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This chapter explores different forms of thermoregulation of blood in animals living in a range of contrasting environments, from the Kalahari Desert to the Antarctic ice. In a wide diversity of species, a range of anatomical adaptions are considered, including heart and blood vessels morphology, natural insulation, and as behavioural and life-cycle adaptations. The strategies of endotherms and ectotherms are compared, and the very particular biology of the icefish is considered.
To the extent that we can make education a science, we will gain some power to predict future directions for educational improvements. This chapter begins with quotations from some famous people that indicate that in the past, we have not learned from our mistakes. If we can succeed in creating a viable science of education and apply this in all educational settings, we may change the course of history in a positive way. This chapter presents a critique of some of the things we have done, and a description of more promising alternatives.
The chapter begins with a description of the first chance experience that shaped the future of my career, a meeting with a former Cornell PhD student, Bruce Dunn, who was interested in collaborating on research and invited me to do a sabbatical leave at the University of West Florida in 1987-1988. This in turn led to conversation with Dunn’s friend, Kenneth Ford, a new faculty member interested in artificial intelligence. We found that the use of concept mapping was highly facilitated for capturing expert knowledge in a fashion that rendered the knowledge easily applied in artificial intelligence settings. Ford became the director of the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC) and he invited his friend, Alberto Cañas, to serve as associate director and to lead a team to create computer software for making concept maps electronically. We soon had available to us software that would work on almost any computer and that would not only allow the construction of concept maps, but also permit attaching digital resources to any map that could be accessed by simply clicking on icons on individual concepts. The software suite created became known as CmapTools, and this software suite is now used all over the world in virtually every field where organized knowledge is important.
In part to illustrate the slow progress in secondary school facilities and programs, I introduce findings from a study done some 50 years ago. Most of the positive changes that occurred in the last 100 years are the result of an occasional creative administrator or school leader. To the best of my knowledge, none of these innovations were introduced on the basis of a comprehensive theory of education. I present evidence to suggest that this situation is changing.
The chapter begins by addressing the question: Why do young children learn so quickly? The short answer is that they are learning names for objects and events they are experiencing directly. These words are concept labels and they are engaged in what we call meaningful learning. In contrast, school learning is too often rote learning where the concepts and principles children are learning are not related to direct experiences with objects and events. David Ausubel’s cognitive psychology was introduced in 1963 and we immediately applied this new psychology as the foundation for all of our future work. We rejected totally the behavioral psychology that had dominated the field of education for some one hundred years. We also rejected positivist epistemology in favor of the emerging constructivist epistemology. It was not until the late 1980s that cognitive psychology and constructivist epistemology became widely adopted.
This chapter opens with the question: Can education become a science? I seek to answer to answer this question by asserting that education is a human activity and like any other human activity, it can be studied scientifically. This means that we can construct concepts, principles, and theories that explain how human beings acquire, use, and construct new knowledge. A comprehensive theory of education must address the question of the nature of knowledge and how human beings build new knowledge, and how to organize education to facilitate these processes. I argue that the major problem with education in the past has been the use of faulty theories of learning and invalid theories of knowledge and knowledge creation, resulting in inadequate instructional practices.
The chapter starts from a seeming contradiction in practice theory: on the one hand, change is an ever-present condition at the micro-level; on the other, homeostatic tendencies prevail at the macro-level. Indeed, taking a historical perspective suggests that practices do change, though mostly around the edges, at a slow pace, and often without a clear direction. Drawing on the evolutionary metaphor, the chapter departs from intentional and reflexive accounts of change, to instead focus on the social environment within which practice variations occur. The web of practices helps explain the differential rate of reproduction and success of particular ways of doing things, including subversive, deviant, innovative, and incompetent performances. In order to survive its context of emergence and gain a foothold in the world, a variant practice needs back-up from surrounding modes of action, whether it be through public display, relational crossover, or inscription. By implication, the evolution of (international) practices describes a socially emergent, macro-process in which the social environment provides the structural impetus for some variations to stick around while most drop out.
We are creative primates who evolved from creative primates and as our cognition increased, so did the complexity of our creative trance. In the evolutionary history of our symbolic communication, even early works suggest altered states and transformation of the self. There are archaic artifacts with symbols that intimate initiation and life after death, prehistoric images on cave walls intended to influence both affect and reality, and talismanic objects linked to altered states, rituals, pain relief, and healing. Our toolmaking evolved from simple Lomekwian and Oldowan stone tools, to the increased aesthetic choices of Acheulean handaxes, to Paleolithic ritual objects with archetypal symbolism encoding spiritual rebirth. As humans progressed, their repeated cultural interchanges through the ratchet effect transformed a five-thousand-year-old Near Eastern hammered dulcimer into the modern grand piano. Beginning with everyday needs, our creativity advanced to plans that could alter civilizations, expanding human cognitive capacity with external memory devices like alphabets, computers, and the digital cloud.
