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Conspiracy theories spread more widely and faster than ever before. Fear and uncertainty prompt people to believe false narratives of danger and hidden plots, but are not sufficient without considering the role and ideological bias of the media. This timely book focuses on making sense of how and why some people respond to their fear of a threat by creating or believing conspiracy stories. It integrates insights from psychology, political science, communication, and information sciences to provide a complete overview and theory of how conspiracy beliefs manifest. Through this multi-disciplinary perspective, rigoros research develops and tests a practical, simple way to frame and understand conspiracy theories. The book supplies unprecedented amounts of new data from six empirical studies and unpicks the complexity of the process that leads to the empowerment of conspiracy beliefs.
People can best help dyslexic students once they understand dyslexia's association with anxiety and effective coping strategies, both cognitively and emotionally. By highlighting the perspectives of dyslexic students, this book evidences the prevalence of anxiety in dyslexic communities. The shared experience from a range of dyslexic learners pinpoints best practice models and helps combat the isolation felt by many with learning difficulties. The author targets academic areas where students struggle, offering techniques to overcome these barriers. Such obstacles are not always due to cognitive factors but may be associated with negative experiences, leading to fear and uncertainty. Recounting these sticking points through student voices, rather than from a staff viewpoint, enables readers to find meaningful solutions to dyslexia-related problems. Through this dynamic methodology, the book shows researchers and practitioners how to understand dyslexic needs on an emotional level, while presenting dyslexic readers with practical coping methods.
Little is known about how mental health symptoms develop during the transition to university. Most anxiety and depression research fails to consider how symptom development differs over time across different individuals, and how symptom co-occurrence influences the severity of mental health problems. Students (N = 658) completed online surveys on mental health prior to starting university and every 2 months until April. To better understand mental health problems during this transitional period, latent class growth curve analyses were run to determine how anxiety and depressive symptoms co-develop over time, as well, if self-critical perfectionism was a transdiagnostic risk factor for more severe symptom trajectories in this transition. About 40% of students experienced depression and anxiety symptoms prior to entering/during the transition to university. There is substantial variation between students in terms of how they experience depression and anxiety symptoms, and research needs to take this heterogeneity into account to properly identify which students might benefit most from resources. Self-critical perfectionism was a transdiagnostic risk factor, such that students higher in this trait experienced more severe anxiety and depressive symptom trajectories during this transition. This research further implicates the importance of understanding and studying individual differences in symptom development.
To investigate the association between ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption and Internalizing Symptoms (IS) among adolescents.
It is a cross-sectional study. Paper-pencil survey was completed in classroom with information on UPF consumption, IS and selected covariates. IS were assessed with the Internalizing Symptoms sub-scale from the Social Behaviour Questionnaire (ISs-SBQ). UPF was evaluated with a food frequency questionnaire extracted from the Brazilian National School Health Survey. Crude and adjusted association between UPF and IS was investigated with Structural Equation Models.
UPF consumption was associated with higher scores in IS in the crude (ß=0.14; p<0.001) and adjusted (ß=0.12; p<0.001) models. The higher the consumption of UPF, the higher the IS score. The following variables were associated with a lower risk of UPF consumption: male gender, public school and having more meals with parents. The change in the magnitude of the standardized score was almost negligible, but the model was significantly improved with the inclusion of covariates.
Our results provide evidence about the positive association between UPF consumption and IS among adolescents. The association, despite its low magnitude, remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders. These results are relevant considering the increase in UPF consumption worldwide and in low- and middle-income countries. Also, our study emphasizes the importance of a healthy diet with a reduction in UPF consumption among adolescents.
