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Prebiotic supplements and high-protein (HP) diets reduce body weight and modulate intestinal microbiota. Our aim was to elucidate the combined effect of an inulin/oligofructose (FOS) and HP diet on body weight gain, energy metabolism and faecal microbiota. Forty male C57BL/6NCrl mice were fed a control (C) diet for 2 weeks and allocated to a C or HP (40 % protein) diet including no or 10 % inulin/FOS (C + I and HP + I) for 4 weeks. Inulin/FOS was added in place of starch and cellulose. Body weight, food intake, faecal energy and nitrogen were determined. Indirect calorimetry and faecal microbiota analysis were performed after 3 weeks on diets. Body weight gain of HP-fed mice was 36 % lower than HP + I- and C-fed mice (P < 0⋅05). Diet digestibility and food conversion efficiency were higher in HP + I- than HP-fed mice (P < 0⋅01), while food intake was comparable between groups. Total energy expenditure (heat production) was 25 % lower in HP + I- than in C-, HP- and C + I-fed mice (P < 0⋅001). Carbohydrate oxidation tended to be 24 % higher in HP- than in HP + I-fed mice (P < 0⋅05). Faecal nitrogen excretion was 31–45 % lower in C-, C + I- and HP + I- than in HP-fed mice (P < 0⋅05). Faecal Bacteroides–Prevotella DNA was 2⋅3-fold higher in C + I- and HP + I- relative to C-fed mice (P < 0⋅05), but Clostridium leptum DNA abundances was 79 % lower in HP + I- than in HP-fed mice (P < 0⋅05). We suggest that the higher conversion efficiency of dietary energy of HP + I but not C + I-fed mice is caused by higher digestibility and lower heat production, resulting in increased body mass.
This paper presents a feasibility study of in situ field measurements of unsaturated meltwater percolation flux within the vertical profile of a snowpack, using the self-potential (SP) method. On-site snowmelt column tests calibrated the SP measurements. The SP data measured electrical field strength with an electrode spacing of 20 cm, and coincident water saturation (Sw) measurements using time domain reflectometry allowed calculation of SP-modeled vertical percolation flux (qsp), expressed as Darcy velocity. The results reflected transient diurnal snowmelt dynamics, with peak flux lagging arrival of a saturation wetting front. Peak daily qsp was 60 to >300 mm d−1, whereas daily snowmelt was 20–50 mm w.e. Surface refreezing events appeared to cause upward flow, possibly representing water redistribution toward the freezing boundary. Calculated fluxes were comparable to actual fluxes, although average errors ranged from −15 to +46% compared to average of melt expected from surface energy-balance and ablation stake measurements. By advancing method development to measure unsaturated meltwater percolation flux in snowpacks this study creates opportunities to study fundamental snowmelt processes, may improve mathematical modeling and may supplement glacier mass-balance studies and studies of snowmelt interactions with avalanches, groundwater and surface water.
Addressing the question of the formation and the evolution of galaxies in a cosmological context implies that we must understand their emission over the broadest electromagnetic spectrum. Using multi-wavelength data consistently enables to measure reliable physical parameters like star-formation rates and stellar masses.However, the drawback of this approach is that we do need more information in terms of data. We also need to handle them by using powerful computers and smart codes that are able to run ina reasonable amount of time and deal with a wealth of data and a huge number of models. A statistical approach is also mandatory to estimate the reliability of the results. In this chapter I will describe the different components and physical processes that leave their imprints in the distribution of energy of galaxies and how physical parameters related to their star formation history can be extracted from the fit of their spectral energy distribution. I will present physically-motivated codes which assume an energy balance between dust stellar absorption and re-emission
Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) has been proposed to be a compensatory response that may resist weight loss (WL) and promote weight regain. This systematic review examined the existence of AT in adults after a period of negative energy balance (EB) with or without a weight stabilisation phase. Studies published until 15 May 2020 were identified from PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, SCOPUS and Web of Science. Inclusion criteria included statistically significant WL, observational with follow-up or experimental studies, age > 18y, sample size ≥10 participants, intervention period ≥ 1week, published in English, objective measures of total daily energy expenditure (EE) (TDEE), resting EE (REE) and sleeping EE(SEE). The systematic review was registered at PROSPERO (2020 CRD42020165348). A total of thirty-three studies comprising 2528 participants were included. AT was observed in twenty-seven studies. Twenty-three studies showed significant values for AT for REE (82·8 %), four for TDEE (80·0 %) and two for SEE (100 %). A large heterogeneity in the methods used to quantify AT and between subjects and among studies regarding the magnitude of WL and/or of AT was reported. Well-designed studies reported lower or non-significant values for AT. These findings suggest that although WL may lead to AT in some of the EE components, these values may be small or non-statistically significant when higher-quality methodological designs are used. Furthermore, AT seems to be attenuated, or non-existent, after periods of weight stabilisation/neutral EB. More high-quality studies are warranted not only to disclose the existence of AT but also to understand its clinical implications on weight management outcomes.
