotive industry.
In industry, there is at once a strong need for innovation and a need to preserve the existing system of production. Thus, although the literature insists on the necessity of the current change toward Industry 4.0, how to implement it remains problematic because the preservation of the factory is at stake. Moreover, the question of the evolution of the system depends on its innovative capability, but it is difficult to understand how a new rule can be designed and implemented in a factory. This tension between preservation and innovation is often explained in the literature as a process of creative destruction. Looking at the problem from another perspective, this article models the factory as a site of creative heritage, enabling creation within tradition, i.e., creating new rules while preserving the system of rules. Two case studies are presented to illustrate the model. The paper shows that design in the factory relies on the ability to validate solutions. To do so, the design process can explore and give new meaning to the existing rules. The role of innovation management is to choose the degree of revision of the rules and to make it possible.
Current development of renewable energy systems (RES) is characterised by an increasing participation of citizens in the upstream decision-making process. These citizens can be future users of the RES but also members of a Renewable Energy Community that develop RES. They can be at the same time Renewable Energy producer, investor and consumer. Moreover, several type of businesses and terms are used to cope with social innovations within the energy sector: local renewable projects, sustainable energy communities or community of renewable energy production. So, actors' engagement opens new solutions for designers who are induced to share alternatives before making decisions. They usually impose constraints since the early phases of the design process. This approach implies for designers to consider new criteria related to citizens motivations and barriers. This paper presents a study to define the main factors that drive people to contribute in social innovation schemes for clean-energy transition. After a state of the art, a survey about 6 main factors and 18 criteria is presented. The analysis based on the responses from 34 participants (i.e. experts) reveals 2 most important factors of motivation and 2 principal barrier sources.
A refrigerant system (like that of a supermarket) is a complex system if we consider all the stakeholders throughout its lifecycle phases (use, maintenance, technological update, end of life). The lack of stakeholders' interaction during the design and other lifecycle stages of such a system generates issues and leads to sub-optimal system performances. We used the RID methodology to identify the main areas for improvement for these activities related to the refrigerant system. It is precisely designed to analyze, within the scope of activity, the major stakeholders' problems (user profiles) during lifecycle phases (use situations) to deduce areas for improvement (value buckets). Therefore, we built a process of interviews and data collection on existing practices to feed into a RID model. The first results are an archetypal description of the actors and problems encountered according to the lifecycle phases. The second part is a prioritized mapping of the areas to improve despite a certain number of known available solutions but proven insufficient.
To transfer methods from science to industrial application is an important task of engineering design researchers. However, the way in which this is done leaves still room for improvement. A look beyond the horizon into the intra-industrial transfer of methods can therefore be helpful. Based on general requirements and success factors as well as successful intra-industry transfer examples, this paper proposes the P4I process for the transfer of methods from academy to industry.
This study undertakes a systematic analysis of literature within Circular Economy (CE) in an industrial perspective, with a focus on understanding the consideration of the biological and technological cycles, as well as dual circularity. The paper articulates the key research differences, gaps and trends on the basis of publication evolution, key subject areas, influential journals and keywords co-occurrence mapping. The analysis shows the increasing publication trend with dominance of technological cycle and a wide variety of subject areas incorporated in CE biological, technological and dual cycles. Due to the multidisciplinary and transversal nature of CE, as well as its diverse interpretation and applications, an expansion and consolidation of the subject areas and journals are expected in the years to come. Analysis of co-occurrence on the authors' keywords underlined a limited focus of a business perspective research within the biological cycle, heterogeneous and proactive technological cycle but fragmented research on dual circularity. Further analysis of synergies and limitations is necessary to enhance business effectiveness towards enhanced sustainability.
Learning innovation and design process is a necessity of the coming decade and games are a potential tool to do so. This paper proposes an extended taxonomy for categorising innovation and design games. The intent is to understand the essential, the similar and the different categories not only for development, but also for evaluation of innovation and design games, and in turn, help educators identify appropriate games for their learning objectives and curricula.