Obesity is a major public health problem that predisposes to several diseases and higher mortality in patients with COVID-19. Obesity also generates neuroinflammation, which predisposes to the development of neuropsychiatric diseases. Since there is a lack of effective treatments for obesity, the search for new strategies to reverse its consequences is urgent. In this perspective, the anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as DHA/EPA might reduce the harmful effects of obesity. Here, we used the cafeteria diet model to induce obesity in Wistar rats. Animals received ultra-processed food for 20 weeks, and DHA/EPA supplementation (500mg/Kg/day) was performed between the 16th and the 20th week. At the end of the experiment, it was evaluated: body weight, visceral fat deposition, plasma glucose, insulin and triglycerides, and it was also measured the levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in plasma and liver, and TNF-α in the prefrontal cortex. The elevated plus-maze test was performed to analyze anxiety-like behaviour. Our results demonstrated that DHA/EPA could not reverse weight and fat gain and did not modify plasma dosages. However, there was a decrease in IL-6 in the liver (DHA/EPA effect: p = 0.023) and TNF-α in the brain (CAF compared to CAF+DHA/EPA, p < 0.05). Also, there was a decrease in the anxiety index in CAF+DHA/EPA compared to the CAF group (p < 0.01). Thus, DHA/EPA supplementation is helpful to reverse the consequences of obesity in the brain.
Cannabis use is a global public health issue associated with increased risks of developing mental health disorders, especially in young people. We aimed to investigate the relationships between cannabis exposure and risks of receiving mental illness diagnoses or treatment as outcomes.
A population based, retrospective, open cohort study using patients recorded in ‘IQVIA medical research data’, a UK primary care database. Read codes were used to confirm patients with recorded exposure to cannabis use who were matched up to two unexposed patients. We examined the risk of developing three categories of mental ill health: depression, anxiety or serious mental illness (SMI).
At study entry, the exposed cohort had an increased likelihood of having experienced mental ill health [odds ratio (OR) 4.13; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.99–4.27] and mental ill health-related prescription (OR 2.95; 95% CI 2.86–3.05) compared to the unexposed group. During the study period we found that exposure to cannabis was associated with an increased risk of developing any mental disorder [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 2.73; 95% CI 2.59–2.88], also noted when examining by subtype of disorder: anxiety (aHR 2.46; 95% CI 2.29–2.64), depression (aHR 2.34; 95% CI 2.20–2.49) and SMI (aHR 6.41; 95% CI 5.42–7.57). These results remained robust in sensitivity analyses.
These findings point to the potential need for a public health approach to the management of people misusing cannabis. However, there is a gross under-recording of cannabis use in GP records, as seen by the prevalence of recorded cannabis exposure substantially lower than self-reported survey records.
This critical review of the literature seeks to understand the psychological impact that treatment interventions may have on prostate cancer (PC) survivors.
Materials and Methods:
A literature search was conducted using databases of peer-reviewed literature. The search terms used were devised using the building-blocks technique to divide the query into facets. The articles were manually assessed for relevance and appraised using the relevant Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool. Government guidelines and regulations were also used following a manual search on the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) website. This process resulted in a total of 12 sources being included in the critical review.
The key themes that arose from the review were masculinity, depression, anxiety and psychological implications related to sexual functioning. Psychological impact varies on an individual basis and is influenced by the quality of a patient’s experience during and after treatment in relation to sufficient information giving and support.
Open communication should be encouraged by healthcare professionals to assess patient mental wellbeing. The extent of psychological impact varies on an individual basis; however, there are predictive factors that can make an individual more at risk of being affected psychologically post-PC treatment.
Disorders involving compulsivity, fear, and anxiety are linked to beliefs that the world is less predictable. We lack a mechanistic explanation for how such beliefs arise. Here, we test a hypothesis that in people with compulsivity, fear, and anxiety, learning a probabilistic mapping between actions and environmental states is compromised.
In Study 1 (n = 174), we designed a novel online task that isolated state transition learning from other facets of learning and planning. To determine whether this impairment is due to learning that is too fast or too slow, we estimated state transition learning rates by fitting computational models to two independent datasets, which tested learning in environments in which state transitions were either stable (Study 2: n = 1413) or changing (Study 3: n = 192).
