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Web-based interventions are increasingly used for the prevention, treatment and aftercare of mental disorders. A crucial factor to the efficacy of such online programmes is adherence to the intervention content and procedure. It has been frequently suggested that adherence in web-based interventions is low and little is known about which factors influence adherence. To increase intervention uptake and completion, studies increasingly include interventions with some form of guidance. Guided interventions have been shown to have higher efficacy, however, evidence for the impact on adherence is limited and mixed. This meta-analysis explored the impact of human guidance on intervention completion in web-based mental health interventions. A total of 22 studies were included with interventions primarily targeting symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders. Results showed that guidance significantly increases the average amount of intervention completion [g = 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18–0.40] and the proportion of intervention completers [log odds ratio (OR) = 0.50, 95% CI 0.34–0.66] with small effects. On average, full completion rates were 12% higher in guided intervention groups. This meta-analysis demonstrated that guidance in web-based mental health interventions does increase adherence, but more research is required to better understand the specific mechanisms between guidance, adherence and outcomes.
Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder that requires long-term treatment. Non-adherence to antipsychotics is common and associated with poor outcomes.
Our study is aimed to describe the therapeutic adherence and to identify the factors associated with poor adherence among schizophrenic patients.
This was a cross-sectional study conducted at psychiatry consultation of the university medical center of Mahdia, Tunisia. Data collection occurred between the months of January and March 2018, including patients suffering from schizophrenia. The evaluation of adherence was performed using the MARS scale (Medication Adherence Rating Scale).
In our sample of 131 schizophrenic patients, there is a male predominance (76%), as well as unmarried status (58.7%), unemployed (72%). The rate of non compliance treatment was 73%. Low levels of education, poor insight and polytherapy were associated to poor adherence. Although patients aged more than 40 years, who were married and diagnosed with undifferentiated schizophrenia were good compliant to treatment (p<0.05).
We suggest a proper treatment strategy for each patient based on the identification of non adherence risk factors.
Complete adherence to public health guidelines is essential to reduce the spread of COVID-19. Studies on the factors associated with increased/decreased adherence to these measures have the potential to inform public policies directed at increasing adherence, and thus helping to control the spread of the current pandemic.
This study aimed at assessing the demographic and psychosocial predictors of the perceived risk of the COVID-19 and adherence to confinement guidelines during the first mandatory lockdown in Portugal.
A convenience sample of 430 adults living in Portugal between March 19th and May 2nd, 2020 completed an online survey asking participants about the perceived risk of the COVID-19 and adherence to confinement guidelines. Participants also completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and measures of psychological function. Multiple regression analysis was performed.
Teleworking and Risk and COVID-19 controllability were significant predictors of the perceived risk of COVID-19 as measured by the perceived risk of being infected with COVID-19. Teleworking participants and those perceiving COVID-19 as less controllable reported a higher perceived risk of being infected with COVID-19 than those who were not in telework and perceived COVID-19 as a controllable condition. Adherence to confinement guidelines was predicted by the mental health status and perceived risk of COVID-19. Participants who reported worse mental health status, who perceived COVID-19 as a dangerous condition, and who trusted the public health system reported greater adherence to confinement guidelines.
The results of this study will be discussed considering their implications to public health policymaking to promote adherence to public health policies.
Patients’ attitudes and subjective experience are crucial in the management of severe mental illness, but their practical value is overlooked.
To identify predictors of future adherence to LAI antipsychotic maintenance treatment of schizophrenia among socio-demographic, clinical, and psychometric characteristics – including Drug Attitude Inventory-10 (DAI-10) and Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptics short form (SWN-K) scores.
Retrospective baseline data from 53 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia switched from oral to LAI therapy were collected. Patients continuing treatment at the time of analysis (n=29) were compared to those who had discontinued it (n=24). Selected variables were further evaluated in survival analyses.
Between-group differences are presented in Table 1 (**: p<0.01; *: p<0.05).
