To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This paper provides a field report on a hospital fire at the St. Jude hospital in the Eastern Caribbean Island of Saint Lucia. The hospital was completely destroyed by the fire and three deaths were recorded. This paper analyses the emergency response to this hospital fire and discusses the lessons learned from this experience. This is a valuable lesion for developing countries in the Caribbean, especially since there have been four hospital fires reported in the Caribbean within the past decade.
Navua sedge [Cyperus aromaticus (Ridl.) Mattf. & Kuek.], is a hard to control C4 perennial weed species in tropical regions of Australia. Knowledge of its seed biology could help to develop integrated weed management programs for this species. This study was conducted under laboratory and screenhouse conditions to evaluate the effect of alternating day/night temperatures, light, pretreatment high temperatures, burial depth, and flooding depth on the germination and emergence of two populations (Ingham and Tablelands) of C. aromaticus. Both populations germinated at temperatures ranging from 20/10 to 35/25 C; however, the Ingham population germination (76%) was greater than the Tablelands population (42%) at the highest temperature regime (35/25 C). None of the populations germinated at 15/5 C. Darkness completely inhibited germination in both populations, suggesting that the seeds are positively photoblastic. Seeds (dry and wet) of both populations germinated after exposure to pretreatment temperatures of up to 100 C for 5 min. After pretreatment at 150 C, only the Ingham population germinated, and germination was greater for dry seeds (62%) than for wet seeds (1%). Neither population germinated after exposure to 200 C. For both populations, maximum germination was observed for seeds at 0 cm; a burial depth of 0.5 cm completely inhibited emergence of the Tablelands population, and a burial depth of 2.0 cm completely inhibited germination of the Ingham population. A flooding depth of 10 cm greatly reduced emergence in both populations compared with 0 cm (62% and 78%) but 12% to 14% of seedlings still emerged, suggesting the need to integrate flooding with other management tools. The results also suggest that the Ingham population may have a greater potential to spread into new areas or become more invasive than the Tablelands population. Knowledge gained from this study can be used to manage C. aromaticus by fire/burning, tillage, and flooding.
Beginning in northwestern Kenya with the story of Eregae and Aita Nakali, this chapter introduces the new science of climate extremes and extreme event attribution. Between 2015 and 2019, the “fingerprints” of climate change slapped hundreds of millions of people. Extreme heat waves, floods, droughts, and wildfires exacted a terrible toll on developed and developing nations alike. These catastrophes affected hundreds of millions of people and resulted in hundreds of billions of dollars in losses. Fire-afflicted movie stars in California and ranchers in Australia; drought-stricken South Africans; poor flooded fisher-folk in Bangladesh; Houston's middle-class families riven by flood: these are just some of the people who felt the crushing blow of more extreme climate. While humans have always faced the perils of natural disasters, the data suggest that the human and economic cost of climate and weather extremes is increasing rapidly as our population and economies expand and our planet warms rapidly. Since the early 1980s, the number of large catastrophes has quadrupled, inflicting billions of dollars in losses and impacting vulnerable populations on every continent. Understanding the link between extremes and warming is both a moral and an existential imperative.
The last part of Chapter 2 and the first part of Chapter 3 of De mundo (392a31–393a8) describe the cosmic layers further below the sphere of the moon, leading down to the very centre of the universe. This section provides a brief overview of the sublunary layers of the four elements (fire, air, water and earth), some of which will be discussed in more detail later in the text. The two main theses that constitute the reasoning behind this section are (i) continuity throughout the entire cosmos and (ii) the great variety of phenomena and processes within the sublunary domain. The layers are organised from the most active one at the top down to the most passive one at the centre of the universe. The continuity among the layers is demonstrated on each and every level. There is, however, no suggestion that each lower, less active substance gains all its characteristics from the more active substance above. For our author’s purpose it is sufficient to demonstrate that there is some relation, some communication among the layers which can later be used by the divine dunamis permeating the entire cosmos. The final part of the present section concerns the claim that the continents are large islands surrounded by an ocean.