Surface energy-balance models are commonly used in conjunction with satellite thermal imagery to estimate supraglacial debris thickness. Removing the need for local meteorological data in the debris thickness estimation workflow could improve the versatility and spatiotemporal application of debris thickness estimation. We evaluate the use of regional reanalysis data to derive debris thickness for two mountain glaciers using a surface energy-balance model. Results forced using ERA-5 agree with AWS-derived estimates to within 0.01 ± 0.05 m for Miage Glacier, Italy, and 0.01 ± 0.02 m for Khumbu Glacier, Nepal. ERA-5 data were then used to estimate spatiotemporal changes in debris thickness over a ~20-year period for Miage Glacier, Khumbu Glacier and Haut Glacier d'Arolla, Switzerland. We observe significant increases in debris thickness at the terminus for Haut Glacier d'Arolla and at the margins of the expanding debris cover at all glaciers. While simulated debris thickness was underestimated compared to point measurements in areas of thick debris, our approach can reconstruct glacier-scale debris thickness distribution and its temporal evolution over multiple decades. We find significant changes in debris thickness over areas of thin debris, areas susceptible to high ablation rates, where current knowledge of debris evolution is limited.
Glacier surficial melt rates are commonly modelled using surface energy balance (SEB) models, with outputs applied to extend point-based mass-balance measurements to regional scales, assess water resource availability, examine supraglacial hydrology and to investigate the relationship between surface melt and ice dynamics. We present an improved SEB model that addresses the primary limitations of existing models by: (1) deriving high-resolution (30 m) surface albedo from Landsat 8 imagery, (2) calculating shadows cast onto the glacier surface by high-relief topography to model incident shortwave radiation, (3) developing an algorithm to map debris sufficiently thick to insulate the glacier surface and (4) presenting a formulation of the SEB model coupled to a subsurface heat conduction model. We drive the model with 6 years of in situ meteorological data from Kaskawulsh Glacier and Nàłùdäy (Lowell) Glacier in the St. Elias Mountains, Yukon, Canada, and validate outputs against in situ measurements. Modelled seasonal melt agrees with observations within 9% across a range of elevations on both glaciers in years with high-quality in situ observations. We recommend applying the model to investigate the impacts of surface melt for individual glaciers when sufficient input data are available.
Skeletal muscle contraction can be characterised under either isometric or isotonic conditions of constant length or load. These demonstrate an inverse, Hill, relationship between initial shortening velocity and load. The muscle contraction timecourse exceeds that of its initiating electrical and intracellular Ca2+ changes. Repetitive stimulation consequently produces summation and tetanic fusion of successive muscle twitches. All these variants of contractile activity incur energy expenditure immediately supplied by ATP breakdown, replenished successively from creatine phosphate, carbohydrate and lipid energy supplies. Continued activity leads to energetic depletion, and osmotic and electrolyte imbalances all contributing to fatigue. However, cellular H+ buffering mechanisms mitigate the osmotic and pH effects of the associated lactate production. Na+-K+-ATPase activity buffers the inward Na+ and outward K+ fluxes accompanying electrical activity, and their osmotic effects. Long-term increases in muscle activity exert positive trophic effects. In contrast, ageing is associated with sarcopaenia which contributes importantly to clinical frailty.
