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Depression and obesity are highly prevalent and are considered inflammatory pathologies; in addition, they are also associated with dietary patterns including types of fatty acids (FA). Changes in the FA composition in the brain are determined by changes in the content and quality of dietary and serum FA. The aim of this study was to verify the relationships between serum-free FA, inflammatory processes and depressive symptoms in obese adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study that analysed a database composed of 138 post-pubertal adolescents. Data regarding the depressive symptoms, body composition, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, FA profile, leptin concentration, as well as adiponectin, IL-A, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, C-reactive protein and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels of the subjects were collected. A total of 54·6 % of the adolescents presented with depressive symptoms, and there were positive correlations between depressive symptoms and serum saturated fatty acids (SFA) content, body fat, and inflammatory adipokines, such as leptin, IL-6, and the leptin/adiponectin ratio. Moreover, the content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was negatively correlated with depressive symptoms, suggesting that eicosatrienoic acid (C20:2n6) and dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (C20:3n-6) are independently associated with depressive symptom scores and can be critical predictors of poor mental health in humans. These results point to the relationship between SFA and depressive symptoms in obese adolescents. However, longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the causality between dietary SFA and depression in obese individuals.
We aimed to examine the association between the quantity and quality of dietary fat in early pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) risk. In total, 1477 singleton pregnant women were included from Sichuan Provincial Hospital for Women and Children, Southwest China. Dietary information was collected by a 3-d 24-h dietary recall. GDM was diagnosed based on the results of a 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24–28 gestational weeks. Log-binomial models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% CI. The results showed that total fat intake was positively associated with GDM risk (Q4 v. Q1: RR = 1·40; 95 % CI 1·11, 1·76; Ptrend = 0·001). This association was also observed for the intakes of animal fat and vegetable fat. After stratified by total fat intake (< 30 %E v. ≥ 30 %E), the higher animal fat intake was associated with higher GDM risk in the high-fat group, but the moderate animal fat intake was associated with reduced risk of GDM (T2 v. T1: RR = 0·65; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·96) in the normal-fat group. Vegetable fat intake was positively associated with GDM risk in the high-fat group but not in the normal-fat group. No association between fatty acids intakes and GDM risk was found. In conclusion, total fat, animal and vegetable fat intakes were positively associated with GDM risk, respectively. Whereas when total fat intake was not excessive, higher intakes of animal and vegetable fat were likely irrelevant with increased GDM risk, even the moderate animal fat intake could be linked to lower GDM risk.
Although chronic pain (CP) is classified as inflammatory or non-inflammatory, the involvement of fatty acid intake in this process has not yet been examined in detail. Therefore, the present study investigated whether the relationship between CP and fatty acid intake differs between high and low C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in middle-aged and elderly individuals in the Shika study. One-thousand and seven males and 1216 females with mean ages of 68⋅78 and 69⋅65 years, respectively, participated in the present study. CRP was quantified by blood sampling from participants who responded to a CP questionnaire. The brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ) was used to assess fatty acid intake. Interactions were observed between CP and CRP on monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and eicosadienoic acid in a two-way analysis of covariance adjusted for sex, age, lack of exercise, lack of sleep, current smoking and drinking status, and BMI. MUFA (OR 1⋅359) and eicosadienoic acid (OR 1⋅072) were identified as significant independent variables for CP in a multiple logistic regression analysis, but only in the low CRP group. Only a high intake of MUFA and eicosadienoic acid was associated with chronic neck/shoulder/upper limb pain without elevated CRP. In psychogenic and neuropathic pain without elevated CRP, an increased intake of MUFA and eicosadienoic acid, a family member of n-6 fatty acids, appears to affect CP. Further longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate this relationship.