For physiologically dormant (PD) species in fire-prone environments, dormancy can be both complex due to the interaction between fire and seasonal cues, and extremely deep due to long intervals between recruitment events. Due to this complexity, there are knowledge gaps particularly surrounding the dormancy depth and cues of long-lived perennial PD species. This can be problematic for both in situ and ex situ species management. We used germination experiments that tested seasonal temperature, smoke, dark and heat for 18 PD shrub species distributed across temperate fire-prone Australia and assessed how germination was correlated with environmental factors associated with their home environments. We found extremely high levels of dormancy, with only eight species germinating above 10% and three species producing no germination at all. Seven of these eight species had quite specific seasonal temperature requirements and/or very strong responses to smoke cues. The maximum germination for each species was positively correlated with the mean temperature of the source population but negatively correlated with rainfall seasonality and driest months. The strong dependence on a smoke cue for some of the study species, along with examples from other studies, provides evidence that an obligate smoke response could be a fire-adapted germination cue. Germination response correlated with rainfall season of the source populations is a pattern which has often been assumed but little comparative data across sites with different rainfall seasonality exists. Further investigation of a broader range of species from different rainfall season environments would help to elucidate this knowledge gap.
Sedimentary charcoal records are used for understanding fire as an earth system process; however, no standardized laboratory methodology exists. Varying sample volumes and chemical treatments (i.e., type of chemical for length of time) are used for the deflocculation and extraction of charcoal from sediment samples. Here, we present the first systematic assessment of the effect of commonly used chemicals on charcoal area and number of fragments. In modern charcoal the area of fragments was significantly different depending on the chemical treatment. We subsequently applied H2O2 (33%), NaClO (12.5%), and HNO3 (50%) to a late-glacial–early Holocene paleorecord and tested different sample volumes. The effects of the treatments were consistent between modern and fossil experiments, which demonstrates the validity of applying results from the modern experiment to the fossil records. Based on our experiments we suggest (1) H2O2 33%, especially for highly organic sediments; (2) avoidance of high concentrations of NaClO for prolonged periods of time, and of HNO3; and (3) samples of 1 cm3 provided typically consistent profiles. Our results indicate that charcoal properties can be influenced by treatment type and sample volume, thus emphasizing the need for a common protocol to enable reliable multi-study comparisons or composite fire histories.
A disaster in the hospital is particularly serious and quite different from other ordinary disasters. This study aimed at analyzing the activity outcomes of a disaster medical assistance team (DMAT) for a fire disaster at the hospital.
The data which was documented by a DMAT and emergent medical technicians of a fire department contained information about the patient’s characteristics, medical records, triage results, and the hospital which the patient was transferred from. Patients were categorized into four groups according to results of field triage using the simple triage and rapid treatment method.
DMAT arrived on the scene in 37 minutes. One hundred and thirty eight (138) patients were evacuated from the disaster scene. There were 25 patients (18.1%) in the Red group, 96 patients (69.6%) in the Yellow group, and 1 patient (0.7%) in the Green group. One patient died. There were 16 (11.6%) medical staff and hospital employees. The injury of the caregiver or the medical staff was more severe compared to the family protector.
For an effective disaster-response system in hospital disasters, it is important to secure the safety of medical staff, to utilize available medical resources, to secure patients’ medical records, and to reorganize the DMAT dispatch system.
El estudio de la génesis de los montículos de la cuenca de la Laguna Merín, Uruguay, se focalizó en el aporte de sedimentos y elementos descartados. Investigaciones basadas en la geoquímica de la matriz llevaron a considerar el rol del fuego en su elevación. Ensayamos contrastar su presencia por medio de las técnicas de datación por luminiscencia. Si las edades o paleodosis medidas por luminiscencia ópticamente estimulada (OSL, por sus siglas en inglés) y por termoluminiscencia (TL) de diferentes fracciones de la matriz son similares, próximas o con cierto grado de superposición, entonces el agente de blanqueo tiene que haber sido el calor. La hipótesis fue verificada en montículos de tres sitios arqueológicos ubicados en el sur de la cuenca. La evidencia de que estaríamos frente a prácticas recursivas que producen acumulaciones de sedimento termoalterados nos condujo a los hornos de tierra y los oven mounds de Australia. La presencia de hornos de tierra prehistóricos ya fue reconocida en Uruguay. Los oven mounds son un potente análogo etnográfico-arqueológico que ilustra sobre procesos de formación de acumulaciones de sedimento termoalterado, al mismo tiempo que permite abordar aspectos socioeconómicos y simbólicos. Por último, a partir de las implicaciones de la hipótesis, señalamos la pertinencia de abordar los montículos a dos escalas: la de los comportamientos que los elevaron y la de su realidad como parches dentro del paisaje.
