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Understanding the types of movements exhibited by a threatened species is paramount for creating conservation and management strategies. The Campo Miner (Geositta poeciloptera) is a threatened obligate grassland bird endemic to the South American Cerrado. Literature disagrees about its movement ecology, with authors suggesting strategies as contradictory as residency and nomadism. The species requires short and sparse grass cover to breed and seems to be associated with fires, tracking recently burned grassland patches. We studied the movement ecology of marked Campo Miners for seven years, integrating our results with information from citizen science data, museum specimens, and the literature. After investigating every main movement strategy exhibited by bird populations, we found no evidence of regular migration in the species (e.g. altitudinal, short- or long-distance). The Campo Miner is a resident species with territorial behaviour restricted to the breeding season, which apparently results in seasonal variation in its detectability, biasing our perception about its seasonal abundance and distribution. We propose a theoretical framework for understanding local movements in the species, which predicts that Campo Miners: (1) establish their territories at the beginning of the breeding season in patches of suitable habitat; (2) stop defending their territories after the breeding season; (3) stay during the non-breeding season in their home ranges, also wandering across neighbouring home ranges; (4) abandon their home ranges if the grass cover becomes high and dense or when a better quality habitat patch becomes available, using fires as a cue for locating recently burned patches that will soon
In GC II 8, Aristotle shows that earth, water, air, and fire, are presented in every mixed body. Here Aristotle develops further the discussion of elemental mixtures started in GC II 7. He goes beyond anything done up to this point because the mixed bodies he is concerned with are not just the elemental mixtures discussed in GC II 7; rather, they are all the mixed bodies inhabiting the region around the center of the universe. Insofar as this region is the place where the natural processes of generation and corruption take place, GC II 8 prepares the grounds for the final section of the GC II (GC II 9-11).
A danger threatening hospitals is fire. The most important action following a fire is to urgently evacuate the hospital during the shortest time possible. The aim of this study was to predict the duration of emergency evacuation following hospital fire using machine-learning algorithms.
In this study, the real emergency evacuation duration of 190 patients admitted to a hospital was predicted in a simulation based on the following 8 factors: the number of hospital floors, patient preparation and transfer time, distance to the safe location, as well as patient’s weight, age, sex, and movement capability. To design and validate the model, we used statistical models of machine learning, including Support Vector Machines Random Forest, Naive Bayes Classifier, and Artificial Neural Network.
Data analysis showed that based on the Area Under the Curve, precision, and sensitivity values of 99.5%, 92.4%, and 92.1%, respectively, the Random Forest model showed a better performance compared to other models for predicting the duration of hospital emergency evacuation during fire.
Predicting evacuation duration can provide managers with accurate information and true analyses of these events. Therefore, health policy makers and managers can promote preparedness and responsiveness during fire by predicting evacuation duration and developing appropriate plans using machine learning models.
At the heart of humankind is the paradox that we share the molecules of life with a hundred billion species, but we are also unique. The question of what makes us special, or even whether we are exceptional, has preoccupied our species for thousands of years. Although the idea of a single location for humanity’s origin is antithetical to the evidence, the complex picture of human evolution is often publicly conveyed through simple linear narratives. This chapter instead communicates the beautiful complexities and intricacies of the story of our evolutionary trajectory. It considers archaeological evidence for the development of the human mind before focusing on two aspects of human uniqueness (or otherwise). Tool use and the use of fire are of especial significance to the evolution of the 'full package' of human behavioural modernity, but are we as extraordinary in employing these actions as we may think? Examples from animals such as sponging dolphins, savannah chimpanzees, and 'firehawks' provide a way of unpicking enigmatic elements of our exceptionality.
Wildland fires are among the most complicated environmental phenomena to model. Fire behavior models are commonly used to predict the direction and rate of spread of wildland fires based on fire history, fuel, and environmental conditions; however, more sophisticated computational fluid dynamic models are now being developed. This quantitative analysis of fire as a fluid dynamic phenomenon embedded in a highly turbulent flow is beginning to reveal the combined interactions of the vegetative structure, combustion-driven convective effects, and atmospheric boundary layer processes. This book provides an overview of the developments in modeling wildland fire dynamics and the key dynamical processes involved. Mathematical and dynamical principles are presented, and the complex phenomena that arise in wildland fire are discussed. Providing a state-of-the-art survey, it is a useful reference for scientists, researchers, and graduate students interested in wildland fire behavior from a broad range of fields.