The objective of the study was to evaluate the potential of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of milk samples to predict body energy status and related traits (energy balance (EB), dry matter intake (DMI) and efficient energy intake (EEI)) in lactating dairy cows. The data included 2371 milk samples from 63 Norwegian Red dairy cows collected during the first 105 days in milk (DIM). To predict the body energy status traits, calibration models were developed using Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR). Calibration models were established using split-sample (leave-one cow-out) cross-validation approach and validated using an external test set. The PLSR method was implemented using just the FTIR spectra or using the FTIR together with milk yield (MY) or concentrate intake (CONCTR) as predictors of traits. Analyses were conducted for the entire first 105 DIM and separately for the two lactation periods: 5 ≤ DIM ≤ 55 and 55 < DIM ≤ 105. To test the models, an external validation using an independent test set was performed. Predictions depending on the parity (1st, 2nd and 3rd-to 6th parities) in early lactation were also investigated. Accuracy of prediction (r) for both cross-validation and external test set was defined as the correlation between the predicted and observed values for body energy status traits. Analyzing FTIR in combination with MY by PLSR, resulted in relatively high r-values to estimate EB (r = 0.63), DMI (r = 0.83), EEI (r = 0.84) using an external validation. Only moderate correlations between FTIR spectra and traits like EB, EEI and dry matter intake (DMI) have so far been published. Our hypothesis was that improvements in the FTIR predictions of EB, EEI and DMI can be obtained by (1) stratification into different stages of lactations and different parities, or (2) by adding additional information on milking and feeding traits. Stratification of the lactation stages improved predictions compared with the analyses including all data 5 ≤ DIM ≤105. The accuracy was improved if additional data (MY or CONCTR) were included in the prediction model. Furthermore, stratification into parity groups, improved the predictions of body energy status. Our results show that FTIR spectral data combined with MY or CONCTR can be used to obtain improved estimation of body energy status compared to only using the FTIR spectra in Norwegian Red dairy cattle. The best prediction results were achieved using FTIR spectra together with MY for early lactation. The results obtained in the study suggest that the modeling approach used in this paper can be considered as a viable method for predicting an individual cow's energy status.
Microbiome research in the last two decades has delivered as a key finding that the human intestine hosts a unique and complex ecosystem with many variables affecting the composition of the microbiota and in turn its function in metabolism and immune defence. Hundreds of external (environmental) factors have meanwhile been identified as significantly associated with bacterial biomass and diversity and, amongst these, diet is considered as a key determinant of microbial populations. However, dietary intervention studies, including those with fermentable substrates that have bulk effects on bowel functions, have revealed only very minor effects on overall microbiome composition and usually show only a very few species changing in population size. What that means in the context of hundreds of different species coexisting in competition or mutualism in the human colon is far from understood. This review addresses some of the current limits in research on diet effects by taking anatomical and physiological features of the intestine into consideration. It also provides some recommendations on future human studies needed to assess how the diet influences the microbiome and associated effects on metabolic health.
Surface melt on the coastal Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) determines the viability of its ice shelves and the stability of the grounded ice sheet, but very few in situ melt rate estimates exist to date. Here we present a benchmark dataset of in situ surface melt rates and energy balance from nine sites in the eastern Antarctic Peninsula (AP) and coastal Dronning Maud Land (DML), East Antarctica, seven of which are located on AIS ice shelves. Meteorological time series from eight automatic and one staffed weather station (Neumayer), ranging in length from 15 months to almost 24 years, serve as input for an energy-balance model to obtain consistent surface melt rates and energy-balance results. We find that surface melt rates exhibit large temporal, spatial and process variability. Intermittent summer melt in coastal DML is primarily driven by absorption of shortwave radiation, while non-summer melt events in the eastern AP occur during föhn events that force a large downward directed turbulent flux of sensible heat. We use the in situ surface melt rate dataset to evaluate melt rates from the regional atmospheric climate model RACMO2 and validate a melt product from the QuikSCAT satellite.