χ2 or t
Treatment persistence (months)
Illness duration (years)
Cox regression analysis included instruction, employment, hospitalisations, PANSS subscales and DAI-10 scores: a protective role against treatment discontinuation was outlined only for employment (HR 0.16; 95%CI 0.05-0.50) and higher DAI-10 scores (HR 0.85; 95%CI 0.78-0.94). DAI-10 scores delineated distinct adherence trajectories (Figure 1).
Baseline DAI-10 scores may identify patients at risk of dropout after switching to LAI.
Day care programs have been extensively used to treat people with acute psychiatric disorders. Day hospitals (DH) can act as an alternative to admission in patients with acute symptoms, shorten the duration of admission, be useful for rehabilitation and maintenance care or enhance treatment in patients with poor adherence to outpatient care. Few research has been conducted in delusional disorder (DD).
To investigate whether DH care increases adherence with psychiatric appointments in patients with DD. To describe functions of partial hospitalization in DD.
Comparative study including DD patients who attended a DH (Group 1:n=12) versus patients who did not receive DH care (Group 2;n=7). Patients attending DH were classified into 3 groups according to the program function at referral. Adherence with outpatient follow-up appointments (primary outcome) and pharmacy refill data (secondary outcome) were assessed after discharge over a 6-month period (DH) and compared with group 2. For statistical analyses, non-parametric tests were performed.
Program function (DH): alternative to admission (n=4); shortening of admission (n=5) and enhancing outpatient treatment (n=3). Patients receiving DH care were more frequently referred from the inpatient unit or emergency department compared to those who did not attend DH (commonly referred from primary care services). No statistically significant differences were found between both groups in adherence to psychiatric appointments. Patients who attended DH showed higher compliance with antipsychotics (89.29% vs.72.62, p<0.05).
DH care may be a useful alternative to increase adherence with antipsychotics in DD patients with poor awareness of illness.
Conflict of interest
AGR has received honoraria, registration for congresses and/or travel costs from Janssen, Lundbeck-Otsuka and Angelini.
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy is a key factor in predicting the success or failure of treatment. Data suggest that the status of mental health and especially depression of people living with HIV can affect adherence to antiretroviral therapy.
The purpose of this study was to assess the mental health status of people living with HIV, to record adherence to antiretroviral therapy and to investigate whether mental health affects adherence to antiretroviral therapy.
A cross-sectional mixed observational correlation study in a sample of 112 HIV-positive individuals was conducted. The Simplified Medication Adherence Questionnaire (SMAQ) was used to assess adherence to antiretroviral therapy, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depression, and the WHOQOL – BREF tool was used to assess mental health.
The results of the study showed that 58.93% of patients were found to be non-adherent to antiretroviral therapy. Furthermore, according to the BDI scale, 10.7% of patients experienced marginal clinical depression, 10.7% experienced moderate levels of depression and 2.7% experienced severe or very severe levels of depression. Further, people living with HIV had a moderate level of mental health (M = 3.40, SD = 0.58).
Our study showed that a high percentage of people living with HIV are non-adherent to antiretroviral therapy. Factors that are possibly associated with decreased adherence are mental health and especially depression. Psychological support for people living with HIV and anti-depressant prevention programs could increase adherence to antiretroviral therapy.
Psychiatric patients often are self-stigmatized and hardly involve in the treatment.
Associations of self-stigmatizing beliefs in psychiatric inpatients and their treatment motivation.
63 inpatients; ICD-10: F2–65%, F3–13%, F4+F6–14%, F06–8%; mean age 34±13, illness duration 12±11 years. Treatment Motivation Assessment Questionnaire (TMAQ), Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale (ISMI); K-mean cluster analysis; dispersion analyses; p≤0.05.