Atlantic salmon were fed diets containing graded levels of EPA + DHA (1·0, 1·3, 1·6 and 3·5 % in the diet) and one diet with 1·3 % of EPA + DHA with reduced total fat content. Fish were reared in sea cages from about 275 g until harvest size (about 5 kg) and were subjected to delousing procedure (about 2·5 kg), with sampling pre-, 1 h and 24 h post-stress. Delousing stress affected plasma cortisol and hepatic mRNA expression of genes involved in oxidative stress and immune response, but with no dietary effects. Increasing EPA + DHA levels in the diet increased the trace mineral levels in plasma and liver during mechanical delousing stress period and whole body at harvest size. The liver Se, Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn and plasma Se levels were increased in fish fed a diet high in EPA + DHA (3·5 %) upon delousing stress. Furthermore, increased dietary EPA + DHA caused a significant increase in mRNA expression of hepcidin antimicrobial peptide (HAMP), which is concurrent with downregulated transferrin receptor (TFR) expression levels. High dietary EPA + DHA also significantly increased the whole-body Zn, Se, and Mn levels at harvest size fish. Additionally, the plasma and whole-body Zn status increased, respectively, during stress and at harvest size in fish fed reduced-fat diet with less EPA + DHA. As the dietary upper limits of Zn and Se are legally added to the feeds and play important roles in maintaining fish health, knowledge on how the dietary fatty acid composition and lipid level affect body stores of these minerals is crucial for the aquaculture industry.
Vitamin D intakes and status are low in many countries due to seasonal UVB exposure variation and the fact that few foods are naturally vitamin D rich. Data modelling studies show that vitamin D intakes increase with food fortification, and countries with mandatory fortification policies have higher vitamin D intakes and status compared to countries without. While many foods can be vitamin D fortified, vitamin D bioavailability differs depending on fortification methods, food structure and composition. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) report that vitamin D2 bioavailability varies between foods, whereas vitamin D3 is bioavailable from many foods. In vitro studies suggest that altering the lipid composition of fortified foods increases vitamin D3 absorption. Olive oil increased vitamin D3 absorption during in vitro digestion compared to other dietary oils. Additionally, when vitamin D3 was incorporated into micelles formed from in vitro digestion of olive oil, more vitamin D3 was absorbed compared to other dietary oils. However, in a human postprandial study, a preformed vitamin D3 micelle dairy drink did not increase vitamin D3 absorption, and a vitamin D3 olive dairy drink increased vitamin D3 absorption in vitamin D insufficient participants only. Action is urgently needed to improve vitamin D intakes and status worldwide. Food fortification improves vitamin D intakes; however, fortification strategies unique to each country are needed. This review will synthesise the literature describing data modelling and intervention trials that assess the safety and efficacy of vitamin D fortification strategies, and those manipulating food composition to alter vitamin D bioavailability from fortified foods. Additionally, RCT examining the impact of vitamin D fortification strategies on vitamin D intakes and status over time are reviewed.
The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that stearic acid (SA) supplementation increases milk fat content and overcomes the antilipogenic effects of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in lactating ewes. Twenty-eight Lacaune ewes (36 (sd 2) days in lactation; 70·5 (sd) 9·6 kg of body weight), producing 1·8 (sd 0·4) kg of milk/d, were used in a completely randomised design (seven ewes/treatment) for 21 d. The treatments were: (1) Control; (2) CLA (6·4 g/d of trans-10, cis-12 CLA); (3) SA (28 g/d of SA) and (4) SA in association with trans-10, cis-12 CLA (CLASA; 6·4 g/d of trans-10, cis-12 CLA plus 28 g/d of SA). All data were analysed using a mixed model that included the fixed effect of treatment and the random effect of ewe. SA did not alter milk fat content and yield relative to Control (91·9 v. 91·2 (sd 4·1) g/d). CLASA was not able to overcome the reduction in fat content and fat yield induced by CLA (75 v. 82 (sd 0·14) g/d). SA increased the relative abundance of CD36, fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) and PPAR-γ mRNA by 140, 112 and 68 % compared with CLASA. SA also reduced the relative abundance of acetyl-CoA carboxylase α promoter II and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) when compared with Control (45 and 39 %). Compared with CLA, CLASA treatment had no effect on the mRNA abundance of fatty acid synthase, lipoprotein lipase, CD36, SCD, FABP4, acylglycerolphosphate acyltransferase 6, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and PPAR-γ. In conclusion, SA supplementation did not increase milk fat synthesis and did not overcome the CLA-induced milk fat depression when associated with trans-10, cis-12 CLA.