Like most ice caps and glaciers worldwide, Icelandic glaciers are retreating in a warming climate. Here, the evolution of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, from 1980 to 2300 is simulated by forcing the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM) with output from Regional Climate Models (RCMs). For climate simulations of the recent past, HARMONIE-AROME reanalysis-forced simulations are used, while for future climate conditions, high-resolution (5.5 km) simulations from the RCM HIRHAM5 are used in addition to available CORDEX simulations (12 km). The glacier evolution is modelled using the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios until 2100. To extend the time series, the 2081–2100 climate forcing is repeated until 2300. For RCP 4.5, the ice cap loses 31–64% of its volume and 13–37% of its area by 2300 depending on the used model forcing. For RCP 8.5, the volume decrease is 51–94% and the area decrease is 24–80% by 2300. In addition, the effect of elevation feedbacks is investigated by adding a precipitation and temperature lapse rate to the HIRHAM5 simulations. By 2300, the lapse rate runs have a 9–14% smaller volume and a 9–20% smaller area than the runs without a lapse rate correction.
The present study examined whether the combination of medium-chain TAG (MCT) along with exercise suppresses energy intake to a greater extent compared with either intervention alone. Twelve participants consumed a porridge breakfast containing 692·9 kJ of either vegetable or MCT oil on two separate occasions: one followed by rest for 240 min and another followed by rest broken up with 1 h of cycling at 65 %
O2peak starting at 120 min. At 240 min, participants consumed a buffet lunch to satiation and recorded their food intake for the rest of the day. Expired air samples (for calculation of energy expenditure (EE)) and subjective ratings of appetite on visual analogue scales were taken every 30 min, and gastric emptying (GE) breath samples were taken every 15 min. No effect of either breakfast or exercise condition was observed on energy intake at any time point (P > 0·05) or no effect was observed on subjective appetite ratings (P > 0·05). Exercise trials resulted in significantly higher EE compared with resting trials (2960·6 kJ, 95 % CI 2528·9, 3392·2; P < 0·001), and MCT increased resting EE over 4 h compared with long-chain TAG (LCT) (124·8 kJ, 95 % CI 13·5, 236·0; P = 0·031). GE was accelerated by exercise, regardless of the breakfast consumed, but delayed by MCT in both resting and exercise trials. The results show that exercise causes energy deficits via increased EE without promoting dietary compensation. MCT has no effect on energy intake or satiety but increases EE under resting conditions. There is no additive effect of MCT and exercise on EE, intake or appetite ratings.
Antarctic lakes with perennial ice covers provide the opportunity to investigate in-lake processes without direct atmospheric interaction, and to study their ice-cover sensitivity to climate conditions. In this study, a numerical model – driven by radiative, atmospheric and turbulent heat fluxes from the water body beneath the ice cover – was implemented to investigate the impact of climate change on the ice covers from two Antarctic lakes: west lobe of Lake Bonney (WLB) and Crooked Lake. Model results agreed well with measured ice thicknesses of both lakes (WLB – RMSE= 0.11 m over 16 years of data; Crooked Lake – RMSE= 0.07 m over 1 year of data), and had acceptable results with measured ablation data at WLB (RMSE= 0.28 m over 6 years). The differences between measured and modeled ablation occurred because the model does not consider interannual variability of the ice optical properties and seasonal changes of the lake's thermal structure. Results indicate that projected summer air temperatures will increase the ice-cover annual melting in WLB by 2050, but that the ice cover will remain perennial through the end of this century. Contrarily, at Crooked Lake the ice cover becomes ephemeral most likely due to the increase in air temperatures.