18 patients of cluster 1 (C1) demonstrated explicit self-stigmatization. In comparison with 25 subjects from cluster 3 (C3) stigmatized patients (C1) had higher levels of overall ISMI scores (2.9±0.3) caused by alienation (3.1±0.5), stereotype endorsement (2.5±0.5), social withdrawal (2.7±0.4), and discrimination experience (2.7±0.4). 20 patients of cluster 2 (C2) had an implicit stigma. They were more self-stigmatized (ISMI score 2.7±0.3) in contrast with subjects from cluster 3 (1.9±0.2) due to a lower level of stigma resistance (C2: 3.8±0.5 and C3 3.1±0.6 – reverse scores). Patients with implicit self-stigma (C2) had the lowest intensity of treatment motivation (Z-scores -1.2±0.6) compering with others (C1 and C3) due to the lowest TMAQ factor 1 (reliance on own knowledge and skills to cope with the disorder: -1.0±0.6) and factor 4 (willingness to cooperate with doctor: -0.9±1.0). Differences between explicitly and implicitly stigmatized patients manifested also in lower TMAQ factor 3 for the second group (awareness of the psychological mechanism of maladaptation: -0.5±0.9).
Despite alienation, stereotype endorsement, social withdrawal, discrimination experience some patients could sustain stigma due to cooperation with doctors and reliance on their own knowledge and skills to cope with illness.
In order to prevent relapse and increase medication adherence, primary care physicians and psychiatric inpatient units should consider referring patients with delusional disorder (DD) to specialized outpatient clinics for treatment and follow-up.
This poster describes a sample of DD patients referred to a specialized unit for DD and documents rates of follow-up care.
Over a 2-year period, 29 individuals were consecutively referred to the Parc Tauli -Delusional Syndrome Working Group, which provides treatment and clinical care for patients with delusional disorders for a catchment area of nearly 450.000 inhabitants in Sabadell (Barcelona, Spain). Criteria for inclusion in the program are relatively flexible. Referred patients are evaluated at baseline and at 6 months following their first appointment. Treatment and case management are offered by a multidisciplinary team consisting of psychiatric, nursing, and social work personnel. Psychological interventions are also offered.
Of the 29 persons initially referred, 27 attended at least one scheduled appointment. Twenty-one out of the 27 patients received a confirmed diagnosis of DD (14 women,7 men), 2 suffered from schizophrenia and 4 were diagnosed with other psychiatric disorders and referred to other programs: primary care (n=2), affective program (n=1) and addictions unit (n=1). A breakdown of DD subtypes follows: persecutory (n=10,47.6%), jealous (n=4,19%), somatic (n=5,23.81%), mixed (n=2,9.5%). Three patients with DD (14.3%) were lost to follow-up. Attendance rates of the 21 DD patients: 80.4% (Women:77.67%, Men:100%).
For a traditionally difficult-to-engage population, adherence to multidisciplinary clinic appointments was relatively high. Loss to follow-up was lower than would have been expected.
Conflict of interest
AGR has received honoraria, registration for congresses and/or travel costs from Janssen, Lundbeck-Otsuka and Angelini.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), now a global pandemic, is a new, highly contagious, and preventable disease that has caused many deaths across the world. Correct understanding of the risks and following health instructions are among the most important self-care parameters.
To assess people's perception of the risks and their adherence to recommended preventive behaviours regarding COVID-19 infection.
This descriptive–analytical study was conducted with 1861 people residing in Ardabil province in 2020. The data were collected electronically and included four elements: demographic details; health belief model (HBM) constructs (perceived sensitivity, perceived severity and perceived benefits); beliefs about the effectiveness of disease prevention strategies; and complying with health behaviours. The data was analysed using SPSS-21 software.
Significant differences were found in the mean scores for beliefs about the effectiveness of preventative measures, the constructs of the health belief model, and compliance with preventive behaviours relating to the participants’ gender, age, marital status and level of education. Beliefs and intention to stay at home, collectively predicted 54.7% of the variance in preventive behaviours.
Although a majority of participants had positive attitudes towards the effectiveness of preventive measures and adhered to them, some people who were not adherent with these healthy behaviours could be key participants in the next wave of the disease.
Preferences and wishes of patients is an important indicator of primary health care provision, although there are differences between national primary care systems.
The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate the preferences and values of Hungarian primary care (PC) patients before accessing and to analyse their experiences after attending PC services.