Study 1 established that individuals with higher levels of compulsivity are more likely to demonstrate an impairment in state transition learning. Preliminary evidence here linked this impairment to a common factor comprising compulsivity and fear. Studies 2 and 3 showed that compulsivity is associated with learning that is too fast when it should be slow (i.e. when state transition are stable) and too slow when it should be fast (i.e. when state transitions change).
Together, these findings indicate that compulsivity is associated with a dysregulation of state transition learning, wherein the rate of learning is not well adapted to the task environment. Thus, dysregulated state transition learning might provide a key target for therapeutic intervention in compulsivity.
Measurement burst designs, in which assessments of a set of constructs are made at two or more times in quick succession (e.g., within days), can be used as a novel method to improve the stability of basic measures typically used in longitudinal peer research. In this Element, we hypothesized that the stabilities for adolescent-reported peer acceptance, anxiety, and self-concept would be stronger when using the measurement burst approach versus the single time observation. Participants included youth between 10 and 13 years old who completed (a) sociometric assessments of acceptance, and measures of (b) social and test anxiety, and (c) self-concept across three times with two assessments made at each burst. Findings broadly showed that the stabilities were significantly stronger with the measurement burst when compared to the single time assessment, supporting our main hypothesis. We discuss the utility of the measurement burst in a broader context and considerations for researchers.
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the necessary social isolation and distancing measures - that were adopted to prevent spreading the virus, including the suspension of university classes - negatively impacted the mental health of young adults. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether returning to online classes, even not presential, during the social isolation of the COVID-19 pandemic, affected the mental health of university students.
Forty students (10 men and 30 women) (age, 22.3±3.8 years; body mass, 62.5±17.8 kg; height, 165.6±8.7cm) from undergraduate health courses participated in the study. The students answered a self-administered questionnaire designed to gather personal and quarantine information as well as information about the frequency of depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7) symptoms. The questionnaire was answered before and after the return to online classes.
There was a significantly lower frequency of depression symptoms after the return to online classes (Z = −2.27; p = 0.02). However, there was no difference in anxiety symptoms before and after returning to online classes (Z = −0.51; p = 0.61).
Return to online classes positively impacted the mental health (decrease of frequency of depression symptoms) of university students. Future studies are needed to observe whether the changes observed after returning to school are maintained over time.
Meta-analyses show an association between perfectionism and depression and anxiety (negative affect), and that therapy for perfectionism impacts positively on negative affect. No systematic reviews have focused on qualitative studies of perfectionism.
Our aim was to perform a systematic, meta-synthesis of qualitative literature to (i) help inform our understanding of how perfectionism is associated with negative affect, so that we can (ii) inform future development of treatment for perfectionism in young people and to make it more effective.
Included in the meta-synthesis were 37 qualitative studies.
Six themes related to perfectionism were found: (1) the association with negative affect, (2) self-worth dependent on achievement, (3) cognitive and behavioural maintaining factors, (4) the expectations of others, (5) effective elements of interventions, and (6) barriers to treatment.
The qualitative literature supports the notion of perfectionism as an important construct to consider in reducing negative affect. While cognitive behavioural therapy for perfectionism holds promise as a treatment to target negative affect, there was a paucity of qualitative research, particularly related to young people. A greater understanding of the views of young people are required to help tailor more effective interventions for perfectionism that can impact negative affect in this group.
The aim of study was to determine factors connected with neuropsychiatric symptoms and anxiety in patients with terminal stomach cancer.
We analyzed retrospectively 134 terminal stomach cancer patients admitted to Palliative Care Unit.
Patients with anxiety had greater chance for emergency admission, higher NRS result, occurrence of cachexia,occurrence of neuropsychiatric symptoms,longer duration of treatment, higher albumin concentration and lower glucose concentration.
Patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms had greater chance for emergency admission, higher PS scale note, occurrence of dyselectrolytemia, lower albumin concentration. Patients with those symptoms had more than 7 times greater chance for death.
It is important to know factors connected with neuropsychiatric symptoms and anxiety because thanks to that we could avoid those dangerous clinical symptoms.