In humans, creativity or innovation (researchers draw a distinction, but for our purposes the two terms will be used interchangeably) is often defined as the ability to create things that are both novel and appropriate (Sternberg, Kaufman, & Pretz, 2002). A dress can be beautifully designed and crafted, but if it isn’t task appropriate – for example, if it can’t be worn – many researchers would not call it creative. In animals, the same “novel and appropriate” standard can be used, but the terms take on very different meaning, in many cases playing directly into the survival of an individual or a species. Of all species, marine mammals are especially noted for their intelligence and innovation in both the wild and under human care, and their innovative abilities in a variety of situations will be briefly reviewed here. Subsequently, a novel way of measurement of these abilities based on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, a common test of creativity used in humans, will be presented.
Capuchins are highly encephalized New World monkeys (family Cebidae, subfamily Cebinae) living in a variety of forest and savannah habitats, from Central to South America, and currently classified as “gracile” (the Cebus genus) or “robust” (the Sapajus genus). The literature on behavioural plasticity in this taxon highlights purported traditions in the social domain (as the dyadic “games” of Cebus capucinus) and in foraging techniques (notably, the use of tools by Sapajus spp.). Behavioural innovations (sensu “process”) are more easily detected in the social realm, while technological traditions seem to result from [inferred] innovations (sensu “product”) facilitated by innate predispositions and environmental affordances and perpetuated by means of socially biased learning. Constraints related to simpler forms of social learning (like “stimulus enhancement”) may limit the potential for cumulative cultural processes, resulting in conservative traditions, as may be the case of percussive stone tools’ use. On the other hand, the degrees of “niche construction” and “observability” associated to different forms of tool use may explain the difference between the widespread stone tool use traditions and the rarer cases of customary probe use (where individual innovations may occur, but seldom spread by socially mediated learning), in terms of different opportunities for socially mediated learning.
A second horse racing innovation is riding “acey-deucy.” With this technique, the jockey’s left stirrup iron is commonly placed from 2 to 12 inches lower than the right by separately adjusting the attached leather straps. This acey-deucy style confers important advantages on oval tracks, where only left turns are encountered in counterclockwise American races; it permits the horse and jockey to better lean into the turns and to enjoy better strength and balance, thus harnessing the centripetal force of a tight bend. This sounds so scientific that it must have resulted from careful study and planning, right? But, no it didn’t! The origin of riding acey-deucy was actually accidental. Bad fortune became good fortune for riding sensation Jack Westrope, who is now credited with beginning and perfecting this racing innovation. Combined with the monkey crouch, acey-deucy allows the jockey to “fold into” the horse instead of squatting over him.
Parrots are sometimes referred to as "feathered apes,"` as they rival our closest relatives in many cognitive abilities. Similar to apes, they show a high propensity for innovative behaviour. Factors that were suggested to influence innovativeness are manifold. We discuss the various reasons why parrots might be particularly well-equipped to innovate. Many psittaciformes have ecological backgrounds that have been suggested to correlate with innovativeness, and recent neurological findings suggest a link between their brain anatomy and advanced cognitive abilities. The parrots’ beak has been described as a "multi-purpose tool" that allows them to employ a wide range of motoric interactions with different substrates, foods, or objects. Moreover, parrots generally approach novel situations with curiosity and caution, and explore in a haptic and playful manner, which presumably provides them with more opportunities to innovate. Studies on model species in innovative problem-solving, such as the kea and the Goffin’s cockatoos, highlight their sensitivity to changes in their environment and their ability to flexibly adjust to them. Multiple parrot species show tool innovations in captivity. However, controlled comparisons between captive and wild populations are still scarce. In summary, studying innovation in large-brained, non-primate models, such as parrots, will ultimately contribute to our understanding of the evolution of inventive minds.
This chapter reviews available evidence on cognitive contributions to orangutan innovation and problem-solving. Evidence derives from orangutans in three living conditions (wild, captive, rehabilitation), and as such includes spontaneous as well as experimentally elicited innovations. Reviewed are the range and quality of orangutans’ innovations and problem-solving, including instigating factors, cognitive complexity, and facilitating–inhibiting factors.