In the Hungarian arm of the European QUALICOPC Study, in 2013–2014, information was collected with questionnaires; the Patient Values contained 19 and the Patient Experiences had 41 multiple-choice questions.
The questionnaires were filled by 2149 (840 men, 1309 women) using PC services, aged 49.1 (SD ± 16.7) years, 73% of them having chronic morbidities. Women preferred to be accompanied and rated their own health better. Patients in the lowest educational category and women visited their GPs more often, and they are consulted more frequently by other doctors as well. Men, older and secondary educated people reported more frequently chronic morbidities. Longer opening hours were preferred by patients with higher education. The most preferred expectations were availability and polite communication of doctors, not pressures on consultation time, clear instructions provided during consultations, shared decisions about treatments and options for consultations, the knowledge of the doctors concerning the living conditions, social and cultural backgrounds of patients, updated medical records, short waiting times, options for home visits, wide scope of professional competences and trust in the doctor.
Wishes, preferences of patients and fulfilment were similar than described in other participating countries of the study. Although there are room to improve PC services, most of the questioned population were satisfied with the provision.
There has been increased research interest into the concept of treatment integrity within psychotherapy research. The Competence and Adherence Scale for Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CAS-CBT) was developed to measure therapists’ competence and adherence in cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), when delivered to children and youth with anxiety disorders.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the CAS-CBT in a naturalistic treatment setting.
Ratings of 212 randomly selected sessions from a clinical effectiveness trial for children with anxiety disorders (n = 165, mean age = 10.46 years, SD = 1.49) were analysed to assess the psychometric properties of CAS-CBT. Therapy format included both individual sessions and group sessions.
Internal consistency for the CAS-CBT was excellent (Cronbach’s alpha = .88). Factor analysis suggested a two-factor solution for the total sample, where the first factor was related to CBT structure and session goals, and the second factor was associated with process and relational skills. The individual CBT treatment condition (ICBT) and group CBT treatment condition (GCBT) showed the same factor solution.
The CAS-CBT is a feasible and reliable measure for assessing competence and adherence to CBT in the treatment of anxious children. Future research is needed to further assess the generalizability of this scale, its psychometric properties in different treatment populations and with other treatment approaches, and ideally with larger sample sizes.
Around 40% of people with bipolar disorder (BD) are non-adherent to medication leading to relapse, hospitalisation and increased suicide risk. Limited progress in addressing non-adherence may be partly attributable to insufficient understanding of the modifiable determinants of adherence that require targeting in interventions. We synthesised the modifiable determinants of adherence in BD and map them to the theoretical domains framework (TDF).
We searched CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, LILACS, Medline, PsychINFO and PubMed until February 2020. We included studies reporting modifiable determinants of adherence in BD. Two reviewers independently screened studies, assessed quality, extracted modifiable determinants and mapped them to TDF.
We included 57 studies involving 32 894 participants. Determinants reported by patients spanned 11 of the 14 TDF domains compared to six domains represented by clinician/researcher. The TDF domains most commonly represented (% and example) in studies were: ‘Environmental context and resources’ (63%, e.g. experiencing side effects), ‘Beliefs about consequences’ (63%, e.g. beliefs about medication effects), ‘Knowledge’ (40%, e.g. knowledge about disorder), ‘Social influences’ (33%, e.g. support from family/clinicians), ‘Memory, attention and decision processes’ (33%, e.g. forgetfulness), ‘Emotion’ (21%, e.g. fear of addiction) and ‘Intentions’ (21%, e.g. wanting alternative treatment). ‘Intentions’, ‘Memory, attention and decision processes’ and ‘Emotion’ domains were only reported by patients but not clinicians.
Clinicians may be underappreciating the full range of modifiable determinants of adherence and thus not providing adherence support reflective of patients' needs. Reporting of modifiable determinants in behavioural terms facilitates developing theory-based interventions to address non-adherence in BD.
Evidence supports the use of group therapy for symptom reduction and improving functioning in people with psychosis. However, research guidelines highlight the importance of establishing the feasibility of interventions. Adherence is an important indicator of feasibility and an essential step in supporting the development of the evidence base for group interventions. This review aims to estimate adherence, and possible barriers and facilitators, to psychotherapeutic groups in people with psychosis.