In this article, I take a close look at the objects collected over the last 200 years from the indigenous people of the Upper Rio Negro, northwest of the Brazilian Amazon, that were part of the ethnographic collection of the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro. Examination of these objects allows us to explore the main characteristics of the ethnographic archive of the museum, as the Upper Rio Negro collections were connected to different topics associated with indigenous societies and histories in Brazil, including enslavement, forced displacement, religious conversion, and indigenous territorial, artifactual, and cultural knowledge. This article also highlights the professional commitment of Brazilian anthropology to amplifying indigenous voices over the course of the history of the discipline, and by doing so, it pays homage to the women and men whose work built the National Museum collections.
Social media provides an opportunity to engage in social contact and to give and receive help by means of online social networks. Social support following trauma exposure, even in a virtual community, may reduce feelings of helplessness and isolation, and, therefore, reduce posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS), and increase posttraumatic growth (PTG). The current study aimed to assess whether giving and/or receiving offers of help by means of social media following large community fires predicted PTS and/or PTG.
A convenience sample of 212 adults living in communities that were affected by large-scale community fires in Israel (November 2016) completed questionnaires on giving and receiving offers of help by means of social media within 1 mo of the fire (W1), and the PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and PTG questionnaire (PTGI-SF), 4 mo after the fire (W2).
Regression analyses showed that, after controlling for age, gender, and distance from fire, offering help by means of social media predicted higher PTG (β = 0.22; t = 3.18; P < 0.01), as did receiving offers of help by means of social media (β = 0.18; t = 2.64; P < 0.01). There were no significant associations between giving and/or receiving offers of help and PTS.
Connecting people to social media networks may help in promoting posttraumatic growth, although might not impact on posttraumatic symptoms. This is one of the first studies to highlight empirically the advantages of social media in the aftermath of trauma exposure.
Johansen examines the role of internal heat in the theories of nutrition and animal generation in Plato’s Timaeus. There, Plato does not ascribe the status of being besouled to all beings which engage in nutrition, but to beings with perceptive faculties. This raises questions as to the status of nutrition in the explanation of life and besouled beings.
The chapter presents an investigation into the Presocratic background of soul theories, more specifically, the relationship between fire and soul in Empedocles. Trépanier argues that Empedocles fragment B 9 does not give us a positive account of fire as soul, but targets a rival Presocratic account of fire as soul.
Betegh explores to what extent the Presocratic philosophers made the motive power of heat topical, and how they tried to provide an explanation of that power. He argues that while the motive power of heat never seems to obtain a principal role in the cosmological theories of the Presocratics, it appears to take a more important role in the explanation of living beings in a number of theories.
This chapter concerns the medical background of Aristotle’s accounts of heat, pneuma, and the vegetative soul. Bartoš discusses four Hippocratic texts (namely On Flesh, On Regimen, On Sevens, and On Winds) in which heat/fire plays a prominent role. He illustrates the relation of the notion to soul and pneuma in these texts and suggests several remarkable details of special importance to Aristotle’s zoology.
Chapter 12 classifies Greek monism with the same four categories as used for India, and describes the transition – also found in India – from reciprocity to monism, which is closely associated with the new inner self. The element of fire in universe and inner self allows cross-cultural comparison that includes Zoroastrianism and Buddhism.