Cistus species have seeds with hard coats which impose physical seed dormancy that can be released after seed scarification. In fire-prone habitats, the break of physical seed dormancy is usually related to the heat produced during fires. It is commonly accepted that most hard-seeded species, including those of the genus Cistus, are able to germinate under a wide range of temperatures in light as well as in darkness, once the seed becomes permeable. However, although many studies have focused on the release of physical dormancy only, a few have done so on the effect of environmental factors once dormancy is released. In this research, through a factorial experiment, we analysed the effects of light (light and darkness) and a range of temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30°C) on the seed germination of eight Cistus species after a heat shock. On average, almost 60% of the seeds did not germinate despite being viable, and this lack of germination increased with higher temperatures during the treatment. Although an idiosyncratic germination response emerged, temperature had a significant effect in all the species, reaching the highest levels of germination between 10 and 20°C. Light interacted with temperature in four cases by increasing the germination, especially under the least favourable temperatures. Environmental factors, such as temperature and light, appear to modulate the germination of the studied Cistus species after the release of physical seed dormancy.
The Brazilian Cerrado, a Neotropical savanna, is a fire-prone ecosystem where the ground layer biomass consists mainly of graminoids. However, as for other savannas, the effects of fire cues (such as smoke) on Cerrado grasses do not present a clear pattern, either for germination or seedling development. Smoke can stimulate different stages of the plant life cycle, which can alter the community and invasion processes. So far, most research on the subject focuses on germination, not addressing post-germinative phases, a sensitive stage of plant development. Here, we investigated the effect of smoke on a native (Echinolaena inflexa) and an invasive (Urochloa decumbens) grass species common in the Cerrado. We analysed germinative parameters and seedling mass and length after exposing the seeds to dry smoke for 5, 10, 15 or 20 min. Seedling development was assessed by measuring shoot and root systems after cultivating germinated seeds for 3, 7 or 15 d. Smoke did not affect germination percentages. However, fumigation reduced the mean germination time of both species and the germination onset of E. inflexa. U. decumbens had higher length values in all periods of cultivation, whereas mass values only surpassed that of E. inflexa at 15 d. Smoke exposure reduced the aboveground length of 7-d seedlings of U. decumbens, and mass of 15-d plants of both species. Also, smoke enhanced the root investment of the native and invasive species in different cultivation periods. Therefore, studying post-germinative parameters on seedling development may bring further insights into the smoke effects.
This chapter provides an overview of 20 primary recommendations for safe working in the andrology laboratory, along with sections on accident prevention, appropriate clothing and the proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE), fire safety, dealing with spills, use and disposal of biological materials, chemical hazards, compressed gases, and cryogenics.
There is a long history of describing communities in ecology. It is now time to develop a general predictive framework for this discipline. The goal is to simultaneously provide a consistent theoretical framework to guide research and a practical framework to guide conservation of wild landscapes. We propose that this framework has four key elements: the species pool vector P, the local community vector C, a vector of environmental filters E, and a vector of functional traits T. The central challenge of community ecology is to predict the species composition of any community C, using prior knowledge of P, E and T. Common filters include flooding, fire and herbivory. Each community C is a subset of the regional species pool P and is the result of filtering that matches species’ traits to the local environmental conditions. Dispersal, competition and time are also important in community assembly.
This paper provides a field report on a hospital fire at the St. Jude hospital in the Eastern Caribbean Island of Saint Lucia. The hospital was completely destroyed by the fire and three deaths were recorded. This paper analyses the emergency response to this hospital fire and discusses the lessons learned from this experience. This is a valuable lesion for developing countries in the Caribbean, especially since there have been four hospital fires reported in the Caribbean within the past decade.
Navua sedge [Cyperus aromaticus (Ridl.) Mattf. & Kuek.], is a hard to control C4 perennial weed species in tropical regions of Australia. Knowledge of its seed biology could help to develop integrated weed management programs for this species. This study was conducted under laboratory and screenhouse conditions to evaluate the effect of alternating day/night temperatures, light, pretreatment high temperatures, burial depth, and flooding depth on the germination and emergence of two populations (Ingham and Tablelands) of C. aromaticus. Both populations germinated at temperatures ranging from 20/10 to 35/25 C; however, the Ingham population germination (76%) was greater than the Tablelands population (42%) at the highest temperature regime (35/25 C). None of the populations germinated at 15/5 C. Darkness completely inhibited germination in both populations, suggesting that the seeds are positively photoblastic. Seeds (dry and wet) of both populations germinated after exposure to pretreatment temperatures of up to 100 C for 5 min. After pretreatment at 150 C, only the Ingham population germinated, and germination was greater for dry seeds (62%) than for wet seeds (1%). Neither population germinated after exposure to 200 C. For both populations, maximum germination was observed for seeds at 0 cm; a burial depth of 0.5 cm completely inhibited emergence of the Tablelands population, and a burial depth of 2.0 cm completely inhibited germination of the Ingham population. A flooding depth of 10 cm greatly reduced emergence in both populations compared with 0 cm (62% and 78%) but 12% to 14% of seedlings still emerged, suggesting the need to integrate flooding with other management tools. The results also suggest that the Ingham population may have a greater potential to spread into new areas or become more invasive than the Tablelands population. Knowledge gained from this study can be used to manage C. aromaticus by fire/burning, tillage, and flooding.