Embase, Ovid MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched for cross-referencing terms related to group therapy and psychosis. Studies were assessed against inclusion criteria and methodological quality was evaluated. Data wasextracted from each paper including the average session attendance, demographic, clinical, study and therapy-related characteristics and the impact of these on adherence levels evaluated.
Fifty-nine original research papers were included, reporting on 52 independent studies which consisted of 66 therapy groups comprised of 2109 participants. Average adherence was 76.4% (s.d. = 17.4). Adherence was improved by receiving incentives and was higher in participants of older age. Study sample size was inversely associated with adherence levels. Study quality was variable with approximately 61.5% found to be at risk of bias. The results support the feasibility of group therapy and suggest that adherence in people with psychosis is not dissimilar to those for people experiencing common mental health difficulties. These findings, alongside efficacy evidence, support the use of group interventions in people with psychosis but also highlight the need for further high-quality research on the efficacy for these approaches.
This chapter reviews the current status of implementation efforts in the field of family-based interventions for child and adolescent mental health. First, an overview of the implementation framework is provided, with an emphasis on the theoretical models that have previously been applied to family studies. Next, a comprehensive framework which integrates the common findings of individual models is introduced. Thereafter, specific research on the implementation of family-based intervention is reviewed. Strongest evidence exists for treatment fidelity and staff training as factors promoting successful implementation. Although some studies indicate that program fit with organizational characteristics is an important factor in both the adoption and sustainment phases, studies examining moderating effects between potential factors influencing the implementation process are lacking at this time. Future studies need to pursue implementation factors unique to family-based programs, as well as develop a consensus on the terminology and operational definitions of relevant constructs and sound methodology for measurement.
Protecting frontline health care workers with personal protective equipment (PPE) is critical during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Through an online survey, we demonstrated variable adherence to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) PPE guidelines among health care personnel (HCP).
CDC guidelines for optimal and acceptable PPE usage in common situations faced by frontline health care workers were referenced to create a short online survey. The survey was distributed to national, statewide, and local professional organizations across the United States and to HCP, using a snowball sampling technique. Responses were collected between June 15 and July 17, 2020.
Responses totaling 2245 were received from doctors, nurses, midwives, paramedics, and medical technicians in 44 states. Eight states with n > 20 (Arizona, California, Colorado, Louisiana, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas, and Washington) and a total of 436 responses are included in the quantitative analysis. Adherence to CDC guidelines was observed to be highest in the scenario of patient contact when COVID-19 was not suspected (86.47%) and lowest when carrying out aerosol generating procedures (AGPs) (42.47%).
Further research is urgently needed to identify the reasons underlying variability between professions and regions to pinpoint strategies for maximizing adherence and improving the safety of HCPs.
Patient Support Programs (PSPs) have become a trend among pharmaceutical companies and a standard service offering to patients. The objective of the present study is to describe the status of PSPs in Lebanon and to assess the extent of knowledge and awareness among Lebanese patients about the PSPs.
A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and July 2017. A convenient sample of patients was randomly selected from outpatient clinics at four hospitals within the Greater Beirut Area. A questionnaire was used to address the study objective. Bivariate analysis was performed using the Chi-square test. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 23.
Out of 385 patients who participated in the study, 45.45 percent were aged between 46 and 66 years. None of them indicated that they were enrolled in a PSP, and only 13 percent of the respondents were aware of the existence of such a program. In terms of adherence habits, 55.6 percent of the patients self-reported that they do not skip any dose of their medication and consume their medication as prescribed by their healthcare providers. The main reason for nonadherence reported by the majority of nonadherent participants 144 (84.2%) was simple forgetfulness.
There is a severe lack of awareness of PSPs in Lebanon. Given the important role that PSPs play in creating value for patients—in terms of healthcare follow-up practices, improved adherence habits, and cost savings—there should be a more substantial effort by pharmaceutical companies to expand and promote their PSPs in the Lebanese market.