Physiological and behavioural systems are tolerant of excess energy intake and responsive to energy deficits. Weight loss (WL) changes body structure, physiological function and energy balance (EB) behaviours, which resist further WL and promote subsequent weight regain. Measuring and understanding the response of EB systems to energy deficits is important for developing evidence-based behaviour change interventions for longer-term weight management. Currently, behaviour change approaches for longer-term WL show modest effect sizes. Self-regulation of EB behaviours (e.g. goal setting, action plans, self-monitoring, relapse prevention plans) and aspects of motivation are important for WL maintenance. Stress management, emotion regulation and food hedonics may also be important for relapse prevention, but the evidence is less concrete. Although much is known about the effects of WL on physiological and psychological function, little is known about the way these dynamic changes affect human EB behaviours. Key areas of future importance include (i) improved methods for detailed tracking of energy expenditure, balance and by subtraction intake, using digital technologies, (ii) how WL impacts body structure, function and subsequent EB behaviours, (iii) how behaviour change approaches can overcome physiological resistance to WL and (iv) who is likely to maintain WL or relapse. Modelling physiological and psychological moderators and mediators of EB-related behaviours is central to understanding and improving longer-term weight and health outcomes in the general population.
Body weight control is thought to be improved when physical activity and energy intake are both high (high energy turnover (ET)). The aim of the present study was to investigate the short-term impact of ET on fat balance during zero energy balance (EB), energetic restriction (ER) and overfeeding (OF). In a randomised crossover study, nine healthy men (BMI: 23·0 (SD 2·1) kg/m2, 26·6 (SD 3·5) years) passed 3 × 3 d in a metabolic chamber: three levels of ET (low, medium and high; physical activity level = 1·3−1·4, 1·5−1·6 and 1·7−1·8) were performed at zero EB, ER and OF (100, 75 and 125 % of individual energy requirement). Different levels of ET were obtained by walking (4 km/h) on a treadmill (0, 165 and 330 min). Twenty-four-hour macronutrient oxidation and relative macronutrient balance (oxidation relative to intake) was calculated, and NEFA, 24-h insulin and catecholamine secretion were analysed as determinants of fat oxidation. During EB and OF, 24-h fat oxidation increased with higher ET. This resulted in a higher relative fat balance at medium ET (EB: +17 %, OF: +14 %) and high ET (EB: +23 %, OF: +17 %) compared with low ET (all P < 0·05). In contrast, ER led to a stimulation of 24-h fat oxidation irrespective of ET (no differences in relative fat balance between ET levels, P > 0·05). In conclusion, under highly controlled conditions, a higher ET improved relative fat balance in young healthy men during OF and EB compared with a sedentary state.
Currently the world is facing an incredibly costly epidemic of obesity. Almost two-thirds of UK adults are either overweight or obese with estimated financial costs to the UK economy alone of £27 billion per year. While fundamentally obesity is a disorder of energy balance, several decades of research has demonstrated that maintaining energy balance is much more complex than the ‘energy in equals energy out’ equation that was once touted. The purpose of the 2018 Nutrition Society Summer Conference, ‘Getting energy balance right’ was to provide insight into the numerous factors influencing energy balance, considering varying needs across the lifespan, while highlighting advances and gaps in knowledge. Papers presented in this issue illustrate the wide range of factors involved in maintaining energy balance, including: epigenetics, the gut microbiome, physical activity and dietary factors including sugar. Given the complexity of energy balance, systems approaches were highlighted as useful for both understanding metabolism and pathophysiology, and for understanding how public health interventions to treat and prevent obesity should be implemented. The meeting concluded that numerous stakeholders, from individuals, to schools, industry and government, have roles to play in fostering a positive food environment that facilitates the maintenance of energy balance throughout the lifespan.