Social anxiety is prevalent in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease but why this is, is not yet well understood. Social cognitions, safety-seeking behaviours and internally focused attention are all known to predict social anxiety in the general population. These associated factors have not yet been explored in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, where disease severity and motor symptoms might also influence the experience of social anxiety.
This study aimed to explore the relationship between cognitive behavioural factors and social anxiety in Parkinson’s disease.
Using a cross-sectional design, 124 people with Parkinson’s disease completed self-report questionnaires including measures of Parkinson’s disease severity, social anxiety, negative social cognitions, safety-seeking behaviours, internally focused attention, anxiety and depression.
The final regression model accounted for 71.6% of variance in social anxiety. Cognitive behavioural variables accounted for the largest magnitude of unique variance (43.5%). Sex, anxiety and depression accounted for 23.4%, and Parkinson non-motor symptom severity for 4.7%. Negative social cognitions and safety-seeking behaviours were statistically significant predictors, while an internal focus of attention was not.
Social anxiety in Parkinson’s disease is associated with negative social cognitions and safety-seeking behaviours. Findings indicate the need for further research into cognitive behavioural approaches to social anxiety in Parkinson’s disease.
To assess the mental health of pregnant women, with reference to anxiety, depression and obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, during the COVID-19 pandemic.
A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Ireland during the third wave of the pandemic between February and March 2021. Psychiatric, social and obstetric information was collected from pregnant women in a Dublin maternity hospital, alongside self-reported measures of mental health status.
Of 392 women responding, 23.7% had anxiety, scoring >9 for GAD-7 (7-item generalised anxiety disorder), 20.4% had depression, scoring >9 for PHQ-9 (9-item depression screening tool: Patient health questionnaire) and 10.3% had obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), scoring >13 for Yale–Brown obsessive-compulsive scale symptom checklist (Y-BOCS). Amongst self-reported OCD symptoms, there was a preponderance for obsessions rather than compulsions. Of 392 women, 36.2% described their mental health as worse during the pandemic, most frequently describing symptoms of anxiety and sleep disturbance. When analysed against test scores, self-reported worsening of mental health was significantly associated with higher scores on the GAD-7, PHQ-9 and Y-BOCS scales. The three scores were positively interrelated. Poor mental health scores were associated with self-reported strain in relationship with the baby’s father, and current or previous history of mental illness.
This study found high levels of depression, anxiety and OC symptoms amongst pregnant women during COVID-19. This highlights the vulnerability of this group to mental illness and the importance of enhanced screening and support during pandemics.
Previous investigations have mostly studied an individual methyl donor nutrient in relation to psychological disorders and the findings were inconsistent. We investigated the association of methyl donor micronutrients (folate, B6, B12, choline, betaine and methionine) with psychological disorders in Iranian adults. In this cross-sectional study, dietary intakes of 3299 adults were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Methyl donor micronutrient score (MDMS) was calculated based on energy-adjusted deciles of each nutrient. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), validated for Iranians, have been applied to assess depression, anxiety and psychological distress. Participants had a mean age of 36·3 ± 7·9 years, of whom 58·5 % were women. After considering potential confounders, adults in the top quartile of MDMS, compared to the bottom one, had decreased odds of anxiety (OR: 0·53, 95 % CI: 0·37, 0·75), depression (OR: 0·75, 95 % CI: 0·58, 0·97) and psychological distress (OR: 0·61, 95 % CI: 0·46, 0·80). Among women, the top quartile of MDMS was protectively associated with anxiety (OR: 0·60, 95 % CI: 0·40, 0·90), depression (OR: 0·68, 95 % CI: 0·50, 0·93) and psychological distress (OR: 0·53, 95 % CI: 0·38, 0·74). Overweight and obese subjects in the highest quartile of MDMS had a 67 %, 35 % and 53 % lower odds of anxiety (95 % CI: 0·20, 0·56), depression (95 % CI: 0·44, 0·94) and psychological distress (95 % CI: 0·31, 0·70), respectively. We found that high consumption of methyl donor micronutrients was related to a reduced odds of psychological disorders, especially in women and overweight or obese individuals.