Honeybees cannot synthesize arachidonic acid (ARA) themselves, only obtain it from food. Most pollen is deficient or contains a small amount of ARA. The necessity of supplementary ARA in bees’ diet has not been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary ARA levels on the growth and immunity of Apis mellifera ligustica. A total of 25 honeybee colonies were randomly assigned to five dietary groups which were fed basic diets supplemented with 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% of ARA. The diet with 4% ARA improved the body weight of newly emerged worker bees compared with the control group. Supplement of ARA in honeybee diets changed the fatty acid composition of honeybee body. SFA and MUFA contents of bees’ body declined, and PUFA content rised in the ARA group. Compared with the control group, the supplement of ARA in honeybee diets increased the contents of ARA, C22:6n-3 (DHA) and C18:3n-6 in bees’ body significantly, but decreased the contents of C16:1 and C18:3n-3. The diet supplied with 4% ARA reduced the mortality rate of honeybee infected with Escherichia coli. The activity of immune enzymes (phenoloxidase, antitrypsin, and lysozyme) and the mRNA expression levels of immune genes (defensin-2, toll, myd88, and dorsal) were improved by ARA diets to varying degrees depending on the ARA levels, especially 4% ARA. These results suggested that dietary ARA could improve the growth, survival, and immune functions of honeybees. Supplement of ARA in bees’ diet would be valuable for the fitness of honeybees.
Our objective was to quantify the cross-sectional associations between dietary fatty acid (DFA) patterns and cognitive function among Hispanic/Latino adults. This study included data from 8942 participants of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, a population-based cohort study (weighted age 56·2 years and proportion female 55·2 %). The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate dietary intake from two 24-h recalls. We derived DFA patterns using principal component analysis with twenty-six fatty acid and total plant and animal MUFA input variables. Global cognitive function was calculated as the average z-score of four neurocognitive tests. Survey linear regression models included multiple potential confounders such as age, sex, education, depressive symptoms, physical activity, energy intake and CVD. DFA patterns were characterised by the consumption of long-chain SFA, animal-based MUFA and trans-fatty acids (factor 1); short to medium-chain SFA (factor 2); very-long-chain n-3 PUFA (factor 3); very-long-chain SFA and plant-based MUFA and PUFA (factor 4). Factor 2 was associated with greater scores for global cognitive function (β = 0·037 (sd 0·012)) and the Digit Symbol Substitution (DSS) (β = 0·56 (sd 0·17)), Brief Spanish English Verbal Learning-Sum (B-SEVLT) (β = 0·23 (sd 0·11)) and B-SEVLT-Recall (β = 0·11 (sd 0·05)) tests (P < 0·05 for all). Factors 1 (β = 0·04 (sd 0·01)) and 4 (β = 0·70 (sd 0·18)) were associated with the DSS test (P < 0·05 for all). The consumption of short to medium-chain SFA may be associated with higher cognitive function among US-residing Hispanic/Latino adults. Prospective studies are necessary to confirm these findings.
The deficiency of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and an alteration between the ratio of omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs may contribute to the pathogenesis of depressive disorders.
To investigate the levels of omega-3 and omega-6 in red cell membranes (mPUFAs) and plasma (pPUFAs) of patients with treatment-resistant (TRD) and non-treatment resistant depression (non-TRD).