Dynamic capabilities (DCs) are organizations' ability to integrate, build, and reconfigure competences, on which they draw to adapt to changes. Despite a significant stream of literature exploring DCs, the following question remains: how do dynamic capabilities allow organizations to adapt to changes and succeed? To fill this gap, this paper outlines a theory of DCs, based on an analysis of strategic behavior (micro)formation at the individual and collective levels. This theory conceptualizes an evolutionary paradigm in which the intentions of organizational agents are intertwined with environmental influences. It defines DCs as ‘instruments able to entrepreneurially solve problems of evolutionary fitness of organizations.’ In doing so, it advances theoretical conceptualization of DCs and their microfoundations to provide insights into how an entrepreneurially led organization may confront and solve problems and ultimately prosper.
Insights into killing can be obtained by considering theories of general crime and non-lethal sexual offending. This chapter considers the theoretical positions of Marshall, Barbaree, Malamuth, Ressler et al. and Seto. Drive theory fails to explain behaviour and has largely been replaced by incentive motivation theory. The distinction between organized and disorganized lust killers is not an absolute one but represents two extremes on a continuum. By sensory preconditioning, two events that occur together can become associated, such as sexual desire becomes paired with an aversive emotion. Even though killing appears to be maladaptive, evolutionary approaches can still give insights. The theory of Belsky et al. suggests that uncertainty of social support during development is assimilated and plays a role in determining reproductive strategy. An evolutionary argument suggests that male serial killers reflect a hunter/stalking strategy, whereas female serial killers reflect a strategy of staying at home and maximizing genetic benefit.
A broad evangelical consensus dominated American Protestantism in the first half of the 1800s, but the social and intellectual changes of the decades after the American Civil War began to fracture this consensus, creating debate over how to achieve the still agreed-upon goal of Protestantizing the nation. Social shifts included industrialization, urbanization, and immigration from non-Protestant areas of the globe; meanwhile, women’s educational and professional opportunities expanded while the civil rights of African Americans contracted. Intellectual shifts included the popularization of Darwinian evolution and a new “higher critical” approach to interpreting the Bible. The Civil War had also raised hermeneutical questions: Northern and Southern white Protestants had reached polar-opposite conclusions on the morality of slavery. Yet even though subsequent economic, social, and political crises like the world wars and the Great Depression further strained Protestant unity, American Protestants largely retained their cultural dominance throughout this era.
A popular assumption in evolutionary psychology claims that reciprocal altruism is supported by a cognitive module that helps individuals to detect and remember cheaters. Enhanced memory for cheaters would be suited to avoid social exchange situations in which we run the risk of getting exploited by others. In line with this idea, previous studies found a source memory advantage for faces of cheaters relative to faces of cooperators. However, such findings should not be interpreted uncritically. This effect can also be explained with more general cognitive mechanisms. A general preference to attend to and remember negative and unexpected information may ensure that our limited processing resources are focused on relevant information. Therefore, enhanced source memory should be found for a variety of situations, proving to be more adaptive than a mechanism exclusively focused on cheating.
Learning enables organisms to make adaptive modifications to ecological circumstances. Pavlovian conditioning is a specific form of learning that involves learning about predictive relations between events in the environment and enables animals to form associations that facilitate adaptive modifications in behavior in both appetitive and aversive contexts. Pavlovian conditioned stimuli are functionally important because they prepare organisms to interact with biologically relevant stimuli, such as potential mates, and facilitate how those interactions occur. Research with various species indicates that Pavlovian conditioning influences physiological responses that affect reproductive success. In this chapter, we review how Pavlovian conditioning results in enhanced reproductive physiological responses, increased success in fertilization, and increased numbers of offspring produced. Research has shown that animals that had a chance to learn about mating opportunities have a distinct reproductive advantage over those that did not and therefore are more likely to contribute their genes to future generations. This research informs our understanding of how Pavlovian learning is not just a proximate mechanism of behavior, but also has a role in genetic transmission and thereby contributes to the future course of evolution.
This chapter offers a selective review of the spatial cognitive abilities of amphibians as manifested under natural conditions and in the laboratory, and the importance of the medial pallium, the hippocampus homologue in amphibians, for those abilities. In the field, amphibians display extraordinary navigational abilities associated with breeding behavior. In the lab, amphibians are capable of navigating to goal locations using either an egocentric turn strategy or a beacon-guidance strategy. More importantly, amphibians learn map-like representations of goal locations that resemble so-called cognitive maps, an ability supported by the medial pallium. Assuming similarity between the medial pallium of extant amphibians and the medial pallial-hippocampal homologue of the stem tetrapods, the ancestors of modern amniotes, we hypothesize that the evolution of the amniote hippocampus began with a medial pallium characterized by a relatively undifferentiated cytoarchitecture and a broad role in associative learning and memory processes, which included the map-like representation of space.