Shortening or omitting the dry period improves the energy balance and metabolic status of dairy cows in early lactation. Metabolic, behaviour and welfare effects throughout lactation, however, are unclear. The current paper reviews long-term metabolic and welfare consequences of short and no dry period, as well as feeding strategies and individual cow characteristics that could support in optimising management of cows with a short or no dry period. The paper will conclude with impacts of short and no dry periods at herd level and in practice. Energy balance after no or a short dry period is more positive during the complete subsequent lactation. After the initial improvement in early lactation, cows after no dry period tend to fatten and may have a too low lactation persistency to be continuously milked until the onset of the subsequent lactation. Reducing dietary energy level for cows with no dry period reduced fattening during the complete lactation but did not improve lactation persistency. Feeding a more lipogenic diet for cows with a short or no dry period did not affect the energy balance or lactation persistency during the complete lactation, although a lipogenic diet resulted in lower plasma insulin and IGF-1 concentration and greater plasma growth hormone concentration, compared with a glucogenic diet. Effects of dry period length on udder health are ambiguous, whereas short and no dry periods improved fertility in most studies. Omission of the dry period changed behaviour of cows both before and after calving, with a longer lying time and greater feed intake after calving, suggesting a better adaptation to a new lactation. Individual cow characteristics like parity, genotype, prepartum body condition score, and milk yield level determined the metabolic response of cows to a short or no dry period. In conclusion, short or no dry periods increase the energy balance in the complete lactation. Feeding strategies can be used to limit fattening of cows with no or short dry period, but the studied feeding strategies did not increase lactation persistency. Improved fertility and behavioural changes around calving suggest a better adaptation to a new lactation in case of no dry period. Customised dry period lengths for individual cows could improve metabolic status of cows at risk of a severe negative energy balance while minimising milk losses.
We show a strong difference in surface mass and energy balance of a mountain glacier and two sites on the ice sheet at 64°N in West Greenland using stake and automated weather station observations. Net surface mass balance is on average 2.2 m w.e. less negative at the coast compared with the ice sheet in the same elevation. We find a larger energy turnover at the ice sheet margin on Qamanarssup Sermia than measured on the coastal mountain glacier Qassigiannguit with both energy input and output being of larger absolute value. More cloudiness and a thicker snow cover at the relatively humid coastal glacier result in smaller gains in net-shortwave radiation and smaller losses in net-longwave radiation and a less negative mass balance. Lower wind speeds at the coastal glacier result in weaker turbulent heat exchange between atmosphere and ice surface. On annual average, 17 W m−2 more energy is available for melt at the ice-sheet margin compared with the coastal glacier in the same elevation.
Recently there has been a considerable rise in the frequency of metabolic diseases, such as obesity, due to changes in lifestyle and resultant imbalances between energy intake and expenditure. Whey proteins are considered as potentially important components of a dietary solution to the obesity problem. However, the roles of individual whey proteins in energy balance remain poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of a high-fat diet (HFD) containing α-lactalbumin (LAB), a specific whey protein, or the non-whey protein casein (CAS), on energy balance, nutrient transporters expression and enteric microbial populations. C57BL/6J mice (n 8) were given an HFD containing either 20 % CAS or LAB as protein sources or a low-fat diet containing CAS for 10 weeks. HFD-LAB-fed mice showed a significant increase in cumulative energy intake (P=0·043), without differences in body weight, energy expenditure, locomotor activity, RER or subcutaneous and epididymal white adipose tissue weight. HFD-LAB intake led to a decrease in the expression of glut2 in the ileum (P=0·05) and in the fatty acid transporter cd36 (P<0·001) in both ileum and jejunum. This suggests a reduction in absorption efficiency within the small intestine in the HFD-LAB group. DNA from faecal samples was used for 16S rRNA-based assessment of intestinal microbiota populations; the genera Lactobacillus, Parabacteroides and Bifidobacterium were present in significantly higher proportions in the HFD-LAB group. These data indicate a possible functional relationship between gut microbiota, intestinal nutrient transporters and energy balance, with no impact on weight gain.
Theories of REM and NREM functions we have been assuming that the sleep state is doing something for the wake state; i.e., that NREM SWS restores energy for waking consciousness or that REM supports emotional memory consolidation for waking consciousness. But it is also possible that the functions of REM and NREM have more to do with the sleep states themselves rather than with waking consciousness. REM may be undoing something that NREM is doing since REM typically follows NREM in the sleep cycle. Or conversely, NREM SWS may be doing something important for the organism (e.g., immune system repair) but that function is costly, so REM functions to complete, complement, repair, or undo something that NREM had to do to accomplish its primary functions. In this scenario, SWS sleep repairs the immune system each night, but that is so onerous a job that NREM then requires REM to restore NREM’s functional capacity so that it can do its immune system repair again the following night.