TRD and non-TRD consisted of 75 patients enrolled at the Psychiatric and Clinic Psychology Unit of the University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy, and met the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). A group of healthy controls (HC) matched for agender and age was enrolled. All blood samples were performed in conditions of an empty stomach between 07:00 am and 09:00 am. For each subject were obtained 5 ml of whole blood with the use of tubes for plasma with EDTA as an anticoagulant. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for omega-3 and arachidonic acid (AA) for omega-6 were measured.
Levels of pPUFAs did not differ between the three groups. The mPUFAs were altered in the MDD. TRD and non-TRD had lower EPA and AA values respect to the HC. DHA in red cell membranes was lower in TRD than non-TRD and HC.
Changes in levels of PUFAs in red cell membranes, but not in plasma, may be an important factor to evaluate the resistance to the pharmacological treatment.
This study evaluated the effect of roughage:concentrate (R:C) ratio associated with a variable particle size of physically effective neutral detergent fibre (peNDF8) in the forage (Tifton-85 hay) on the performance, carcass traits and meat quality of lambs. Seventy-two 4-month-old, non-castrated Santa Ines male lambs (23.5 ± 2.32 kg BW) were distributed in a completely randomized design, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement [two peNDF8 hay particle sizes (13 and 6 mm) and two R:C ratios (700:300 and 500:500 g/kg DM total)]. DMI, DM, NFC and TDN digestibility's, N-intake and N-faecal excretion were affected by the R:C ratio (P < 0.05). However, the N-retained was not affected by the studied variables (P > 0.05). It was observed an interaction (P < 0.05) between the peNDF8 and R:C ratios for final BW, average daily gain (ADG), colour parameters and pH 24 h. The lower roughage ratio provided greater (P < 0.05) concentrations of C14:1, C16:1–cis9, C18:1–cis9, ΣMUFA, Σn–6:Σn–3 and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic index, enzymatic activity Δ9desaturase-C16 and -C18. Lambs fed a lower roughage diet had improved performance and feed efficiency, however, presented reduced polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) concentrations in the meat, especially Σn–3 family. Higher roughage diet and larger peNDF8 particle size improved the concentrations of PUFA while decreased Σn–6:Σn–3 ratio in meat. Larger peNDF8 particle size associated with higher roughage proportion, have reduced animal performance however, it increased protein concentration, a* and C* colour parameter without affecting fatty acids profile of Longissimus lumborum muscle.
The first investigation of dietary intake in the Mediterranean region was undertaken at the initiative of the government of Greece in 1948. Plant foods (cereals, pulses, nuts, potatoes, vegetables and fruits) accounted for 61 % of total energy intake (TEI), animal foods (meat, eggs, fish and dairy products) for 7 % of TEI and olive oil was the main oil used. In 1950s, Ancel Keys undertook studies in USA, Italy, Spain, England, Japan, Australia and Canada leading him to hypothesise that a link could exist between diet, plasma cholesterol and CHD. Between 1958 and 1964, Keys and co-workers carried out the Seven Countries Study, which enrolled men aged 40–59 years in one of sixteen cohorts from seven countries (Finland, Greece, Italy, Yugoslavia, Japan, USA and Italy). After 15-, 25- and 50-year follow-up, a strong positive relation was observed between saturated fat intake and CHD mortality, and a negative one with Mediterranean Dietary Index. In 1975, Keys and his wife published a book entitled: ‘How to eat well and stay well. The Mediterranean way’, which popularised Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet). After 45-year follow-up, longevity without CHD death was 12·9 years higher in Crete than in Finland. Protecting effect of MedDiet towards CHD incidence and risk is now confirmed by Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea study and by cohorts’ studies gathered in several recent meta-analyses. MedDiet is sustainable and recognised by UNESCO as an intangible cultural heritage, which is the most beautiful homage that can be paid to Ancel Keys and all his co-workers.