Beginning in northwestern Kenya with the story of Eregae and Aita Nakali, this chapter introduces the new science of climate extremes and extreme event attribution. Between 2015 and 2019, the “fingerprints” of climate change slapped hundreds of millions of people. Extreme heat waves, floods, droughts, and wildfires exacted a terrible toll on developed and developing nations alike. These catastrophes affected hundreds of millions of people and resulted in hundreds of billions of dollars in losses. Fire-afflicted movie stars in California and ranchers in Australia; drought-stricken South Africans; poor flooded fisher-folk in Bangladesh; Houston's middle-class families riven by flood: these are just some of the people who felt the crushing blow of more extreme climate. While humans have always faced the perils of natural disasters, the data suggest that the human and economic cost of climate and weather extremes is increasing rapidly as our population and economies expand and our planet warms rapidly. Since the early 1980s, the number of large catastrophes has quadrupled, inflicting billions of dollars in losses and impacting vulnerable populations on every continent. Understanding the link between extremes and warming is both a moral and an existential imperative.
The last part of Chapter 2 and the first part of Chapter 3 of De mundo (392a31–393a8) describe the cosmic layers further below the sphere of the moon, leading down to the very centre of the universe. This section provides a brief overview of the sublunary layers of the four elements (fire, air, water and earth), some of which will be discussed in more detail later in the text. The two main theses that constitute the reasoning behind this section are (i) continuity throughout the entire cosmos and (ii) the great variety of phenomena and processes within the sublunary domain. The layers are organised from the most active one at the top down to the most passive one at the centre of the universe. The continuity among the layers is demonstrated on each and every level. There is, however, no suggestion that each lower, less active substance gains all its characteristics from the more active substance above. For our author’s purpose it is sufficient to demonstrate that there is some relation, some communication among the layers which can later be used by the divine dunamis permeating the entire cosmos. The final part of the present section concerns the claim that the continents are large islands surrounded by an ocean.
For physiologically dormant (PD) species in fire-prone environments, dormancy can be both complex due to the interaction between fire and seasonal cues, and extremely deep due to long intervals between recruitment events. Due to this complexity, there are knowledge gaps particularly surrounding the dormancy depth and cues of long-lived perennial PD species. This can be problematic for both in situ and ex situ species management. We used germination experiments that tested seasonal temperature, smoke, dark and heat for 18 PD shrub species distributed across temperate fire-prone Australia and assessed how germination was correlated with environmental factors associated with their home environments. We found extremely high levels of dormancy, with only eight species germinating above 10% and three species producing no germination at all. Seven of these eight species had quite specific seasonal temperature requirements and/or very strong responses to smoke cues. The maximum germination for each species was positively correlated with the mean temperature of the source population but negatively correlated with rainfall seasonality and driest months. The strong dependence on a smoke cue for some of the study species, along with examples from other studies, provides evidence that an obligate smoke response could be a fire-adapted germination cue. Germination response correlated with rainfall season of the source populations is a pattern which has often been assumed but little comparative data across sites with different rainfall seasonality exists. Further investigation of a broader range of species from different rainfall season environments would help to elucidate this knowledge gap.
Sedimentary charcoal records are used for understanding fire as an earth system process; however, no standardized laboratory methodology exists. Varying sample volumes and chemical treatments (i.e., type of chemical for length of time) are used for the deflocculation and extraction of charcoal from sediment samples. Here, we present the first systematic assessment of the effect of commonly used chemicals on charcoal area and number of fragments. In modern charcoal the area of fragments was significantly different depending on the chemical treatment. We subsequently applied H2O2 (33%), NaClO (12.5%), and HNO3 (50%) to a late-glacial–early Holocene paleorecord and tested different sample volumes. The effects of the treatments were consistent between modern and fossil experiments, which demonstrates the validity of applying results from the modern experiment to the fossil records. Based on our experiments we suggest (1) H2O2 33%, especially for highly organic sediments; (2) avoidance of high concentrations of NaClO for prolonged periods of time, and of HNO3; and (3) samples of 1 cm3 provided typically consistent profiles. Our results indicate that charcoal properties can be influenced by treatment type and sample volume, thus emphasizing the need for a common protocol to enable reliable multi-study comparisons or composite fire histories.