‘Explanatory Models’ (EMs) are frameworks through which individuals and groups understand diseases, are influenced by cultural and religious perceptions of health and illness, and influence both physicians and patients’ behaviors.
To examine the role of EMs of illness (cancer-related perceptions) in physicians’ and laywomen’s behaviors (decision to recommend undergoing regular mammography, adhering to mammography) in the context of a traditional-religious society, that is, the Arab society in Israel.
Two combined samples were drawn: a representative sample of 146 Arab physicians who serve the Arab population and a sample composed of 290 Arab women, aged 50–70 years, representative of the main Arab groups residing in the north and center of Israel (Muslims, Christians) were each randomly sampled (cluster sampling). All respondents completed a closed-ended questionnaire.
Women held more cultural cancer-related beliefs and fatalistic beliefs than physicians. Physicians attributed more access barriers to screening as well as fear of radiation to women patients and lower social barriers to screening, compared with the women’s community sample. Higher fatalistic beliefs among women hindered the probability of adherence to mammography; physicians with higher fatalistic beliefs were less likely to recommend mammography.
The role of cultural perceptions needs to be particularly emphasized. In addition to understanding the patients’ perceptions of illness, physicians must also reflect on the social, cultural, and psychological factors that shape their decision to recommend undergoing regular mammography.
Predictors of compliance with aspirin in children following cardiac catheterisation have not been identified. The aim of this study is to identify the caregivers’ knowledge, compliance with aspirin medication, and predictors of compliance with aspirin in children with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) post-percutaneous transcatheter occlusion.
A cross-sectional explorative design was adopted using a self-administered questionnaire and conducted between May 2017 and May 2018. Recruited were 220 caregivers of children with CHD post-percutaneous transcatheter occlusion. Questionnaires included child and caregivers’ characteristics, a self-designed and tested knowledge about aspirin scale (scoring scale 0–2), and the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (scoring scale 0–8). Data were analysed using multivariate binary logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of compliance with aspirin.
Of the 220 eligible children and caregivers, 210 (95.5%) responded and 209 surveys were included in the analysis. The mean score of knowledge was 7.25 (standard deviation 2.27). The mean score of compliance was 5.65 (standard deviation 1.36). Child’s age, length of aspirin use, health insurance policies, relationship to child, monthly income, and knowledge about aspirin of caregivers were independent predictors of compliance with aspirin (p < 0.05).
Caregivers of children with CHD had an adequate level of knowledge about aspirin. Compliance to aspirin medication reported by caregivers was low. Predictors of medium to high compliance with aspirin were related to the child’s age and socio-economic reasons. Further studies are needed to identify effective strategies to improve knowledge, compliance with medication, and long-term outcomes of children with CHD.
The current study aimed to understand how moderate and severe food-insecure people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the Dominican Republic perceive a healthy diet and explore facilitators and barriers to engaging in healthy dietary behaviours as a means of HIV self-management.
We conducted semi-structured interviews with PLHIV. We generated codes on food insecurity among PLHIV and used content analysis to organise codes for constant comparison between and within participants.
Two urban HIV clinics in the Dominican Republic.
Thirty-two PLHIV participated in the interviews.
Factors that contributed to dietary behaviours include individual factors, such as knowledge of nutrition, views and attitudes on healthy dietary behaviours, beliefs about dietary needs for PLHIV and diet functionality. Interpersonal factors, including assistance from family and peers in providing food or funds, were deemed critical along with community and organisational factors, such as food assistance from HIV clinics, accessibility to a variety of food store types and the availability of diverse food options at food stores. Policy-level factors that influenced dietary behaviours were contingent on respondents’ participation in the labour market (i.e. whether they were employed) and consistent access to government assistance. Food insecurity influenced these factors through unpredictability and a lack of control.
PLHIV who experience food insecurity face various barriers to engaging in healthy dietary behaviours. Their diets are influenced at multiple levels of influence ranging from individual to structural, requiring multi-level interventions that can address these factors concurrently.