The aim of this research communication was to examine the effect of dietary supplementation with wheat-based dried distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS), a by-product of bioethanol production, on yield, composition, and fatty acid (FA) profile of ewe milk. Forty-five purebred mid-lactating Chios ewes (average milk yield 2.23 kg/d in 96 ± 5 d in lactation) were offered three iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets (15 animals per diet) for a 10 d adaptation period followed by a 5-week recording and sampling period. The diets contained 0, 6, and 12% DDGS on DM basis for the DG0, DG6, and DG12 treatment, respectively, as a replacement of concentrate mix, whilst concentrate-to-forage ratio remained at 60:40 in all treatments. Individual milk yield, milk composition, and FA profile were recorded weekly and analyzed using a complete randomized design with repeated measurements. No significant differences were observed among groups concerning dry matter intake (overall mean of 2.59 kg/d), milk yield or 6% fat-corrected milk and milk protein percentage or protein yield. Milk fat percentage was decreased in the DG12 (4.76%) compared to DG0 (5.69%) without, however, significantly affecting the daily output of milk fat. The concentration of all major saturated FA between C4:0 to C16:0 was reduced, whereas long-chain (>16 carbons), mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated FAs were increased in the milk of DDGS groups. Among individual FA, increments of oleic acid and C18:1 trans-monoenes like C18:1 trans-10 and C18:1 trans-11 were demonstrated in DG12 group, whereas linoleic and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA cis-9, trans-11) were elevated in both DDGS groups compared to control. Changes in FA profile resulted in a decline in the atherogenic index of milk by 20% and 35% in DG6 and DG12 treatments, respectively, compared with control. In conclusion, feeding DDGS to dairy ewes increased the levels of unsaturated FA that are potentially beneficial for human health without adversely affecting milk, protein or fat yield.
The retention of human milk (HM) fat in nasogastric probes of infusion pumps can be observed during the feed of infants unable to suck at the mother’s breast. The lack of homogenisation of HM could contribute to the fat holding. Therefore, the present study evaluated (i) the influence of homogenisation on milk fat retaining in infant feeding probes and (ii) the in vivo effect of the homogenisation on lipid absorption by Wistar rats. The animals were fed with HM treated following two processing conditions, that is, pasteurised and homogenised–pasteurised. The animals were randomly subdivided into four experimental groups: water-fed (control), pasteurised milk, homogenised–pasteurised milk and pasteurised–skimmed milk. The results of food consumption, mass body gain, corporate metrics and plasma blood levels of total cholesterol did not show any difference (P < 0·05) among the three types of HM used in the experiments. The liver, intestine and intra-abdominal adipose tissue of the four groups of animals presented normal and healthy histology. The composition of fatty acids in the brain tissue of animals fed with homogenised HM increased when compared with the groups fed with non-homogenised HM. These values were 11·08 % higher for arachidonic acids, 6·59 % for DAH and 47·92 % for nervous acids. The ingestion of homogenised HM promoted higher absorption of milk nutrients. Therefore, the addition of the homogenisation stage in HM processing could be an alternative to reduce fat retention in probes and to improve the lipids’ absorption in the body.
Supplementing palmitic acid (C16 : 0) in combination with modifying the dietary n-6:n-3 fatty acid (FA) ratio may benefit energy metabolism and milk responses of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows (70 (sd 11) days in milk) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square and allocated to four low-fibre diets (18·5 % forage neutral-detergent fibre) supplemented with no FA (CON), or 2·4 % C16 : 0-enriched supplement (PAL), 2·4 % mixture (2:1) of C16 : 0 and n-6 FA (PW6), and mixture (2:1) of C16 : 0 and n-3 FA (PW3). The dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 was increased with PW6 (10:1) and decreased with PW3 (2·8:1), whereas PAL alone made no change in the ratio (about 7:1). Compared with CON, all FA-supplemented treatments increased milk yield. However, feed and energy intakes were higher in PAL than PW3 or PW6, resulting in greater feed efficiency for PW3 and PW6 than PAL. Dietary FA supplements decreased milk protein concentration but tended to increase protein yield. Compared with CON and FA mixtures, PAL increased milk fat content and tended to increase milk SFA and atherosclerotic index. The concentration of milk n-3 FA was similar between CON and PW3. Feeding PAL increased milk energy output and decreased energy partitioning towards body reserves (−4·2 %), while this measure was positive for other treatments. Blood TAG and NEFA concentrations, but not β-hydroxybutyrate, were increased by FA-supplemented treatments. Feeding C16 : 0 combined with either n-6 or n-3 FA enhanced feed efficiency, alleviated the negative impacts on body energy reserves, but lowering the dietary n-6:n-3 ratio improved the FA profile of milk.