A disaster in the hospital is particularly serious and quite different from other ordinary disasters. This study aimed at analyzing the activity outcomes of a disaster medical assistance team (DMAT) for a fire disaster at the hospital.
The data which was documented by a DMAT and emergent medical technicians of a fire department contained information about the patient’s characteristics, medical records, triage results, and the hospital which the patient was transferred from. Patients were categorized into four groups according to results of field triage using the simple triage and rapid treatment method.
DMAT arrived on the scene in 37 minutes. One hundred and thirty eight (138) patients were evacuated from the disaster scene. There were 25 patients (18.1%) in the Red group, 96 patients (69.6%) in the Yellow group, and 1 patient (0.7%) in the Green group. One patient died. There were 16 (11.6%) medical staff and hospital employees. The injury of the caregiver or the medical staff was more severe compared to the family protector.
For an effective disaster-response system in hospital disasters, it is important to secure the safety of medical staff, to utilize available medical resources, to secure patients’ medical records, and to reorganize the DMAT dispatch system.
El estudio de la génesis de los montículos de la cuenca de la Laguna Merín, Uruguay, se focalizó en el aporte de sedimentos y elementos descartados. Investigaciones basadas en la geoquímica de la matriz llevaron a considerar el rol del fuego en su elevación. Ensayamos contrastar su presencia por medio de las técnicas de datación por luminiscencia. Si las edades o paleodosis medidas por luminiscencia ópticamente estimulada (OSL, por sus siglas en inglés) y por termoluminiscencia (TL) de diferentes fracciones de la matriz son similares, próximas o con cierto grado de superposición, entonces el agente de blanqueo tiene que haber sido el calor. La hipótesis fue verificada en montículos de tres sitios arqueológicos ubicados en el sur de la cuenca. La evidencia de que estaríamos frente a prácticas recursivas que producen acumulaciones de sedimento termoalterados nos condujo a los hornos de tierra y los oven mounds de Australia. La presencia de hornos de tierra prehistóricos ya fue reconocida en Uruguay. Los oven mounds son un potente análogo etnográfico-arqueológico que ilustra sobre procesos de formación de acumulaciones de sedimento termoalterado, al mismo tiempo que permite abordar aspectos socioeconómicos y simbólicos. Por último, a partir de las implicaciones de la hipótesis, señalamos la pertinencia de abordar los montículos a dos escalas: la de los comportamientos que los elevaron y la de su realidad como parches dentro del paisaje.
In this article, I take a close look at the objects collected over the last 200 years from the indigenous people of the Upper Rio Negro, northwest of the Brazilian Amazon, that were part of the ethnographic collection of the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro. Examination of these objects allows us to explore the main characteristics of the ethnographic archive of the museum, as the Upper Rio Negro collections were connected to different topics associated with indigenous societies and histories in Brazil, including enslavement, forced displacement, religious conversion, and indigenous territorial, artifactual, and cultural knowledge. This article also highlights the professional commitment of Brazilian anthropology to amplifying indigenous voices over the course of the history of the discipline, and by doing so, it pays homage to the women and men whose work built the National Museum collections.
Social media provides an opportunity to engage in social contact and to give and receive help by means of online social networks. Social support following trauma exposure, even in a virtual community, may reduce feelings of helplessness and isolation, and, therefore, reduce posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS), and increase posttraumatic growth (PTG). The current study aimed to assess whether giving and/or receiving offers of help by means of social media following large community fires predicted PTS and/or PTG.
A convenience sample of 212 adults living in communities that were affected by large-scale community fires in Israel (November 2016) completed questionnaires on giving and receiving offers of help by means of social media within 1 mo of the fire (W1), and the PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and PTG questionnaire (PTGI-SF), 4 mo after the fire (W2).
Regression analyses showed that, after controlling for age, gender, and distance from fire, offering help by means of social media predicted higher PTG (β = 0.22; t = 3.18; P < 0.01), as did receiving offers of help by means of social media (β = 0.18; t = 2.64; P < 0.01). There were no significant associations between giving and/or receiving offers of help and PTS.
Connecting people to social media networks may help in promoting posttraumatic growth, although might not impact on posttraumatic symptoms. This is one of the first studies to highlight empirically the advantages of social media in the aftermath of trauma exposure.
Johansen examines the role of internal heat in the theories of nutrition and animal generation in Plato’s Timaeus. There, Plato does not ascribe the status of being besouled to all beings which engage in nutrition, but to beings with perceptive faculties. This raises questions as to the status of nutrition in the explanation of life and besouled beings.