Mental health of medical workers treating patients with COVID-19 is an issue of increasing concern worldwide, since previous epidemics have shown high levels of anxiety and stress in front-line healthcare professionals. The available data on stress and anxiety symptoms among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 are relatively limited and have not been evaluated in Russia yet.
To evaluate stress and anxiety symptoms among healthcare workers directly involved in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with COVID-19 during the peak of disease outbreak in Russia.
The study was a cross-sectional hospital-based anonymous on-line survey in May 2020 of 1,090 healthcare workers practicing treatment of patients with COVID-19. Stress and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Russian versions of Stress and Anxiety to Viral Epidemic scale (SAVE-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scales. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the influence of different variables.
The median scores on the GAD-7 and SAVE-9 were 5 and 14, respectively. 49.1% respondents had moderate and 21.9% had severe anxiety according to SAVE-9. 12.3% had severe anxiety, 13.2% had moderate according to GAD-7. Female gender and younger age were associated with higher level of anxiety according to regression model.
Our study has shown that healthcare workers in Russia practicing treatment of patients with COVID-19 reported high rates of stress and anxiety similar to other countries. Female gender, younger age and being a physician were associated with higher levels of anxiety. These results demonstrate the importance of supportive programs for health care workers fighting COVID-19.
Psychological well-being has an important impact on individuals. In the face of the health threat of COVID-19, psychological changes as fear stress anxiety and depression is reported.
Explore the prevalence of depression and anxiety among people under quarantine during the COVID-19 outbreak in Saudi Arabia.
A cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 65 participants who were quarantined at multiple hotels under the supervision of the Saudi Ministry of Health. The patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) and generalized anxiety disorder questionnaire (GAD-7) were used to assess depression and anxiety.
The majority of the participants were male (66.2%), aged 18–29 (47.7%) from the Eastern region (66.15%), who were still waiting for the result of the COVID-19 test (64.6%). Approximately half of the sample had depressive and anxiety symptoms (49.2% and 44.6%, respectively). The depression mean score was significantly higher only among the 18–29 age group. However, the depression and anxiety mean scores were higher among females than males and among participants with positive COVID-19 test results compared to those who had pending or negative results. The anxiety mean score was higher during the first week of quarantine, but the depression mean score was higher during later weeks.
Depression and anxiety were prevalent among people in quarantine during the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak in Saudi Arabia. It is crucial to study the most effective interventions to reduce the psychological consequences, especially for vulnerable groups. Longitudinal research studies need to be conducted to follow up regarding participants’ mental health symptoms and evidence-based interventions.
There are different clinical forms combining anxiety and depression and it is essential to identify them because they will require different management. Among these clinical forms, there is that including anxiety as a symptom within the depressive episode: the anxious depression.
The objective is to find the characteristics of this anxious depression.
We conducted a literature review on the PubMed® site giving access to the MEDLINE® database, as well as on the Google Scholar® search engine and retained 127 articles.
By studying anxiety as a symptom of the depression, we identify on the pathophysiological level different neurobiological mechanisms (neuroanatomical, biological, immunological and endocrinological) involved in types of symptoms of different anxiety. Thus, by adopting a dimensional point of view, we can say that there are various anxiety symptoms which can be included in multiple forms of anxiety within the depression: psychic anxiety (anxiety and irritability), somatic anxiety (hypochondria, sweating, cardiological, respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary symptoms), motor anxiety (agitation), anxious arousal (somatic anxiety, fear, panic) or anxious apprehension (anticipatory anxiety and worry). The prognosis which emerges from it is of a more pejorative evolution, and has specificities on which an increased attention is required, such as suicidal behavior which is more frequently described for example. The treatment must be psychotherapeutic, sociotherapeutic, and medication by antidepressant treatment, with SSRIs in the first line.
It is therefore essential to identify the clinical presentation of the anxious depression because it has specific semiological, neurobiological, prognostic and therapeutic characteristics.