Choline plays a crucial role in lipid metabolism for fish, and its deficiency in aquafeed has been linked to compromised health and growth performance. A 56-d experiment was conducted to examine the effects of dietary choline on lipid composition, histology and plasma biochemistry of yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi; YTK; 156 g initial body weight). The dietary choline content ranged from 0·59 to 6·22 g/kg diet. 2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) (3 g/kg) was added to diets, except for a control diet, to limit de novo choline synthesis. The results showed that the liver lipid content of YTK was similar among diets containing AMP and dominated by NEFA. In contrast, fish fed the control diet had significantly elevated liver TAG. Generally, the SFA, MUFA and PUFA content of liver lipid in fish fed diets containing AMP was not influenced by choline content. The SFA and MUFA content of liver lipid in fish fed the control diet was similar to other diets except for a decrease in PUFA. The linear relationship between lipid digestibility and plasma cholesterol was significant, otherwise most parameters were unaffected. When AMP is present, higher dietary choline reduced the severity of some hepatic lesions. The present study demonstrated that choline deficiency affects some plasma and liver histology parameters in juvenile YTK which might be useful fish health indicators. Importantly, the present study elucidated potential reasons for lower growth in choline-deficient YTK and increased the knowledge on choline metabolism in the fish.
In this study, maize landraces, previously collected from different regions of Turkey through a national maize breeding project, were screened for kernel oil content and oil quality. After a seed reproduction in 2017, the screening trial was conducted in 2018, using an Augmented Experimental Design with 192 local maize populations along with seven check hybrids. Data were collected on oil, oleic acid, linoleic acid, monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids, total carotenoid and total tocopherol contents. The results showed that there was a considerable amount of genetic variation among the Turkish maize landraces for almost all the traits investigated in this study. Some of the evaluated landraces are available that could be considered as high oil variety or special genotypes in terms of certain oil quality traits. Landraces had significantly higher values than checks for oil content, oleic acid, MUFA and tocopherol contents. Genetic analyses suggest that the kernel quality traits could be successfully manipulated using the investigated plant material. Heritability values were found high for all the traits of interest, except for saturated fatty acid and total carotenoid content. The promising landraces detected in this study could be exploited in future breeding programmes upon further evaluations at the population level.
Replacing intake of SFA with PUFA reduces serum cholesterol levels and CVD risk. The effect on glycaemic regulation is, however, less clear. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the short-term effect of replacing dietary SFA with PUFA on glycaemic regulation. Seventeen healthy, normal-weight participants completed a 25-d double-blind, randomised and controlled two-period crossover study. Participants were allocated to either interventions with PUFA products or SFA products (control) in a random order for three consecutive days, separated by a 1·5-week washout period between the intervention periods. Glucose, insulin and TAG were measured before and after an oral glucose tolerance test. In addition, fasting total cholesterol, NEFA and plasma total fatty acid profile were measured before and after the 3-d interventions. Fasting and postprandial glucose, insulin, and TAG levels and fasting levels of NEFA and plasma fatty acid profile did not differ between the groups. However, replacing dietary SFA with PUFA significantly reduced total cholesterol levels by 8 % after 3 d (P = 0·002). Replacing dietary SFA with PUFA for only 3 d has beneficial cardio-metabolic effects by reducing cholesterol levels in healthy individuals.