Buffelgrass [Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link] is a drought-tolerant invasive grass that is a threat to native biodiversity in the drylands of the Americas and Australia. Despite efforts from land managers to control P. ciliare, management approaches tend to have mixed success, treatment results can be poorly communicated among entities, and there are few long-term controlled studies. In this literature review, we synthesize data from both peer-reviewed and “gray” literature on the efficacy of management techniques to control P. ciliare and the secondary impacts to native plant communities. Our search resulted in 42 unique sources containing a total of 229 studies that we categorized into 10 treatment types, which included herbicide, seeding, manual removal, fire, grazing, biocontrol, fire + additional treatments, manual removal + additional treatments, herbicide + additional treatments, and herbicide + manual removal. We found that treatments that used multiple techniques in tandem along with follow-up treatments were the most effective at controlling P. ciliare. Fewer than one-third of the studies reported impacts of management on native species, and the most commonly studied treatment (herbicide, N = 130) showed detrimental impacts on native plant communities. However, the average time between treatment and outcome measurement was only 15 mo; we suggest the need for more long-term studies of treatment efficacy and secondary impacts of treatment on the ecosystem. Finally, we conducted a second literature review on P. ciliare biology and traits for mechanisms that allows P. ciliare to alter the invaded environment to facilitate a competitive advantage over native species. We found evidence of self-reinforcing feedbacks of invasion being generated by P. ciliare through its interactions with water availability, nutrient cycling, and disturbance regimes. We developed a conceptual model of P. ciliare based on these feedback loops and offer management considerations based on its invasion dynamics and biology.
We examine the changes in funerary rituals from the Early Agricultural period (2100 BC–AD 50) to the Early Preclassic period (AD 475–750) and how these changes concurrently reflect changes in social relationships between the dead, their families, and the community. The predominant mortuary ritual in the Early Agricultural period was inhumation, possibly emphasizing a variety of identity intersections of the dead and the mourners in the treatment of the body while creating collective memories and remembrances through shared ways of commemorating the dead. An innovation in funerary practices in the form of secondary cremation appeared in the Early Agricultural period and was slowly but broadly adopted, representing new social dynamics within the society. Thereafter, secondary cremation became the main funeral custom. During the Early Preclassic period, the variation in body position and the type and quantity of objects found with individuals decreased. It is possible that the vehicle for displaying different identity intersections changed and was not placed in the body, per se, as much as in previous periods. However, the transformation characteristics of these funeral rituals and the increase in community investment could have fostered the building or reinforcing of stronger social ties that highlighted a “collective identity.”
Health care facilities are always seen as places of haven and protection for managing external incidents, but situations become difficult and challenging when such facilities themselves are affected by internal hazards. Such incidents are arguably more disruptive than external incidents, because patients are dependent on supportive measures and are neither in position to respond to such crisis situation nor do they know how to respond. Operating room fires are rare but potentially catastrophic, involving loss of costly resources and possibly lives. This case report details a true operating room fire incident in an emergency operating room and details the real-life challenges encountered by operating room staff in preserving both life and property. As a result of this work, precautionary measures may be implemented to mitigate such incidents. Careful coordination, continuous training, and fire drill exercises can improve the overall outcomes and minimize the possibility of these potentially fatal problems, thereby making a safer health care environment for every worker and patient.
The flora of Mediterranean ecosystems contains families with species having fully and under-developed embryos in their seeds. After-ripening for physiological dormancy release and smoke influence germination in many species. We investigated how after-ripening and embryo growth interact with smoke to influence the temporal dynamics of seedling emergence among fire ephemerals. Seeds were placed in the field and under standardized (50% relative humidity, 30°C) laboratory conditions to test the effects of summer conditions on physiological dormancy loss. Germination was tested with water or smoke compounds (smoke water, KAR1) at a simulated autumn/winter temperature (18/7°C). The timing and amount of seedling emergence with smoke was observed for seeds exposed to near-natural conditions. During summer, physiological dormancy was broken in all species, enabling germination at autumn/winter but not summer temperatures; no embryo growth occurred in seeds with under-developed embryos. At the start of the wet season, seedling emergence from seeds with fully developed embryos occurred earlier than from seeds with under-developed embryos. In a non-consistent manner among our study species, smoke and smoke compounds influenced the rate of embryo growth and amount of germination. Effects of smoke were noticeable in terms of number of emergents in the first emergence season. Among ecologically similar species, we have shown (1) that both thermal and embryo traits exclude germination in the summer, (2) how embryo size influences the timing of seedling emergence in autumn–winter, and (3) a reduced requirement for smoke in the second emergence season after a fire with a shift to reliance on seasonal cues for emergence.