Memory provides information for decision making and determines partly what animals can and cannot do. Here we categorize memory systems in animals in terms of their generality and their temporal characteristics, and we explore how evolution has tailored memory systems, considering both the benefits of having access to information and the costs of acquiring and remembering information. General associative memories are flexible and can last for years. In contrast, general short-term memories decay rapidly. We find no evidence of general memory systems used to store sequences of stimuli faithfully. Importantly, seeming limitations of general memory systems may be adaptive as they minimize storage and learning costs. In addition to general memory systems, animals have evolved specialized memories when they need more faithful or longer-lasting memories than afforded by general memory systems. We discuss the consequences of these findings for animal cognition research.
Both logic programming in general and Prolog in particular have a long and fascinating history, intermingled with that of many disciplines they inherited from or catalyzed. A large body of research has been gathered over the last 50 years, supported by many Prolog implementations. Many implementations are still actively developed, while new ones keep appearing. Often, the features added by different systems were motivated by the interdisciplinary needs of programmers and implementors, yielding systems that, while sharing the “classic” core language, in particular, the main aspects of the ISO-Prolog standard, also depart from each other in other aspects. This obviously poses challenges for code portability. The field has also inspired many related, but quite different languages that have created their own communities. This article aims at integrating and applying the main lessons learned in the process of evolution of Prolog. It is structured into three major parts. First, we overview the evolution of Prolog systems and the community approximately up to the ISO standard, considering both the main historic developments and the motivations behind several Prolog implementations, as well as other logic programming languages influenced by Prolog. Then, we discuss the Prolog implementations that are most active after the appearance of the standard: their visions, goals, commonalities, and incompatibilities. Finally, we perform a SWOT analysis in order to better identify the potential of Prolog and propose future directions along with which Prolog might continue to add useful features, interfaces, libraries, and tools, while at the same time improving compatibility between implementations.
The Cambridge Companion to Genesis explores the first book of the Bible, the book that serves as the foundation for the rest of the Hebrew Scriptures. Recognizing its unique position in world history, the history of religions, as well as biblical and theological studies, the volume summarizes key developments in Biblical scholarship since the Enlightenment, while offering an overview of the diverse methods and reading strategies that are currently applied to the reading of Genesis. It also explores questions that, in some cases, have been explored for centuries. Written by an international team of scholars whose essays were specially commissioned, the Companion provides a multi-disciplinary update of all relevant issues related to the interpretation of Genesis. Whether the reader is taking the first step on the path or continuing a research journey, this volume will illuminate the role of Genesis in world religions, theology, philosophy, and critical biblical scholarship.
The gathering storm – the creation of an Infertility TrapWhile previous publications have looked at individual aspects of the issues shaping our population size, the reality is that many different factors are working together to drive human fertility into a cul-de-sac of its own making. From a social perspective many young people, particularly young, educated women, do not feel that life’s purpose necessarily involves the creation of a family. As fertility rates fall, this lack of interest in procreation will be reinforced by the economic pressures placed on a dwindling workforce to achieve the productivity needed to support the swelling ranks of elderly citizens. We shall not be able to turn to immigration to solve this problem because the fall in fertility rates is global and the barriers to international movement put up by COVID will persist for some time to come. Affluent societies are also characterized by lifestyles, diets and levels of environmental pollution that negatively impact reproductive health. These features, when coupled with the lack of selection pressure on high fertility in modern industrialized societies, and the ability of ART to encourage poor fertility genotypes to remain within the population, will combine to drive fertility down to historically low levels.
This paper investigates the development of social Darwinism in China from the mid-1890s to 1930 vis-à-vis its ties with social Darwinism in the West, employing a comparative analysis of Spencer, Huxley, and Yan Fu. A form of evolutionism that envisioned a cosmological order based upon strength was transformed into a component of power politics in Republican China, despite unsuccessful political endeavors that illustrated both the triumphs and social malfunctions of evolutionary ideas. From the late 1910s, a new variety of social Darwinism arose alongside the scientific one, reflecting the influence of Kropotkin and de Vries, as Chinese thinkers incorporated non-Anglophone texts. The theories that emerged made sense of the changing Chinese adaptations of evolutionary thinking by contextualizing and modifying them within the intellectual and political dynamics inside China and also in China’s evolving relationship with capitalism and imperialism.
Anti-scientific misinformation has become a serious problem on many fronts, including vaccinations and climate change. One of these fronts is the persistence of anti-evolutionism, which has recently been given a superficially professional gloss in the form of the intelligent design movement. Far from solely being of interest to researchers in biology, anti-evolutionism must be recognized as part of a broader campaign with a conservative religious and political agenda. Much of the rhetorical effectiveness of anti-evolutionism comes from its reliance on seemingly precise mathematical arguments. This book, the first of its kind to be written by a mathematician, discusses and refutes these arguments. Along the way, it also clarifies common misconceptions about both biology and mathematics. Both lay audiences and professionals will find the book to be accessible and informative.