To investigate the cumulative effects of maternal supplementation with nucleotides in the form of uridine (UR) on fatty acid and amino acid constituents of neonatal piglets, fifty-two sows in late gestation were assigned randomly into the control (CON) group (fed a basal diet) or UR group (fed a basal diet with 150 g/t UR). Samples of neonates were collected during farrowing. Results showed that supplementing with UR in sows’ diet significantly decreased the birth mortality of pigs (P = 0·05), and increased serum total cholesterol, HDL and LDL of neonatal piglets (P < 0·05). Moreover, the amino acid profile of serum and liver of neonatal piglets was affected by the addition of UR in sows’ diets (P < 0·05). Furthermore, an up-regulation of mRNA expression of energy metabolism-related genes, including fatty acid elongase 5, fatty acid desaturase 1, hormone-sensitive lipase and cholesterol-7a-hydroxylase, was observed in the liver of neonates from the UR group. Additionally, a decrease in placental gene expression of excitatory amino acid transporters 2, excitatory amino acid transporter 3 and neutral AA transporter 1 in the UR group was concurrently observed (P < 0·05), and higher protein expression of phosphorylated protein kinase B, raptor, PPARα and PPARγ in placenta from the UR group was also observed (P < 0·05). Together, these results showed that maternal UR supplementation could regulate placental nutrient transport, largely in response to an alteration of mTORC1–PPAR signalling, thus regulating the nutrition metabolism of neonatal piglets and improving reproductive performance.
Fish consumption is associated with reduced risk of CVD, which may be partly mediated by alterations in plasma lipids, such as HDL-cholesterol. However, comprehensive analyses of associations between fatty fish consumption and lipoprotein subclass profile are limited and show inconsistent results. Therefore, the aim of the present exploratory study was to investigate the association between fatty fish consumption and lipoprotein subclass particle concentrations and composition, with an emphasis on HDL. We performed a comprehensive plasma metabolite profiling in 517 healthy adults, using a targeted high-throughput NMR spectroscopy platform. The participants were divided into tertiles based on consumption of fatty fish, reported through a validated FFQ. We compared the concentration of metabolites between the participants in the lowest and highest tertiles of fatty fish consumption. We show that high consumers of fatty fish (>223 g/week, median intake 294 g/week) had higher particle concentrations and content of total lipids, free cholesterol and phospholipids in large and extra-large HDL particles and higher content of total cholesterol, cholesteryl esters and TAG in large HDL particles than low consumers (<107 g/week, median intake 58 g/week). Using fatty fish consumption as a continuous variable, we found that fatty fish consumption was associated with lower levels of the inflammation marker glycoprotein acetyls. In conclusion, high consumers of fatty fish seem to have a more favourable HDL-cholesterol-related lipoprotein profile and anti-inflammatory phenotype than low consumers of fatty fish. Thus, these data support the current Norwegian dietary recommendations for fish consumption regarding CVD risk.
Strong evidence suggests that older adults at risk of cognitive decline benefit from healthy lifestyle strategies to prevent or delay cognitive disorders. In particular, nutrition has been shown to preserve cognitive functions. Nutritional interventions, whether with single nutrients or following dietary patterns, have all shown protective effects against cognitive decline. In particular, higher levels of vitamins C, D, E, K, and the B family were associated with a better cognitive status. Likewise, fruit and vegetable consumption and omega-3 intake were protective against declined cognition. Regarding dietary patterns, the Mediterranean-type diet, DASH, and MIND diets are all positively associated with slower rates of cognitive decline and decreased risk of incident Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Nevertheless, intervention trials with vitamins or omega-3 supplements have not demonstrated conclusive evidence for preventing cognitive decline in healthy older adults, or for preventing loss or restoring function in patients with mild to moderate decline. Nutritional recommendations for older adults should emphasize dietary intakes of nutrients and food groups following those recommendations, as well as adoption of the Mediterranean, DASH, or MIND diets, in order to decrease risk of cognitive decline.